Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Deep Argo quantifies bottom water warming rates in the southwest Pacific Basin

Impact:
The time period over which these trends are calculated, 4.4 years, is rather short to infer much about long‐term changes. Nonetheless, this analysis does demonstrate that an array of Deep Argo floats maintained at near the 5° latitude × 5° longitude recommended density is able to resolve regional (basin‐scale) deep temperature changes with high statistical confidence over a relatively short (less than pentadal) time period. That ability is unprecedented on a regional scale in the deep and bottom waters. In addition, the 4.4‐year warming trend in the bottom waters suggests an accelerated bottom water warming relative to that observed in the region between the 1990s and the 2010s. The Deep Argo array, when global, will provide even more insights into the mean state and changing properties of deep and bottom waters and variations in their circulation.

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  • Hondula DM, Balling RC, Vanos JK, Georgescu M.  2015.  Rising Temperatures, Human Health, and the Role of Adaptation. 1:144-154.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is near consensus in the scientific community that humans will experience higher future temperatures due to the ongoing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The human response to this climatic change, particularly if accompanied by a surge in extreme heat events, is a key topic being addressed by scientists across many disciplines. In this article, we review recent (2012–2015) research on human health impacts of observed...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Wave climate in southeast Queensland, Australia has been correlated to changes in the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), but observations of shoreline change associated with the variable wave climate have been limited due to a paucity of aerial photography, LiDAR, and other beach profiling datasets in this region. A multi-decadal, sub-annual temporal resolution shoreline dataset spanning 1996 to 2017 was produced using satellite imagery...

  • Polonik P., Chan W.S, Billesbach D.P, Burba G., Li J., Nottrott A., Bogoev I., Conrad B., Biraud S.C.  2019.  Comparison of gas analyzers for eddy covariance: Effects of analyzer type and spectral corrections on fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 272:128-142.
    Abstract Summary:

    The eddy covariance technique (EC) is used at hundreds of field sites worldwide to measure trace gas exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. Data quality and correction methods for EC have been studied empirically and theoretically for many years. The recent development of new gas analyzers has led to an increase in technological options for users. Open-path (no inlet tube) and closed-path (long inlet tube) sensors have been used for...

  • Corringham T.W, Cayan DR.  2019.  The effect of El Nino on flood damages in the western United States. 11:489-504.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper quantifies insured flood losses across the western United States from 1978 to 2017, presenting a spatiotemporal analysis of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) daily claims and losses over this period. While considerably lower (only 3.3%) than broader measures of direct damages measured by a National Weather Service (NWS) dataset, NFIP insured losses are highly correlated to the annual damages in the NWS dataset, and the NFIP...

  • Bellquist L., Beyer S., Arrington M., Maeding J., Siddall A., Fischer P., Hyde J., Wegner NC.  2019.  Effectiveness of descending devices to mitigate the effects of barotrauma among rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) in California recreational fisheries. 215:44-52.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fishes caught from depth often suffer from barotrauma, which can result in high mortality rates (close to 100% for some species) when released at the surface. To mitigate for this, the recreational fishing community proactively developed several different types of descending devices designed to assist unwanted or prohibited fish back toward the bottom for release. Post-release survival using recompression techniques has been documented for...

  • Martin D., Pititto F., Gil J., Mura M.P, Bahamon N., Romano C., Thorin S., Schvartz T., Dutrieux E., Bocquenet Y..  2019.  Long-distance influence of the Rhone River plume on the marine benthic ecosystem: Integrating descriptive ecology and predictive modelling. 673:790-809.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Gulf of Lions (GoL) is among the most productive areas of the Mediterranean Sea, with the Rhone River contributing with as much as 90% of the liquid and solid materials (including anthropogenic chemicals) reaching the area. In this paper, we assessed whether classical descriptive ecology and MaxEnt predictive species distribution modelling were able to provide complementary information when analysing the long-distance influence of the...

  • Pommier A., Leinenweber K., Tran T..  2019.  Mercury's thermal evolution controlled by an insulating liquid outermost core? 517:125-134.
    Abstract Summary:

    The weak intrinsic magnetic field of Mercury is intimately tied to the structure and cooling history of its metallic core. Recent constraints about the planet's internal structure suggest the presence of a FeS layer overlying a silicon-bearing core. We performed 4-electrode resistivity experiments on core analogues up to 10 GPa and over wide temperature ranges in order to investigate the insulating properties of core materials. Our results...

