Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

The competing effects of breaking waves on surfzone heat fluxes: Albedo versus wave heating

Impact:
Temperature variation in nearshore waters affects the local ecology, and is also used to study important physical processes. Wave breaking contributes to surfzone temperature variation in two ways. First, breaking waves dissipate their energy in the surfzone creating friction (heat) and foam. Surfzone foam reflects sunlight reducing solar warming of the surfzone, thus leading to cooling relative to no wave breaking. These two competing wave effects (addition of frictional heating and reduction in solar heating) are quantified with a yearlong experiment at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier (La Jolla, CA). On average, frictional wave heating added 28 W to each square meter of surfzone. At the same time, surface foam reduced the solar heating in each square meter of surfzone by 41 W on average. The relative contribution of these competing effects varied depending on the wave height and the available sunlight, which depended on seasons and clouds. Temperature variation caused by these two effects can be estimated at other locations if the wave height and the amount of sunlight are known.

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  • Eisenhofer R., Minich J.J, Marotz C., Cooper A., Knight R., Weyrich L.S.  2019.  Contamination in low microbial biomass microbiome studies: Issues and recommendations. Trends in Microbiology. 27:105-117.
    Abstract Summary:

    Next-generation sequencing approaches in microbiome research have allowed surveys of microbial communities, their genomes, and their functions with higher sensitivity than ever before. However, this sensitivity is a double-edged sword because these tools also efficiently detect contaminant DNA and cross-contamination, which can confound the interpretation of microbiome data. Therefore, there is an urgent need to integrate key controls into...

  • Rowell T.J, Aburto-Oropeza O, Cota-Nieto J.J, Steele M.A, Erisman B.E.  2019.  Reproductive behaviour and concurrent sound production of Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani (Epinephelidae) at a spawning aggregation site. Journal of Fish Biology. 94:277-296.
    Abstract Summary:

    The reproductive and acoustic behaviours of Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani were studied at a spawning aggregation site in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. In May 2015-2017, divers located and surveyed a spawning aggregation site within Cabo Pulmo National Park. Adult M. jordani conformed to a lek mating system in which large males formed territories over sand adjacent to a rocky reef that were spatially segregated from smaller...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We examine the behavior of natural basaltic and trachytic samples during paleointensity experiments on both the original and laboratory-acquired thermal remanences and characterize the samples using proxies for domain state including curvature (k) and the bulk domain stability parameters of Paterson (2011, https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JB008369) and Paterson et al. (2017,...

  • Till C.P, Solomon J.R, Cohen N.R, Lampe R.H, Marchetti A., Coale T.H, Bruland K.W.  2019.  The iron limitation mosaic in the California Current System: Factors governing Fe availability in the shelf/near-shelf region. Limnology and Oceanography. 64:109-123.
    Abstract Summary:

    The California Current System is a productive eastern boundary region off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. There is strong seasonality to the region, with high levels of rainfall and river input to the coastal ocean during the winter season, and coastal and Ekman upwelling during the spring and summer. Iron (Fe) input to the coastal ocean during the winter months can be stored in the continental shelf mud belts and then be...

  • Allaband C., McDonald D., Vazquez-Baeza Y., Minich J.J, Tripathi A., Brenner D.A, Loomba R., Smarr L., Sandborn W.J, Schnabl B. et al..  2019.  Microbiome 101: Studying, analyzing, and interpreting gut microbiome data for clinicians. 17:218-230.
    Abstract Summary:

    Advances in technical capabilities for reading complex human microbiomes are leading to an explosion of microbiome research, leading in turn to intense interest among clinicians in applying these techniques to their patients. In this review, we discuss the content of the human microbiome, including intersubject and intrasubject variability, considerations of study design including important confounding factors, and different methods in the...

  • Weller RA, Farrar J.T, Seo H, Prend C., Sengupta D., Lekha J.S, Ravichandran M., Venkatesen R..  2019.  Moored observations of the surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal in 2015. Journal of Climate. 32:549-573.
    Abstract Summary:

    Time series of surface meteorology and air-sea fluxes from the northern Bay of Bengal are analyzed, quantifying annual and seasonal means, variability, and the potential for surface fluxes to contribute significantly to variability in surface temperature and salinity. Strong signals were associated with solar insolation and its modulation by cloud cover, and, in the 5- to 50-day range, with intraseasonal oscillations (ISOs). The northeast (NE...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A regional high-resolution CHIRP seismic survey in the Gulf of Papua (GoP) extends the geographic scope of previous studies by 125 km and reveals that the Holocene clinothem along-margin geometries, surfaces of lap, and steepness of foreset slopes appear less dependent on eustatic sea level changes and sediment supply than previously suggested. Clinothems imaged by CHIRP profiles and sampled by sediment cores include two older, relict...

