Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

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  • Hondula DM, Balling RC, Vanos JK, Georgescu M.  2015.  Rising Temperatures, Human Health, and the Role of Adaptation. 1:144-154.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is near consensus in the scientific community that humans will experience higher future temperatures due to the ongoing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The human response to this climatic change, particularly if accompanied by a surge in extreme heat events, is a key topic being addressed by scientists across many disciplines. In this article, we review recent (2012–2015) research on human health impacts of observed...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The formerly monotypic taxon, Hyalopale bispinosa Perkins 1985 (Cluysopetalinac), is comprised of a cryptic species complex from predominantly tropical embayments and island reefs of the Western Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans. Hyalopale species are of meiofaunal size (length: 1-2.8mm), but considered non-interstitial, with the majority of species inhabiting a singular habitat of shallow littoral zones among algae and epifauna overlying...

  • Taylor J.RA, Scott N.I, Rouse GW.  2019.  Evolution of mantis shrimp telson armour and its role in ritualized fighting. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Mantis shrimp possess both formidable weapons and impact-resistant armour that clash during ritualized combat. The telson is one of few biological structures known to withstand the repeated high impact forces of smashing mantis shrimp strikes, and it is hypothesized that this pairing of armour and weapon is associated with the evolution of telson sparring. We carried out a comparative analysis of telson impact mechanics across 15 mantis...

  • Parish G.R, Rowbotham I., Mendoza N.E, Norton A.G, Klinger D.H, Dale J.D, Hopkins K.D, Garcia-Ortega A., Block B.A, Farwell C. et al..  2020.  Energetic savings when switching from a whole-fish type diet to a commercial pelleted diet in California yellowtail (Seriola dorsalis). 516
    Abstract Summary:

    Feed is one of the largest costs in most aquaculture operations, and as such, aquaculturists are continually striving to improve on ingredient sourcing and formulations to increase growth and performance while reducing costs. Analysis of the energy expended in digestion of different feeds can be a valuable early indicator of the suitability of a new ingredient or formulation. We use respirometry, an activity level analysis, and proximate...

  • Long S.M, Xie SP, Du Y., Liu QY, Zheng XT, Huang G, Hu KM, Ying J..  2020.  Effects of ocean slow response under low warming targets. 33:477-496.
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2015 Paris Agreement proposed targets to limit global-mean surface temperature (GMST) rise well below 2 degrees C relative to preindustrial level by 2100, requiring a cease in the radiative forcing (RF) increase in the near future. In response to changing RF, the deep ocean responds slowly (ocean slow response), in contrast to the fast ocean mixed layer adjustment. The role of the ocean slow response under low warming targets is...

  • Yi J.S, Yoo H.W, Kim E.J, Yang Y.H, Kim B.G.  2020.  Engineering Streptomyces coelicolor for production of monomethyl branched chain fatty acids. 307:69-76.
    Abstract Summary:

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are an appealing biorefinery-driven target of fatty acid (FA) production. BCFAs typically have lower melting points compared to straight chain FAs, making them useful in lubricants and biofuels. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, have unique secondary metabolism that are capable of producing not only antibiotics, but also high percentage of BCFAs in their membrane lipids. Since biosynthesis of...

  • Zhang J.J, Tang X.Y, Huan T., Ross AC, Moore BS.  2020.  Pass-back chain extension expands multimodular assembly line biosynthesis. 16:42-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymatic assembly lines are large and dynamic protein machines that generally effect a linear sequence of catalytic cycles. Here, we report the heterologous reconstitution and comprehensive characterization of two hybrid NRPS-PKS assembly lines that defy many standard rules of assembly line biosynthesis to generate a large combinatorial library of cyclic...

  • Waters C.L, Day JMD, Watanabe S., Sayit K., Zanon V., Olson K.M, Hanan B.B, Widom E..  2020.  Sulfide mantle source heterogeneity recorded in basaltic lavas from the Azores. 268:422-445.
    Abstract Summary:

    New highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) abundance and Os isotopic compositions, along with major- and trace-element abundance and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope data are reported for high-MgO (>8-17 wt.%) lavas from the islands of Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Faial in the Azores archipelago. The lavas span the range of Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope and trace-element abundance variability reported previously for the islands. Pico and...