  • Garcia E.SM, Sandwell DT, Bassett D..  2019.  Outer trench slope flexure and faulting at Pacific basin subduction zones. 218:708-728.
    Abstract Summary:

    Flexure and fracturing of the seafloor on the outer trench wall of subduction zones reflect bending of the lithosphere beyond its elastic limit. To investigate these inelastic processes, we have developed a full nonlinear inversion approach for estimating the bending moment, curvature and outer trench wall fracturing using shipboard bathymetry and satellite altimetry-derived gravity data as constraints. Bending moments and downward forces are...

  • Kranzler CF, Krause JW, Brzezinski MA, Edwards BR, Biggs WP, Maniscalco M, McCrow JP, Van Mooy BAS, Bidle KD, Allen AE et al..  2019.  Silicon limitation facilitates virus infection and mortality of marine diatoms.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms are among the most globally distributed and ecologically successful organisms in the modern ocean, contributing upwards of 40% of total marine primary productivity1,2. By converting dissolved silicon into biogenic silica, and photosynthetically fixing carbon dioxide into particulate organic carbon, diatoms effectively couple the silicon (Si) and carbon cycles and ballast substantial vertical flux of carbon out of the euphotic zone...

  • Reynolds C.A, Doyle J.D, Ralph FM, Demirdjian R..  2019.  Adjoint sensitivity of North Pacific atmospheric river forecasts. Monthly Weather Review. 147:1871-1897.
    Abstract Summary:

    The initial-state sensitivity and optimal perturbation growth for 24- and 36-h forecasts of low-level kinetic energy and precipitation over California during a series of atmospheric river (AR) events that took place in early 2017 are explored using adjoint-based tools from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). This time period was part of the record-breaking winter of 2016-17 in which several high-impact ARs made...

  • Hill G.E, Havird J.C, Sloan D.B, Burton RS, Greening C., Dowling D.K.  2019.  Assessing the fitness consequences of mitonuclear interactions in natural populations. 94:1089-1104.
    Abstract Summary:

    Metazoans exist only with a continuous and rich supply of chemical energy from oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The oxidative phosphorylation machinery that mediates energy conservation is encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and hence the products of these two genomes must interact closely to achieve coordinated function of core respiratory processes. It follows that selection for efficient respiration will lead to...

  • Aguilera R., Gershunov A, Benmarhnia T..  2019.  Atmospheric rivers impact California's coastal water quality via extreme precipitation. Science of the Total Environment. 671:488-494.
    Abstract Summary:

    Precipitation in California is projected to become more volatile: less frequent but more extreme as global warming pushes midlatitude frontal cyclones further poleward while bolstering the atmospheric rivers (ARs), which tend to produce the region's extreme rainfall. Pollutant accumulation and delivery to coastal waters can be expected to increase, as lengthening dry spells will be increasingly punctuated by more extreme precipitation events...

  • Guirguis K., Gershunov A, Shulgina T., Clemesha R.ES, Ralph FM.  2019.  Atmospheric rivers impacting Northern California and their modulation by a variable climate. Climate Dynamics. 52:6569-6583.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the role of climate variability in modulating the behavior of land-falling atmospheric rivers (ARs) is important for seasonal and subseasonal predictability for water resource management and flood control. We examine daily activity of ARs targeting the Northern California coast over six decades using observations of synoptic-scale circulation, high-resolution precipitation, and a long-term AR detection catalog to quantify...

  • Gilbert J.A, Lynch S.V.  2019.  Community ecology as a framework for human microbiome research. Nature Medicine. 25:884-889.
    Abstract Summary:

    The field of human microbiome research has revealed the intimate co-association of humans with diverse communities of microbes in various habitats in the human body, and the necessity of these microbes for the maintenance of human health. Microbial heterogeneity between humans and across spatial and temporal gradients requires multidimensional datasets and a unifying set of theories and statistical tools to analyze the human microbiome and...

  • Richardson M., Gottel N., Gilbert J.A, Gordon J., Gandhi P., Reboulet R., Hampton-Marcell J.T.  2019.  Concurrent measurement of microbiome and allergens in the air of bedrooms of allergy disease patients in the Chicago area. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The particulate and biological components of indoor air have a substantial impact on human health, especially immune respiratory conditions such as asthma. To better explore the relationship between allergens, the microbial community, and the indoor living environment, we sampled the bedrooms of 65 homes in the Chicago area using 23the patient-friendly Inspirotec electrokinetic air sampling device, which collects airborne particles for...