  • Boiteau R.M, Till C.P, Coale T.H, Fitzsimmons J.N, Bruland K.W, Repeta D.J.  2019.  Patterns of iron and siderophore distributions across the California Current System. Limnology and Oceanography. 64:376-389.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coastal upwelling of nutrients and metals along eastern boundary currents fuels some of the most biologically productive marine ecosystems. Although iron is a main driver of productivity in many of these regions, iron cycling and acquisition by microbes remain poorly constrained, in part due to the unknown composition of organic ligands that keep bioavailable iron in solution. In this study, we investigated organic ligand composition in...

  • Johnson K.M, Wong J.M, Hoshijima U., Sugano C.S, Hofmann G.E.  2019.  Seasonal transcriptomes of the Antarctic pteropod, Limacina helicina antarctica. Marine Environmental Research. 143:49-59.
    Abstract Summary:

    High latitude seas will be among the first marine systems to be impacted by ocean acidification (OA). Previous research studying the effects of OA on the pteropod, Limacina helicina antarctica, has led this species to be identified as a sentinel organism for OA in polar oceans. Here, we present gene expression data on L. h. antarctica, collected in situ during the seasonal transition from early spring to early summer. Our findings suggest...

  • Cimino M.A, Anderson M., Schramek T., Merrifield S., Terrill E.J.  2019.  Towards a fishing pressure prediction system for a Western Pacific EEZ. Scientific Reports. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Fisheries management faces numerous monitoring and enforcement challenges that are becoming more complex as fish stocks are depleted; and illegal, unregulated, and unreported fishing becomes more sophisticated. For remote island nations, the challenges are compounded by a loosely understood association of pelagic stocks to the ocean environment, and the tyranny of distance in monitoring and surveilling large exclusive economic zones (EEZ). An...

  • Lampe R.H, Mann E.L, Cohen N.R, Till C.P, Thamatrakoln K., Brzezinski M.A, Bruland K.W, Twining B.S, Marchetti A..  2018.  Different iron storage strategies among bloom-forming diatoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115:E12275-E12284.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms are prominent eukaryotic phytoplankton despite being limited by the micronutrient iron in vast expanses of the ocean. As iron inputs are often sporadic, diatoms have evolved mechanisms such as the ability to store iron that enable them to bloom when iron is resupplied and then persist when low iron levels are reinstated. Two iron storage mechanisms have been previously described: the protein ferritin and vacuolar storage. To...

  • Bianco M.J, Gerstoft P.  2018.  Travel time tomography with adaptive dictionaries. 4:499-511.
    Abstract Summary:

    We develop a two-dimensional travel time tomography method, which regularizes the inversion by modeling groups of slowness pixels from discrete slowness maps, called patches, as sparse linear combinations of atoms from a dictionary. We propose to use dictionary learning during the inversion to adapt dictionaries to specific slowness maps. This patch regularization, called the local model, is integrated into the overall slowness map, called...

  • Guest J.R, Edmunds P.J, Gates R.D, Kuffner I.B, Andersson AJ, Barnes B.B, Chollett I., Courtney T.A, Elahi R., Gross K. et al..  2018.  A framework for identifying and characterising coral reef "oases" against a backdrop of degradation. Journal of Applied Ecology. 55:2865-2875.
    Abstract Summary:

    1. Human activities have led to widespread ecological decline; however, the severity of degradation is spatially heterogeneous due to some locations resisting, escaping, or rebounding from disturbances. 2. We developed a framework for identifying oases within coral reef regions using long-term monitoring data. We calculated standardised estimates of coral cover (z-scores) to distinguish sites that deviated positively from regional means. We...