  • Gauglitz J.M, Aceves C.M, Aksenov A.A, Aleti G., Almaliti J., Bouslimani A., Brown E.A, Campeau A., Caraballo-Rodriguez A.M, Chaar R. et al..  2020.  Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach unveils molecular changes in raw and processed foods and beverages. 302
    Abstract Summary:

    In our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the...

  • Doran A.K, Rapa M., Laske G., Babcock J., McPeak S..  2019.  Calibration of differential pressure gauges through in situ testing.
    Abstract Summary:

    Differential pressure gauges (DPGs) are a standard component of modern broadband ocean-bottom seismometer instruments and have proven useful for observing a wide range of seismic and oceanographic phenomena. However, the response function of the DPG remains poorly known, limiting our ability to recover amplitude and phase information from seafloor pressure signals with high fidelity. The sensitivity and long-period response are difficult to...

  • Szesciorka A.R, Allen A.N, Calambokidis J, Fahlbusch J., McKenna MF, Southall B..  2019.  A case study of a near vessel strike of a blue whale: Perceptual cues and fine-scale aspects of behavioral avoidance. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite efforts to aid recovery, Eastern North Pacific blue whales faces numerous anthropogenic threats. These include behavioral disturbances and noise interference with communication, but also direct physical harm - notably injury and mortality from ship strikes. Factors leading to ship strikes are poorly understood, with virtually nothing known about the cues available to blue whales from nearby vessels, behavioral responses during close...

  • Carter A.L, Edwards C.B, Fox M.D, Amir C.G, Eynaud Y., Johnson M.D, Lewis L.S, Sandin SA, Smith JE.  2019.  Changes in benthic community composition associated with the outbreak of the corallimorph, Rhodactis howesii, at Palmyra Atoll. 38:1267-1279.
    Abstract Summary:

    Few studies have documented the spatial and temporal dynamics of highly invasive species in coral reef benthic communities. Here, we quantified the ecological dynamics of invasion by a corallimorph, Rhodactis howesii, at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific. A localized outbreak of this species was first observed following a shipwreck at Palmyra in 1991 and has subsequently spread across hectares, reaching 100% cover in some areas. We...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) undergoing extratropical transition (ET) can develop into intense cyclonic systems accompanied by high-impact weather in areas far removed from the original TC. This study presents an analysis of multiseasonal global simulations representative of present-day and projected future climates using the Model for Prediction Across Scales-Atmosphere (MPAS-A), with high resolution (15-km grid) throughout the Northern...

  • Schramek T.A, Terrill E.J, Colin P.L, Cornuelle BD.  2019.  Coastally trapped waves around Palau. 191
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations from around the main island group of Palau, located in the tropical Western Pacific, exhibit a persistent presence of baroclinic coastally trapped waves. The signals are found in records of temperature that were sustained on the fore-reef for seven months, May to December 2013, with the strongest signal from Typhoon Haiyan which passed over Kayangel Atoll, along with the northern most Palauan islands, in November of 2013. This...

  • Aarons S.M, Arvin L.J, Aciego S.M, Riebe C.S, Johnson K.R, Blakowski M.A, Koornneef J.M, Hart S.C, Barnes M.E, Dove N. et al..  2019.  Competing droughts affect dust delivery to Sierra Nevada. 41
    Abstract Summary:

    The generation and transport of mineral dust is strongly related to climate on seasonal, year-to-year, and glacial-interglacial timescales. The modern dust cycle is influenced by soil moisture, which is partly a function of drought duration and severity. The production and transport of dust can therefore be amplified by global and regional droughts, thereby moderating ecosystem vulnerability to disturbance through the influence of dust on...

  • Seltzer A.M, Ng J., Danskin W.R, Kulongoski JT, Gannon R.S, Stute M., Severinghaus JP.  2019.  Deglacial water-table decline in Southern California recorded by noble gas isotopes. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Constraining the magnitude of past hydrological change may improve understanding and predictions of future shifts in water availability. Here we demonstrate that water-table depth, a sensitive indicator of hydroclimate, can be quantitatively reconstructed using Kr and Xe isotopes in groundwater. We present the first-ever measurements of these dissolved noble gas isotopes in groundwater at high precision (<= 0.005 parts per thousand amu(-1...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We develop a methodology to separate continuous seismic waveforms into random noise (RN), not random noise (NRN) produced by earthquakes, wind, traffic and other sources of ground motions, and an undetermined mixture of signals. The analysis is applied to continuous records from a dense seismic array on the San Jacinto fault zone. To detect RN signals, we cut hourly waveforms into non-overlapping 1 s time windows and apply cross-correlations...