  • Sprintall J, Gordon A.L, Wijffels S.E, Feng M, Hu S.J, Koch-Larrouy A., Phillips H., Nugroho D., Napitu A., Pujiana K. et al..  2019.  Detecting change in the Indonesian Seas. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Indonesian seas play a fundamental role in the coupled ocean and climate system with the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) providing the only tropical pathway connecting the global oceans. Pacific warm pool waters passing through the Indonesian seas are cooled and freshened by strong air-sea fluxes and mixing from internal tides to form a unique water mass that can be tracked across the Indian Ocean basin and beyond. The Indonesian seas lie at...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Marine biogeographic boundaries act as barriers to dispersal for many animal species, thereby creating distinctive faunas on either side. However, how such boundaries affect the distributions of microbial taxa remains poorly known. To test whether biogeographic boundaries influence the diversity and composition of host-associated microbiota, we analysed the microbiomes of three species of common intertidal gastropods at two sites separated by...

  • MacKinnon JA, Alford MH, Voet G, Zeiden K, Johnston T.M.Shaun, Siegelman M, Merrifield S, Merrifield M.  2019.  Eddy wake generation from broadband currents near Palau.
    Abstract Summary:

    Wake eddies are frequently created by flow separation where ocean currents encounter abrupt topography in the form of islands or headlands. Most previous work has concentrated on wake eddy generation by either purely oscillatory (usually tidal) currents, or quasi-steady mean flows. Here we report measurements near the point of flow separation at the northern end of the Palau island chain, where energetic tides and vertically sheared low-...

  • Benmarhnia T., Zhao X., Wang J., Macdonald M, Chen H..  2019.  Evaluating the potential public health impacts of the Toronto cold weather program. 127:381-386.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Extreme cold weather alert programs have been implemented in some areas to address the significant health impacts of exposure to cold. One such program is the Toronto Cold Weather Program (TCWP) that was implemented in the City of Toronto since 1996 to protect the public from extreme weather conditions. In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the TCWP in reducing mortality and morbidity outcomes related to cold...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and fuzzy clustering tools were applied to generate and validate scenarios in operational ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) for U.S. East Coast winter storms. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) EPSs were validated in their ability to capture the analysis scenarios for historical East...

  • Pearlman J., Bushnell M., Coppola L., Karstensen J, Buttigieg P.L, Pearlman F., Simpsons P., Barbier M., Muller-Karger F.E, Munoz-Mas C. et al..  2019.  Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet's ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies...

  • Lewis V.M, Saunders L.M, Larson T.A, Bain E.J, Sturiale S.L, Gur D., Chowdhury S., Flynn J.D, Allen M.C, Deheyn DD et al..  2019.  Fate plasticity and reprogramming in genetically distinct populations of Danio leucophores. 116:11806-11811.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding genetic and cellular bases of adult form remains a fundamental goal at the intersection of developmental and evolutionary biology. The skin pigment cells of vertebrates, derived from embryonic neural crest, are a useful system for elucidating mechanisms of fate specification, pattern formation, and how particular phenotypes impact organismal behavior and ecology. In a survey of Danio fishes, including the zebrafish Danio rerio,...

  • Tilic E., Sermelwall S., Bartolomaeus T..  2019.  Formation and structure of paleae and chaetal arrangement in chrysopetalidae (Annelida). 138:209-220.
    Abstract Summary:

    Chrysopetalids, more specifically the subfamily Chrysopetalinae, are known for their characteristic, flattened, leaf-like notopodial chaetae. In many chrysopetalid species the animal's body is dorsally covered by these paleae that are arranged in rows similar to the blades of a folding fan. In this study we investigate and compare the chaetal arrangement in two chrysopetalids: Bhawania goodei Webster, 1884 and Chrysopetalum cf. occidentale...

  • Singleton D.M, Rockwell T.K, Murbach D., Murbach M., Maloney J.M, Freeman T., Levy Y..  2019.  Late-Holocene rupture history of the Rose Canyon Fault in Old Town, San Diego: Implications for cascading earthquakes on the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault system. 109:855-874.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present new results from paleoseismic trenches excavated across the main trace of the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) in Old Town-San Diego, California, to determine the timing of late-Holocene earthquakes. There is evidence for four large surface-rupturing events, as well as two smaller events, the youngest of which cuts the early historical living surface that contains glass, ceramics, and a historical era foundation. This youngest event...