  • Goldberg D.E, Melgar D, Bock Y, Allen R.M.  2018.  Geodetic observations of weak determinism in rupture evolution of large earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:9950-9962.
    Abstract Summary:

    The moment evolution of large earthquakes is a subject of fundamental interest to both basic and applied seismology. Specifically, an open problem is when in the rupture process a large earthquake exhibits features dissimilar from those of a lesser magnitude event. The answer to this question is of importance for rapid, reliable estimation of earthquake magnitude, a major priority of earthquake and tsunami early warning systems. Much effort...

  • Fox M.D, Williams GJ, Johnson M.D, Radice V.Z, Zgliczynski B.J, Kelly E.LA, Rohwer F.L, Sandin SA, Smith JE.  2018.  Gradients in primary production predict trophic strategies of mixotrophic corals across spatial scales. Current Biology. 28:3355-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mixotrophy is among the most successful nutritional strategies in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The ability of organisms to supplement primary nutritional modes along continua of autotrophy and heterotrophy fosters trophic flexibility that can sustain metabolic demands under variable or stressful conditions. Symbiotic, reef-building corals are among the most broadly distributed and ecologically important mixotrophs, yet we lack a basic...

  • Highlighted Publication Chart superimposed on CCE-LTER photo of euphausiid
    Lilly L.E, Ohman MD.  2018.  CCE IV: El Nino-related zooplankton variability in the southern California Current System. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 140:36-51.
    Abstract Summary:

    We analyzed seven El Nino events (springs 1958-59, 1983, 1992-93, 1998, 2003, 2010, and 2016) and the 2014-15 Pacific Warm Anomaly (spring 2015) for their impacts on zooplankton biomass and community composition in the southern sector of the California Current System (CCS). Although total mesozooplankton carbon biomass was only modestly affected during El Nino springs, community composition changed substantially. Carbon biomass of five major...

  • Morrow R.M, Ohman MD, Goericke R, Kelly T.B, Stephens B.M, Stukel M.R.  2018.  CCE V: Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and the biological pump in the California Current Ecosystem: Variability and response to El Nino. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 140:52-62.
    Abstract Summary:

    Predicting marine carbon sequestration in a changing climate requires mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling sinking particle flux under different climatic conditions. The recent occurrence of a warm anomaly (2014-2015) followed by an El Nino (2015-2016) in the southern sector of the California Current System presented an opportunity to analyze changes in the biological carbon pump in response to altered climate forcing. We...

  • Zhang J.J, Moore BS, Tang X.Y.  2018.  Engineering Salinispora tropica for heterologous expression of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 102:8437-8446.
    Abstract Summary:

    The marine actinomycete genus Salinispora is a remarkably prolific source of structurally diverse and biologically active secondary metabolites. Herein, we select the model organism Salinispora tropica CNB-440 for development as a heterologous host for the expression of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) to complement well-established Streptomyces host strains. In order to create an integratable host with a clean background of secondary...

  • Sasagawa G.S, Zumberge M.A, Cook M.J.  2018.  Laboratory simulation and measurement of instrument drift in quartz-resonant pressure gauges. 6:57334-57340.
    Abstract Summary:

    Seafloor pressure gauges are used in marine geodesy to detect vertical displacement of the seafloor. Instrumental gauge drift is often larger than the sought after geophysical and oceanographic signals. We performed a 12 month laboratory test on two new methods that aim to reduce pressure gauge drift in Paroscientific Digiquartz and other pressure transducers. In one method, a reference quartz oscillator (RQO) is installed adjacent to but...

  • Duke E.M, Harada A.E, Burton RS.  2018.  Large interannual variation in spawning in San Diego marine protected areas captured by molecular identification of fish eggs. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 604:199-210.
    Abstract Summary:

    Long-term monitoring of marine ecosystems is critical to assessing how global processes such as natural environmental variation and climate change affect marine populations. Ichthyoplankton surveys provide one approach to such monitoring. We conducted weekly fish egg collections off the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Pier (La Jolla, CA, USA) for 3 yr (2014 to 2017) and added a second sampling site near the La Jolla kelp forest for...

  • Highlighted Publication Pillow lava photo by Hubert Staudigel
    Castillo P.R, MacIsaac C., Perry S., Veizer J..  2018.  Marine carbonates in the mantle source of oceanic basalts: Pb isotopic constraints. Scientific Reports. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    For almost fifty years, geochemists have been interpreting the clues from Pb isotopic ratios concerning mantle composition and evolution separately. The Pb isotopes of ocean island basalts (OIB) indicate that their mantle source is heterogeneous, most likely due to the presence of end-components derived from recycled crust and sediment. Some OIB have unusually high Pb-206/Pb-204 coming from one of the end-components with a long time-...

