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Comparison of climate response to anthropogenic aerosol versus greenhouse gas forcing: Distinct patterns

"We have developed a method to highlight the distinct patterns of climate response to anthropogenic aerosols versus the GHG changes. In the tropics, the aerosol-induced negative radiative forcing in the NH midlatitudes requires an anomalous Hadley circulation across the equator according to the cross-equatorial energy transport theory. This is also an important mechanism to propagate the aerosol effect to the extratropical SH. Eddy–mean flow interactions are important in the adjustment (Ceppi et al. 2013; Xu and Xie 2015). In the NH midlatitudes, patterns unique to anthropogenic aerosols include the North Pacific cooling, the drying trend over eastern Asia, and the southward shift of the NH westerly jet. Comparisons of climate response pattern indices quantify the distinct regional climate change between anthropogenic aerosol and GHG runs. The interhemispheric asymmetric mode, represented by the anomalous cross-equatorial gradient of SST, SLP, and precipitation, shows a much larger response to aerosol than to GHG forcing."

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