  • Tanner M.K, Moity N., Costa M.T, Jarrin J.RM, Aburto-Oropeza O, Salinas-de-Leon P..  2019.  Mangroves in the Galapagos: Ecosystem services and their valuation. 160:12-24.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mangroves provide many benefits to human welfare, but they are disappearing rapidly; Ecuador and countries within the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) region have lost over 40% of their mangrove coverage in the last 40 years. One reason for this destruction is that the benefits of mangroves have not been valued in a way that policymakers and markets can understand. Here, we present the first economic valuation of multiple ecosystem services (ES...

  • Velasco-Hogan A, Deheyn DD, Koch M, Nothdurft B, Arzt E, Meyers MA.  2019.  On the nature of the transparent teeth of the deep-sea dragonfish, Aristostomias scintillans.
    Abstract Summary:

    The dragonfish is a voracious predator of the deep sea with an arsenal of tools to hunt prey and remain concealed. In contrast to its dark pigmented skin, the dragonfish is equipped with transparent teeth. Here, we establish the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of the transparent teeth for the first time. We find the enamel-like layer to consist of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite domains (?20 nm grain size) embedded in an...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A new ascothoracidan species has been discovered in the Macaronesia region of the eastern Atlantic Ocean at SCUBA depths. Ten specimens including both sexes of the new species, described herein as Synagoga grygieri sp. nov., were collected from colonies of the antipatharian Antipathella wollastoni (Gray, 1857). Two previously described species of Synagoga, morphologically the most generalized ascothoracidan genus, were found as ectoparasites...

  • Pratt LJ, Voet G, Pacini A, Tan S, Alford MH, Carter GS, Girton JB, Menemenlis D.  2019.  Pacific Abyssal Transport and Mixing: Through the Samoan Passage versus around the Manihiki Plateau. 49:1577-1592.
    Abstract Summary:

    The main source feeding the abyssal circulation of the North Pacific is the deep, northward flow of 5–6 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) through the Samoan Passage. A recent field campaign has shown that this flow is hydraulically controlled and that it experiences hydraulic jumps accompanied by strong mixing and dissipation concentrated near several deep sills. By our estimates, the diapycnal density flux associated with this mixing is...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In this study, we investigated the geomorphic and incision history for an similar to 5 km reach of the northern Rio Grande gorge in New Mexico using field and LiDAR-based geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic 3 He surface exposure dating. This wide (>1.5 km) and deep (similar to 240 m) section of the gorge exhibits Toreva blocks, incoherent landslides, rock falls, and slumps developed within Servilleta Basalts and intercalated weakly...

  • Lundesgaard O., Powell B., Merrifield M., Hahn-Woernle L., Winsor P..  2019.  Response of an Antarctic Peninsula fjord to summer katabatic wind events. 49:1485-1502.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fjords along the western Antarctic Peninsula are episodically exposed to strong winds flowing down marine-terminating glaciers and out over the ocean. These wind events could potentially be an important mechanism for the ventilation of fjord waters. A strong wind event was observed in Andvord Bay in December 2015, and was associated with significant increases in upper-ocean salinity. We examine the dynamical impacts of such wind events during...

  • Tinto K.J, Padman L., Siddoway C.S, Springer S.R, Fricker H.A, Das I., Tontini F.C, Porter D.F, Frearson N.P, Howard S.L et al..  2019.  Ross Ice Shelf response to climate driven by the tectonic imprint on seafloor bathymetry. 12:441-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean melting has thinned Antarctica's ice shelves at an increasing rate over the past two decades, leading to loss of grounded ice. The Ross Ice Shelf is currently close to steady state but geological records indicate that it can disintegrate rapidly, which would accelerate grounded ice loss from catchments equivalent to 11.6 m of global sea level rise. Here, we use data from the ROSETTA-Ice airborne survey and ocean simulations to identify...

  • Nannuru S., Gemba K.L, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss WS, Mecklenbrauker C.F.  2019.  Sparse Bayesian learning with multiple dictionaries. Signal Processing. 159:159-170.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has emerged as a fast and competitive method to perform sparse processing. The SBL algorithm, which is developed using a Bayesian framework, iteratively solves a non-convex optimization problem using fixed point updates. It provides comparable performance and is significantly faster than convex optimization techniques used in sparse processing. We propose a multi-dictionary SBL algorithm that simultaneously can...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The present article describes a numerical modeling study of the spatial distribution of the wave energy resource for Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). The study consists of an analysis of three years of output from the CARICOOS Nearshore Wave Model, an operational model based on the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Using the wave model output, the wave power was computed and then averaged for a three year period...