  • Fine E.C, MacKinnon JA, Alford MH, Mickett J.B.  2018.  Microstructure observations of turbulent heat fluxes in a warm-core Canada Basin eddy. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 48:2397-2418.
    Abstract Summary:

    An intrahalocline eddy was observed on the Chukchi slope in September of 2015 using both towed CTD and microstructure temperature and shear sections. The core of the eddy was 6 degrees C, significantly warmer than the surrounding -1 degrees C water and far exceeding typical temperatures of warm-core Arctic eddies. Microstructure sections indicated that outside of the eddy the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy epsilon was quite...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Lamellibrachia Webb, 1969 has eight currently recognized species reported from chemosynthetic environments in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Mediterranean. Of these, Lamellibrachia barhami Webb, 1969 has been reported in the eastern Pacific from Canada to Costa Rica. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of Lamellibrachia tubeworms sampled from the Costa Rica margin confirm the large geographic range of L. barhami and reveal a new Lamellibrachia...

  • Johnson G.C, Pezner A.K, Sura S.A, Fong P..  2018.  Nutrients and herbivory, but not sediments, have opposite and independent effects on the tropical macroalga, Padina boryana. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 507:17-22.
    Abstract Summary:

    Multiple anthropogenic stressors including overfishing, nutrient loading, and sediments are major drivers that may support the proliferation of macroalgae on coral reefs; however, few studies have investigated all three simultaneously. We evaluated the effects of all three stressors (nutrient enrichment, small and large sediment grain sizes, and herbivory) on biomass accumulation of the dominant coral reef macroalga Padina boryana in a...

  • Chen Z., Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Wiens D.A, Aster R.C, Nyblade A.A.  2018.  Ocean-excited plate waves in the Ross and Pine Island Glacier ice shelves. Journal of Glaciology. 64:730-744.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ice shelves play an important role in buttressing land ice from reaching the sea, thus restraining the rate of grounded ice loss. Long-period gravity-wave impacts excite vibrations in ice shelves that can expand pre-existing fractures and trigger iceberg calving. To investigate the spatial amplitude variability and propagation characteristics of these vibrations, a 34-station broadband seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS)...

  • Xu X.H, Ward L.A, Jiang J.L, Smith-Konter B, Tymofyeyeva E., Lindsey EO, Sylvester A.G, Sandwell DT.  2018.  Surface creep rate of the southern San Andreas Fault modulated by stress perturbations from nearby large events. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:10259-10268.
    Abstract Summary:

    A major challenge for understanding the physics of shallow fault creep has been to observe and model the long-term effect of stress changes on creep rate. Here we investigate the surface creep along the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) using data from interferometric synthetic aperture radar spanning over 25 years (ERS 1992-1999, ENVISAT 2003-2010, and Sentinel-1 2014-present). The main result of this analysis is that the average surface...

  • Highlighted Publication Image of porpoise device superimposed on permafrost map
    Sherman D., Constable S.C.  2018.  Permafrost extent on the Alaskan Beaufort shelf from surface-towed controlled-source electromagnetic surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:7253-7265.
    Abstract Summary:

    We have developed a surface-towed electric dipole-dipole system capable of operating in shallow water and deployable from small vessels. Our system uses electromagnetic energy from a modulated manmade source to interrogate the underlying resistivity structure of the seafloor. We used this system in the summers of 2014 and 2015 to map subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the Beaufort shelf along 200km of coastline, from Tigvariak Island to...

  • Stewart J.D, Jaine F.RA, Armstrong A.J, Armstrong A.O, Bennett M.B, Burgess K.B, Couturier L.IE, Croll D.A, Cronin M.R, Deakos M.H et al..  2018.  Research priorities to support effective manta and devil ray conservation. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Manta and devil rays are filter-feeding elasmobranchs that are found circumglobally in tropical and subtropical waters. Although relatively understudied for most of the Twentieth century, public awareness and scientific research on these species has increased dramatically in recent years. Much of this attention has been in response to targeted fisheries, international trade in mobulid products, and a growing concern over the fate of exploited...