  • Goldbogen J.A, Cade D.E, Calambokidis J, Czapanskiy M.F, Fahlbusch J., Friedlaender A.S, Gough W.T, Kahane-Rapport S.R, Savoca M.S, Ponganis K.V et al..  2019.  Extreme bradycardia and tachycardia in the world's largest animal. 116:25329-25332.
    Abstract Summary:

    The biology of the blue whale has long fascinated physiologists because of the animal's extreme size. Despite high energetic demands from a large body, low mass-specific metabolic rates are likely powered by low heart rates. Diving bradycardia should slow blood oxygen depletion and enhance dive time available for foraging at depth. However, blue whales exhibit a high-cost feeding mechanism, lunge feeding, whereby large volumes of prey-laden...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As part of a broad-scale study of the biogeography of rocky reefs in the Gulf of California, Mexico (GOC), we collected a continuous 1-yr temperature time series at similar to 5 m water depth at 16 sites spanning 5 degrees of latitude and similar to 700 km along the western boundary of the basin. Throughout the region, thermal conditions were most variable in summer with fluctuations concentrated at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Sex can influence patterns of parasitism because males and females can differ in encounter with, and susceptibility to, parasites. We investigate an isopod parasite (Hemioniscus balani) that consumes ovarian fluid, blocking female function of its barnacle host, a simultaneous hermaphrodite. As a hermaphrodite, sex is fluid, and individuals may allocate energy differentially to male versus female reproduction. We predicted the relationship...

  • Luu I., Sharma A., Guaderrama M., Peru M., Nation J., Page N., Carvalho D., Magit A., Jiang W., Leuin S. et al..  2019.  Immune dysregulation in the tonsillar microenvironment of Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis, Adenitis (PFAPA) Syndrome.
    Abstract Summary:

    Periodic Fever, Aphthous stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is an inflammatory disorder of childhood classically characterized by recurrent fevers, pharyngitis, stomatitis, cervical adenitis, and leukocytosis. While the mechanism is unclear, previous studies have shown that tonsillectomy can be a therapeutic option with improvement in quality of life in many patients with PFAPA, but the mechanisms behind surgical success...

  • Myers M.R, Barnard P.L, Beighley E., Cayan DR, Dugan J.E, Feng D.M, Hubbard D.M, Iacobellis S.F, Melack J.M, Page H.M.  2019.  A multidisciplinary coastal vulnerability assessment for local government focused on ecosystems, Santa Barbara area, California. 182
    Abstract Summary:

    Incorporating coastal ecosystems in climate adaptation planning is needed to maintain the well-being of both natural and human systems. Our vulnerability study uses a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate climate change vulnerability of an urbanized coastal community that could serve as a model approach for communities worldwide, particularly in similar Mediterranean climates. We synthesize projected changes in climate, coastal erosion and...

  • Garcon V., Karstensen J, Palacz A., Telszewski M., Lara T.A, Breitburg D., Chavez F., Coelho P., Cornejo-D'Ottone M., Santos C. et al..  2019.  Multidisciplinary observing in the world ocean's oxygen minimum zone regions: From climate to fish - The VOICE Initiative. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The...

  • Barlow M., Gutowski W.J, Gyakum J.R, Katz R.W, Lim Y.K, Schumacher R.S, Wehner M.F, Agel L., Bosilovich M., Collow A. et al..  2019.  North American extreme precipitation events and related large-scale meteorological patterns: a review of statistical methods, dynamics, modeling, and trends. 53:6835-6875.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper surveys the current state of knowledge regarding large-scale meteorological patterns (LSMPs) associated with short-duration (less than 1 week) extreme precipitation events over North America. In contrast to teleconnections, which are typically defined based on the characteristic spatial variations of a meteorological field or on the remote circulation response to a known forcing, LSMPs are defined relative to the occurrence of a...

  • Cusack J.M, Voet G., Alford MH, Girton J.B, Carter G.S, Pratt L.J, Pearson-Potts K.A, Tan S.W.  2019.  Persistent turbulence in the Samoan Passage. 49:3179-3197.
    Abstract Summary:

    Abyssal waters forming the lower limb of the global overturning circulation flow through the Samoan Passage and are modified by intense mixing. Thorpe-scale-based estimates of dissipation from moored profilers deployed on top of two sills for 17 months reveal that turbulence is continuously generated in the passage. Overturns were observed in a density band in which the Richardson number was often smaller than 1/4, consistent with shear...

