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Slip pulse and resonance of the Kathmandu basin during the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal

Our study provides insight into the main factors that determined the damage sustained during the Gorkha earthquake. Although the hypocenter was ~80 km away from the city, the main asperity that radiated most of the energy was much closer, just north of the basin and at a relatively shallow depth... Kathmandu was faced with a combination of source and site effects. The rupture directivity focused radiated seismic energy toward the city; the smooth onset and 6- to 7-s duration of the pulse excited a resonance of the Kathmandu basin, producing a protracted duration of violent shaking at a period of around 4 s.

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