  • Lewis L.A, Calambokidis J, Stimpert A.K, Fahlbusch J., Friedlaender A.S, McKenna MF, Mesnick S.L, Oleson E.M, Southall B.L, Szesciorka A.R et al..  2018.  Context-dependent variability in blue whale acoustic behaviour. Royal Society Open Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Acoustic communication is an important aspect of reproductive, foraging and social behaviours for many marine species. Northeast Pacific blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) produce three different call types-A, B and D calls. All may be produced as singular calls, but A and B calls also occur in phrases to form songs. To evaluate the behavioural context of singular call and phrase production in blue whales, the acoustic and dive profile data...

  • Bauska T.K, Brook E.J, Marcott S.A, Baggenstos D, Shackleton S., Severinghaus JP, Petrenko VV.  2018.  Controls on millennial-scale atmospheric CO2 variability during the last glacial period. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:7731-7740.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changes in atmospheric CO2 on millennial-to-centennial timescales are key components of past climate variability during the last glacial and deglacial periods (70-10 ka), yet the sources and mechanisms responsible for the CO2 fluctuations remain largely obscure. Here we report the C-13/C-12 ratio of atmospheric CO2 during a key interval of the last glacial period at submillennial resolution, with coeval histories of atmospheric CO2, CH4, and...

  • Blake W.H, Boeckx P., Stock B.C, Smith H.G, Bode S., Upadhayay H.R, Gaspar L., Goddard R., Lennard A.T, Lizaga I. et al..  2018.  A deconvolutional Bayesian mixing model approach for river basin sediment source apportionment. Scientific Reports. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    Increasing complexity in human-environment interactions at multiple watershed scales presents major challenges to sediment source apportionment data acquisition and analysis. Herein, we present a step-change in the application of Bayesian mixing models: Deconvolutional-MixSIAR (D-MIXSIAR) to underpin sustainable management of soil and sediment. This new mixing model approach allows users to directly account for the 'structural hierarchy' of a...

  • Quinlan Z.A, Remple K., Fox M.D, Silbiger N.J, Oliver T.A, Putnam H.M, Kelly LW, Carlson CA, Donahue M.J, Nelson CE.  2018.  Fluorescent organic exudates of corals and algae in tropical reefs are compositionally distinct and increase with nutrient enrichment. Limnology and Oceanography Letters. 3:331-340.
    Abstract Summary:

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition influences microbial community metabolism and benthic primary producers are a source of DOM in coral reefs. As reef benthic communities change, in part due to nutrient pollution, understanding impacts on reef microbial processes requires knowledge of DOM sources and composition. We conducted a multi-week mesocosm experiment dosing four coral reef benthic constituents with three levels of nitrate and...

  • Rodriguez A.R, Giddings S.N, Kumar N..  2018.  Impacts of nearshore wave-current interaction on transport and mixing of small-scale buoyant plumes. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:8379-8389.
    Abstract Summary:

    Small-scale buoyant outflows have the potential to impact beach contamination, nutrient exchange, productivity, larval recruitment, and carbon chemistry in the nearshore region where surface gravity waves influence momentum and energy transport. This study aims to understand the dynamics leading to the fate and structure of an idealized small-scale outflow in the presence of surface waves using a fully coupled 3-D hydrodynamic and spectral...

  • Minich JJ, Zhu Q, Xu ZZech, Amir A, Ngochera M, Simwaka M, Allen EE, Zidana H, Knight R.  2018.  Microbial effects of livestock manure fertilization on freshwater aquaculture ponds rearing tilapia (Oreochromis shiranus) and North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Microbiologyopen. :e00716.
    Abstract Summary:

    The majority of seafood is farmed, with most finfish coming from freshwater ponds. Ponds are often fertilized to promote microbial productivity as a natural feed source to fish. To understand if pond fertilization with livestock manure induces a probiotic or prebiotic effect, we communally reared tilapia (Oreochromis shiranus), and North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), for 4 weeks under seven manure treatments including layer chicken,...