  • Tian Z., Chen H., Fegley B., Lodders K., Barrat J.A, Day JMD, Wang K..  2019.  Potassium isotopic compositions of howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. 266:611-632.
    Abstract Summary:

    We report new high-precision stable K isotope data for three martian meteorites, one lunar meteorite, one ordinary chondrite, four terrestrial igneous United States Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, and twenty howardite-eucrite-dio genite [HED] meteorites. The three martian meteorites define a relatively narrow delta K-41 range with an average of -0.36 +/- 0.12 parts per thousand (2 SD) that is slightly heavier than the Bulk...

  • Rajput A., Poudel S., Tsunemoto H., Meehan M., Szubin R., Olson C.A, Lamsa A., Seif Y., Dillon N., Vrbanac A. et al..  2019.  Profiling the effect of nafcillin on HA-MRSA D712 using bacteriological and physiological media. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Staphylococcus aureus strains have been continuously evolving resistance to numerous classes of antibiotics including methicillin, vancomycin, daptomycin and linezolid, compounding the enormous healthcare and economic burden of the pathogen. Cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CA-MHB) is the standard bacteriological media for measuring antibiotic susceptibility in the clinical lab, but the use of media that more closely mimic the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In 2012, California completed its marine protected area (MPA) planning and designation process, yielding a network of 124 MPAs from the Mexican border to Oregon. The management effort that has followed is comprehensive and strategic, with a focus on scientific monitoring, interagency coordination, public education and outreach, and enforcement. Initial monitoring results show more and bigger fish, especially in older MPAs where the benefits...

  • Blackman D.K, Abe N., Carlson R.L, Guerin G., Ildefonse B., Kumpf A..  2019.  Seismic properties of gabbroic sections in oceanic core complexes: constraints from seafloor drilling. 40:557-569.
    Abstract Summary:

    The physical properties of rock within Oceanic Core Complexes (OCC) provide information about the history of magmatism, deformation and alteration associated with detachment faulting and unroofing of their gabbroic sequences. New core and logging data from Atlantis Bank (AB) OCC are compared with prior deep sea drilling data from this site on the Southwest Indian Ridge, as well as from Atlantis Massif (AM) OCC on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The...

  • Lee S.W, Yon D.K, James C.C, Lee S., Koh H.Y, Sheen Y.H, Oh J.W, Han M.Y, Sugihara G.  2019.  Short-term effects of multiple outdoor environmental factors on risk of asthma exacerbations: Age-stratified time-series analysis. 144:1542-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Although the different age groups had differences in sensitivity of asthma exacerbations (AEs) to environmental factors, no comprehensive study has examined the age-stratified effects of environmental factors on AEs. Objective: We sought to examine the short-term effects in age-stratified groups (infants, preschool children, school-aged children, adults, and the elderly) of outdoor environmental factors (air pollutants, weather...

  • Ren M., Zhang H.H, Benmarhnia T., Jalaludin B., Dong H.T, Wu K.P, Wang Q., Huang C.R.  2019.  Short-term effects of real-time personal PM2.5 exposure on ambulatory blood pressure: A panel study in young adults. 697
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to be associated with changes in blood pressure. However, most of the evidence is based on PM2.5 measurements from fixed stations and resting blood pressure measured at a regular time. Objectives: To evaluate the short-term daily and hourly effects of real-time personal PM2.5 exposure on ambulatory blood pressure, and to compare the effects with those of PM2.5 exposure from fixed...

  • Franks PJS, Garwood J.C, Ouimet M., Cortes J., Musgrave R.C, Lucas A.J.  2019.  Stokes drift of plankton in linear internal waves: Cross-shore transport of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms.
    Abstract Summary:

    The meroplanktonic larvae of many invertebrate and vertebrate species rely on physical transport to move them across the shelf to their adult habitats. One potential mechanism for cross-shore larval transport is Stokes drift in internal waves. Here, we develop theory to quantify the Stokes velocities of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms in linear internal waves in shallow water. We apply the analyses to theoretical and measured...

