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Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating

In summary, our study suggests that apical excretion of TAM from respiratory epithelia in mussels is chiefly facilitated by stirring of the gill and plicate organ boundary layers, which may be supplemented by acid-trapping by VHA under unfavourable conditions such as alkalinized seawater. This mechanism is energy efficient because it takes advantage of the water current that is already generated for filter feeding. Future research needs to verify whether this principle also applies to other sessile organisms that generate strong water currents for feeding.

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