  • Cimino M., Colin P., Schramek T., Lindfield S., Domeier M., Terrill E.  2018.  Oceanographic, acoustic, and remote approaches reveal the spatio-temporal dynamics of blackfin snapper at an aggregation site in Palau. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:185-201.
    Abstract Summary:

    Forming spawning aggregations is a critical life-history activity for fish, but it is unclear what physical conditions are associated with fish behavior at specific sites. The habitat, movements and distribution of blackfin snapper Lutjanus fulvus at a monthly aggregation site in Palau were studied using a combination of instruments and approaches, including active/passive acoustics, time-lapse cameras, an autonomous underwater vehicle,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The scale-worm family Iphionidae consists of four genera. Of these, Thermiphione has two accepted species, both native to hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean; T. fijiensis Miura, 1994 (West Pacific) and T. tufari Hartmann-Schroder, 1992 (East Pacific Rise). Iphionella is also known from the Pacific, and has two recognized species; Iphionella risensis Pettibone, 1986 (East Pacific Rise, hydrothermal vents) and I. philippinensis Pettibone,...

  • Sugihara G, Criddle K.R, McQuown M., Giron-Nava A., Deyle E., James C., Lee A., Pao G., Saberski E., Ye H.  2018.  Comprehensive incentives for reducing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea walleye Pollock fishery: Individual tradable encounter credits. 22:70-81.
    Abstract Summary:

    After record salmon bycatch in 2007 by the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands fishery for walleye Pollock, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) concluded that additional management strategies were necessary to further control salmon bycatch. The Preliminary Preferred Alternative (PPA) was selected in April 2009 and implemented in January 2011 as Amendment 91. In this paper, we present the original comprehensive bycatch...

  • Martin A., Ralph FM, Demirdjian R., DeHaan L., Weihs R., Helly J., Reynolds D., Iacobellis S..  2018.  Evaluation of atmospheric river predictions by the WRF model using aircraft and regional mesonet observations of orographic precipitation and its forcing. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 19:1097-1113.
    Abstract Summary:

    Accurate forecasts of precipitation during landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) are critical because ARs play a large role in water supply and flooding for many regions. In this study, we have used hundreds of observations to verify global and regional model forecasts of atmospheric rivers making landfall in Northern California and offshore in the midlatitude northeast Pacific Ocean. We have characterized forecast error and the predictability...

  • Schiffer J.M, Luo M., Dommer A.C, Thoron G., Pendergraft M., Santander M.V, Lucero D., de Barros E.P, Prather KA, Grassian VH et al..  2018.  Impacts of lipase enzyme on the surface properties of marine aerosols. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 9:3839-3849.
    Abstract Summary:

    Triacylglycerol lipases have recently been shown to be transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere in atmospheric sea spray aerosol (SSA). Lipases have the potential to alter the composition of SSA; however, the structure and properties of enzymes in the high salt, high ionic strength, and low pH conditions found in SSA have never been explored. Here, we study the dynamics of Burkholderia cepacia triacylglycerol lipase (BCL) at SSA model...

  • Stewart J.D, Nuttall M., Hickerson E.L, Johnston M.A.  2018.  Important juvenile manta ray habitat at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology. 165
    Abstract Summary:

    Oceanic manta rays (Mobula birostris) are large pelagic planktivores that are threatened globally by targeted fisheries and bycatch. While studies of oceanic mantas have increased substantially in the past decade, major knowledge gaps remain in their basic biology, ecology and life history. The juvenile stage in particular is virtually unstudied, as juvenile oceanic mantas are rarely observed in the wild and are known primarily from fisheries...

  • Highlighted Publication Graphic of world showing areas of Hadley cell expansion
    Amaya D.J, Siler N., Xie SP, Miller AJ.  2018.  The interplay of internal and forced modes of Hadley Cell expansion: lessons from the global warming hiatus. Climate Dynamics. 51:305-319.
    Abstract Summary:

    The poleward branches of the Hadley Cells and the edge of the tropics show a robust poleward shift during the satellite era, leading to concerns over the possible encroachment of the globe's subtropical dry zones into currently temperate climates. The extent to which this trend is caused by anthropogenic forcing versus internal variability remains the subject of considerable debate. In this study, we use a Joint EOF method to identify two...

  • Cyronak T., Andersson AJ, D'Angelo S., Bresnahan P., Davidson C., Griffin A., Kindeberg T., Pennise J., Takeshita Y, White M..  2018.  Short-term spatial and temporal carbonate chemistry variability in two contrasting seagrass meadows: Implications for pH buffering capacities. Estuaries and Coasts. 41:1282-1296.
    Abstract Summary:

    It has been hypothesized that highly productive coastal ecosystems, such as seagrass meadows, could lead to the establishment of ocean acidification (OA) refugia, or areas of elevated pH and aragonite saturation state (Omega(a)) compared to source seawater. However, seagrass ecosystems experience extreme variability in carbonate chemistry across short temporal and small spatial scales, which could impact the pH buffering capacity of these...