  • Lampe R.H, Wang S., Cassar N., Marchetti A..  2019.  Strategies among phytoplankton in response to alleviation of nutrient stress in a subtropical gyre. 13:2984-2997.
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Levy Y., Rockwell T.K, Shaw J.H, Plesch A., Driscoll NW, Perea H..  2019.  Structural modeling of the Western Transverse Ranges: An imbricated thrust ramp architecture. 11:868-883.
    Abstract Summary:

    Active fold-and-thrust belts can potentially accommodate large-magnitude earthquakes, so understanding the structure in such regions has both societal and scientific importance. Recent studies have provided evidence for large earthquakes in the Western Transverse Ranges of California, USA. However, the diverse set of conflicting structural models for this region highlights the lack of understanding of the subsurface geometry of faults. A more...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As the proportion of the human population living in cities continues to increase, understanding the factors affecting urban biodiversity is crucial to enhancing conservation efforts, urban ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Here we present the results of the first comparative study of belowground invertebrate communities in urban soils (lawns and biofilters) and remnant patches of native coastal sage scrub (CSS) in a semi-arid urban...

  • Day JMD, Sossi P.A, Shearer C.K, Moynier F..  2019.  Volatile distributions in and on the Moon revealed by Cu and Fe isotopes in the 'Rusty Rock' 66095. 266:131-143.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Apollo 16 'Rusty Rock' impact melt breccia 66095 is a volatile-rich sample, with the volatiles inherited through vapor condensation from an internal lunar source formed during thermo-magmatic evolution of the Moon. We report Cu and Fe isotope data for 66095 and find that bulk-rocks, residues and acid leaches span a relatively limited range of compositions (3.0 +/- 1.3 wt.% FeO [range = 2.0-4.8 wt.%], 5.4 +/- 3.1 ppm Cu [range = 3-12 ppm...

  • Abstract Summary:

    An oceanographic survey around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) and the South Orkney Islands (SOI) was conducted during January 2007 and February 2008, respectively, as part of the United States Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) program ecosystems surveys. At 27 stations, concentrations of dissolved labile Fe (DFe) and total acid leachable (unfiltered, TaLFe) iron (Fe) were measured in the upper 200 m (including coastal and oceanic...

  • O'Donoghue A.J, Bibo-Verdugo B., Miyamoto Y., Wang S.C, Yang J.Z, Zuill D.E, Matsuka S., Jiang Z.Z, Almaliti J., Caffrey C.R et al..  2019.  20S proteasome as a drug target in Trichomonas vaginalis. 63
    Abstract Summary:

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease with hundreds of millions of annual cases worldwide. Approved treatment options are limited to two related nitro-heterocyclic compounds, yet resistance to these drugs is an increasing concern. New antimicrobials against the causative agent, Trichomonas vaginalis, are urgently needed. We show here that clinically approved anticancer drugs that inhibit the proteasome, a large protease complex...

  • Calmer R., Roberts GC, Sanchez K.J, Sciare J., Sellegri K., Picard D., Vrekoussis M., Pikridas M..  2019.  Aerosol-cloud closure study on cloud optical properties using remotely piloted aircraft measurements during a BACCHUS field campaign in Cyprus. 19:13989-14007.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) project, an intensive field campaign was performed in Cyprus (March 2015). Remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS), ground-based instruments, and remote-sensing observations were operating in parallel to provide an integrated characterization of aerosol-cloud interactions. Remotely piloted aircraft...

  • Lenain L., Statom N.M, Melville W.K.  2019.  Airborne measurements of surface wind and slope statistics over the ocean. 49:2799-2814.
    Abstract Summary:

    As reported in 1954, more than a half century ago, C. Cox and W. Munk developed an empirical model of the slope distribution of ocean surface waves that has been widely used ever since to model the optical properties of the sea surface and is of particular importance to the satellite remote sensing community. In that work, the reflectance of sunlight was photographed from a Boeing B-17G bomber and was then analyzed. In this paper, surface...

  • Sharma A., Laxman B., Naureckas E.T, Hogarth D.K, Sperling A.I, Solway J., Ober C., Gilbert J.A, White S.R.  2019.  Associations between fungal and bacterial microbiota of airways and asthma endotypes. 144:1214-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: The relationship between asthma, atopy, and underlying type 2 (T2) airway inflammation is complex. Although the bacterial airway microbiota is known to differ in asthmatic patients, the fungal and bacterial markers that discriminate T2-high (eosinophilic) and T2-low (neutrophilid mixed-inflammation) asthma and atopy are still incompletely identified. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the fungal microbiota...