  • Vittori G., Blondeaux P., Coco G., Guza RT.  2019.  Subharmonic edge wave excitation by narrow-band, random incident waves. 868
    Abstract Summary:

    A monochromatic, small amplitude, normally incident standing wave on a sloping beach is unstable to perturbation by subharmonic (half the frequency) edge waves. At equilibrium, edge wave shoreline amplitudes can exceed incident wave amplitudes. Here, the effect of incident wave randomness on subharmonic edge wave excitation is explored following a weakly nonlinear stability analysis under the assumption of narrow-band incident random waves....

  • Abstract Summary:

    Variability of North Atlantic annual hurricane frequency during 1951-2010 is studied using a 100-member ensemble of climate simulations by a 60-km atmospheric general circulation model that is forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The ensemble mean results well capture the interannual-to-decadal variability of hurricane frequency in best track data since 1970, and suggest that the current best track data might underestimate...

  • Choy C.A, Robison B.H, Gagne T.O, Erwin B., Firl E., Halden R.U, Hamilton J.A, Katija K., Lisin S.E, Rolsky C. et al..  2019.  The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Plastic waste has been documented in nearly all types of marine environments and has been found in species spanning all levels of marine food webs. Within these marine environments, deep pelagic waters encompass the largest ecosystems on Earth. We lack a comprehensive understanding of the concentrations, cycling, and fate of plastic waste in sub-surface waters, constraining our ability to implement effective, large-scale policy and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study investigates the impact of internal variability on East Asian summer (June-July-August) surface air temperature (SAT) trends on the multidecadal time scale based on a 30-member ensemble of simulations that share the same external forcing from 1970 to 2005. The ensemble-mean SAT in East Asia shows a positive trend, but the patterns and the magnitudes in the individual members are remarkably diverse, highlighting the strong effect of...

  • de Morals M.G, de Morais E.G, Duarte J.H, Deamici K.M, Mitchell B.G, Costa J.AV.  2019.  Biological CO2 mitigation by microalgae: technological trends, future prospects and challenges. 35
    Abstract Summary:

    The increase in the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has been a topic of worldwide concern since anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases began increasing considerably during the industrial period. The effects of these mass emissions are probably the main cause of global warming, which has been observed over recent decades. Among the various techniques of CO2 capture, microalgal biofixation by photosynthesis is considered a...

  • House B.M, Bebout G.E, Hilton DR.  2019.  Carbon cycling at the Sunda margin, Indonesia: A regional study with global implications. Geology. 47:483-486.
    Abstract Summary:

    The subduction and release of carbon at convergent margins is a primary mechanism by which tectonic processes influence atmospheric pCO(2), but the balance between the amount of carbon subducting and the CO2 flux from volcanic arcs remains poorly constrained. Estimating CO2 recycling efficiency in complex regions like the Sunda margin, Indonesia, is particularly difficult due to the lateral variability in sediment thickness, composition, and...

  • Stukel M.R, Kelly T.B, Aluwihare LI, Barbeau K.A, Goericke R, Krause J.W, Landry MR, Ohman MD.  2019.  The Carbon:(234)Thorium ratios of sinking particles in the California current ecosystem 1: relationships with plankton ecosystem dynamics. Marine Chemistry. 212:1-15.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated variability in the C:Th-234 ratio of sinking particles and its relationship to changing water column characteristics and plankton ecological dynamics during 29 Lagrangian experiments conducted on six cruises of the California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program. C:Th-234 ratios of sinking particles collected by a surface-tethered sediment trap ((CThST)-Th-:234) varied from 2.3 to 20.5 mu mol C...

  • Atwood S.A, Kreidenweis S.M, DeMott PJ, Petters M.D, Cornwell G.C, Martin A.C, Moore K.A.  2019.  Classification of aerosol population type and cloud condensation nuclei properties in a coastal California littoral environment using an unsupervised cluster model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 19:6931-6947.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aerosol particle and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements from a littoral location on the northern coast of California at Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory (BML) are presented for approximately six weeks of observations during the boreal winter-spring as part of the CalWater-2015 field campaign. The nature and variability of surface (marine boundary layer, MBL) aerosol populations were evaluated by classifying observations into periods of...

  • Mitovski T., Cole J.NS, McFarlane N.A, von Salzen K., Zhang GJ.  2019.  Convective response to large-scale forcing in the tropical western Pacific simulated by spCAM5 and CanAM4.3. Geoscientific Model Development. 12:2107-2117.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changes in the large-scale environment during convective precipitation events in the tropical western Pacific simulated by version 4.3 of the Canadian Atmospheric Model (CanAM4.3) are compared against those simulated by version 5.0 of the super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (spCAM5). This is done by compositing sub-hourly output of convective rainfall, convective available potential energy (CAPE), CAPE generation due to large-scale...

