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The effect of water temperature on air entrainment, bubble plumes, and surface foam in a laboratory breaking-wave analog

Impact:
This study has further highlighted the rapid evolution of the bubble plumes [see Deane and Stokes, 2002]. Within 2 s of the end of active air entrainment, nearly all the supramillimeter radius bubbles have degassed. These large bubbles play an important role in the air-sea gas exchange of CO2 and other highly soluble gases [Keeling, 1993]. To faithfully quantify the presence of these large bubbles due to oceanic breaking waves, measurements must be made rapidly within the first seconds of wave breaking [e.g., Stokes et al., 2002]. Given the difficult challenges in making such field measurements, the majority of historical oceanic bubble data emphasizes the background bubble population or plumes later in their evolution.

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