  • Le Bras I.AA, Sonnewald M., Toole J.M.  2019.  A barotropic vorticity budget for the subtropical North Atlantic Based on observations. 49:2781-2797.
    Abstract Summary:

    To ground truth the large-scale dynamical balance of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre with observations, a barotropic vorticity budget is constructed in the ECCO state estimate and compared with hydrographic observations and wind stress data products. The hydrographic dataset at the center of this work is the A22 WOCE section, which lies along 66 degrees W and creates a closed volume with the North and South American coasts to its west....

  • Gallo N.D, Drenkard E., Thompson A.R, Weber E.D, Wilson-Vandenberg D., McClatchie S., Koslow JA, Semmens B.X.  2019.  Bridging from monitoring to solutions-based thinking: Lessons from CalCOFI for understanding and adapting to marine climate change impacts. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Multidisciplinary, integrated ocean observing programs provide critical data for monitoring the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) samples along the US West Coast and is one of the world's longest-running and most comprehensive time series, with hydrographic and biological data collected since 1949. The pairing of ecological and physical measurements across this...

  • Chesley C., Key K, Constable S, Behrens J., MacGregor L..  2019.  Crustal cracks and frozen flow in oceanic lithosphere inferred from electrical anisotropy.
    Abstract Summary:

    Geophysical observations of anisotropy in oceanic lithosphere offer insight into the formation and evolution of tectonic plates. Seismic anisotropy is well studied but electrical anisotropy remains poorly understood, especially in the crust and uppermost mantle. Here we characterize electrical anisotropy in 33 Ma Pacific lithosphere using controlled-source electromagnetic data that are highly sensitive to lithospheric azimuthal anisotropy....

  • Lutz H.L, Jackson E.W, Webala P.W, Babyesiza W.S, Peterhans J.CK, Demos T.C, Patterson B.D, Gilbert J.A.  2019.  Ecology and host identity outweigh evolutionary history in shaping the bat microbiome. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent studies of mammalian microbiomes have identified strong phylogenetic effects on bacterial community composition. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) are among the most speciose mammals on the planet and the only mammal capable of true flight. We examined 1,236 16S rRNA amplicon libraries of the gut, oral, and skin microbiota from 497 Afrotropical bats (representing 9 families, 20 genera, and 31 species) to assess the extent to which host...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The concept of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) has been subjected to debate since it was introduced in the late 1990s. The development of the concept seems to follow two separate but simultaneous trajectories of increased popularity but also sustained critique. This paper offers an analysis of potential mechanisms behind these disparate trajectories by drawing on a theoretical framework from science and technology studies (STS)...

  • Delgado J.A, Sudre J., Tanahara S., Montes I., Hernandez-Ayon J.M, Zirino A..  2019.  Effect of Caribbean Water incursion into the Gulf of Mexico derived from absolute dynamic topography, satellite data, and remotely sensed chlorophyll a. 15:1561-1578.
    Abstract Summary:

    The dynamics of the Loop Current (LC) and the detached Loop Current eddies (LCEs) dominate the surface circulation of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and transport Caribbean Water (CW) into the gulf. In this work, 25 years (1993-2017) of daily satellite data are used to investigate the variability of these physical processes and their effect on chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations from 1998 to 2017, including temporal changes, mean differences, and...

  • Spydell M.S, Feddersen F, MacMahan J..  2019.  The effect of drifter GPS errors on estimates of submesoscale vorticity. 36:2101-2119.
    Abstract Summary:

    Differential kinematic flow properties (DKP), such as vertical vorticity, have been estimated from surface drifters. However, previous DKP error estimates were a posteriori and did not include correlated errors across drifters. To accurately estimate submesoscale (<= 1 km) DKPs from drifters, errors must be better understood. Here, the a priori vorticity standard error is derived that depends upon the number of drifters in the cluster, the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A large-scale anomalous anticyclone (AAC) is a recurrent pattern in post-El Nino summers, extending from the tropical Northwest Pacific (NWP) to the North Indian Ocean. In boreal summer, there is a strongly confluent lower-level flow between the monsoonal westerlies and easterly trades over the Indo-Northwest Pacific. The effect of this basic state confluent flow on the AAC is investigated with energetics analysis and numerical modeling. The...

  • Stephens BM, Wankel SD, J. Beman M, Rabines AJ, Allen AE, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (δ15N and δ18O, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the California...

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