  • Broddrick J.T, Du N., Smith S.R, Tsuji Y., Jallet D., Ware M.A, Peers G., Matsuda Y., Dupont C.L, Mitchell B.G et al..  2019.  Cross-compartment metabolic coupling enables flexible photoprotective mechanisms in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. New Phytologist. 222:1364-1379.
    Abstract Summary:

    Photoacclimation consists of short- and long-term strategies used by photosynthetic organisms to adapt to dynamic light environments. Observable photophysiology changes resulting from these strategies have been used in coarse-grained models to predict light-dependent growth and photosynthetic rates. However, the contribution of the broader metabolic network, relevant to species-specific strategies and fitness, is not accounted for in these...

  • Vic C., Garabato A.CN, Green J.AM, Waterhouse A.F, Zhao Z.X, Melet A., de Lavergne C., Buijsman M.C, Stephenson G.R.  2019.  Deep-ocean mixing driven by small-scale internal tides. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Turbulent mixing in the ocean is key to regulate the transport of heat, freshwater and biogeochemical tracers, with strong implications for Earth's climate. In the deep ocean, tides supply much of the mechanical energy required to sustain mixing via the generation of internal waves, known as internal tides, whose fate-the relative importance of their local versus remote breaking into turbulence-remains uncertain. Here, we combine a semi-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA)- and vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA)-rich cells in shark gills secrete excess acid and base, respectively, to seawater to maintain blood acid-base homeostasis. Both cell types are rich in mitochondria, indicating high ATP demand; however, their metabolic fuel is unknown. Here, we report that NKA- and VHA-rich cells have large glycogen stores. Glycogen abundance in NKA-rich cells was lower in starved sharks compared with 24 h post...

  • Hetherington E.D, Kurle C.M, Ohman MD, Popp BN.  2019.  Effects of chemical preservation on bulk and amino acid isotope ratios of zooplankton, fish, and squid tissues. 33:935-945.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rationale It is imperative to understand how chemical preservation alters tissue isotopic compositions before using historical samples in ecological studies. Specifically, although compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) is becoming a widely used tool, there is little information on how preservation techniques affect amino acid delta N-15 values. Methods We evaluated the effects of chemical preservatives on bulk tissue...

  • Eddebbar Y.A, Rodgers K.B, Long M.C, Subramanian AC, Xie SP, Keeling RF.  2019.  El Nino-like physical and biogeochemical ocean response to tropical eruptions. Journal of Climate. 32:2627-2649.
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceanic response to recent tropical eruptions is examined in Large Ensemble (LE) experiments from two fully coupled global climate models, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (ESM2M), each forced by a distinct volcanic forcing dataset. Following the simulated eruptions of Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo, the ocean loses heat and gains oxygen and carbon, in general...

  • Olli K., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Lavrentyev P.J, Franze G., Sanz-Martin M., Paulsen M.L, Reigstad M..  2019.  Food web functions and interactions during spring and summer in the Arctic Water inflow region: Investigated through inverse modeling. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    We used inverse modeling to reconstruct major planktonic food web carbon flows in the Atlantic Water inflow, east and north of Svalbard during spring (18-25 May) and summer (9-13 August), 2014. The model was based on three intensively sampled stations during both periods, corresponding to early, peak, and decline phases of a Phaeocystis and diatom dominated bloom (May), and flagellates dominated post bloom stages (August). The food web carbon...

  • Young A.P, Carilli JE.  2019.  Global distribution of coastal cliffs. 44:1309-1316.
    Abstract Summary:

    Previous studies have estimated that coastal cliffs exist on about 80% of the global shoreline, but have not been validated on a global scale. This study uses two approaches to capture information on the worldwide existence and erosion of coastal cliffs: a detailed literature survey and imagery search, and a GIS-based global mapping analysis. The literature and imagery review show coastal cliffs exist in 93% of the combined recognized...

  • Roarty H., Cook T., Hazard L, George D., Harlan J., Cosoli S., Wyatt L., Fanjul E.A, Terrill E, Otero M et al..  2019.  The global high frequency radar network. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Academic, government, and private organizations from around the globe have established High Frequency radar (hereinafter, HFR) networks at regional or national levels. Partnerships have been established to coordinate and collaborate on a single global HFR network (http://global-hfradar.org/) . These partnerships were established in 2012 as part of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) to promote HFR...