  • Rocha C.B, Wagner G.L, Young W.R.  2018.  Stimulated generation: extraction of energy from balanced flow by near-inertial waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 847:417-451.
    Abstract Summary:

    We study stimulated generation - the transfer of energy from balanced flows to existing internal waves - using an asymptotic model that couples barotropic quasi-geostrophic flow and near-inertial waves with e(imz) vertical structure, where m is the vertical wavenumber and z is the vertical coordinate. A detailed description of the conservation laws of this vertical-plane-wave model illuminates the mechanism of stimulated generation associated...

  • Koper K.D, Pankow K.L, Pechmann J.C, Hale J.M, Burlacu R., Yeck W.L, Benz H.M, Herrmann R.B, Trugman D.T, Shearer PM.  2018.  Afterslip enhanced aftershock activity during the 2017 earthquake sequence near Sulphur Peak, Idaho. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:5352-5361.
    Abstract Summary:

    An energetic earthquake sequence occurred during September to October 2017 near Sulphur Peak, Idaho. The normal-faulting M-w 5.3 mainshock of 2 September 2017 was widely felt in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. Over 1,000 aftershocks were located within the first 2 months, 29 of which had magnitudes >= 4.0 M-L. High-accuracy locations derived with data from a temporary seismic array show that the sequence occurred in the upper (<10km) crust of...

  • Stock B.C, Jackson A.L, Ward E.J, Parnell A.C, Phillips D.L, Semmens B.X.  2018.  Analyzing mixing systems using a new generation of Bayesian tracer mixing models. Peerj. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The ongoing evolution of tracer mixing models has resulted in a confusing array of software tools that differ in terms of data inputs, model assumptions, and associated analytic products. Here we introduce MixSIAR, an inclusive, rich, and flexible Bayesian tracer (e.g., stable isotope) mixing model framework implemented as an open-source R package. Using MixSIAR as a foundation, we provide guidance for the implementation of mixing model...

  • Abstract Summary:

    For the Cascadia subduction zone, M-w similar to 8 megathrust earthquake hazard is of particular interest because uncertainties in the predicted tsunami size affect evacuation alerts. To reduce these uncertainties, we examine how augmenting the current Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) network in Cascadia with offshore stations improves static slip inversions for M-w similar to 8 megathrust earthquakes at different rupture depths. We...

  • Guillemette R, Kaneko R, Blanton J, Tan J, Witt M, Hamilton S, Allen EE, Medina M, Hamasaki K, Koch BP et al..  2018.  Bacterioplankton drawdown of coral mass-spawned organic matter.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coral reef ecosystems are highly sensitive to microbial activities that result from dissolved organic matter (DOM) enrichment of their surrounding seawater. However, the response to particulate organic matter (POM) enrichment is less studied. In a microcosm experiment, we tested the response of bacterioplankton to a pulse of POM from the mass-spawning of Orbicella franksi coral off the Caribbean coast of Panama. Particulate organic carbon (...

  • Stafford K.M, Ferguson M.C, Hauser D.DW, Okkonen S.R, Berchok C.L, Citta J.J, Clarke J.T, Garland E.C, Jones J., Suydam R.S.  2018.  Beluga whales in the western Beaufort Sea: Current state of knowledge on timing, distribution, habitat use and environmental drivers. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 152:182-194.
    Abstract Summary:

    The seasonal and geographic patterns in the distribution, residency, and density of two populations (Chukchi and Beaufort) of beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) were examined using data from aerial surveys, passive acoustic recordings, and satellite telemetry to better understand this arctic species in the oceanographically complex and changing western Beaufort Sea. An aerial survey data-based model of beluga density highlights the...

  • Liu J., Dedrick J., Russell LM, Senum G.I, Uin J., Kuang C.G, Springston S.R, Leaitch WR, Aiken A.C, Lubin D..  2018.  High summertime aerosol organic functional group concentrations from marine and seabird sources at Ross Island, Antarctica, during AWARE. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:8571-8587.
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations of the organic components of the natural aerosol are scarce in Antarctica, which limits our understanding of natural aerosols and their connection to seasonal and spatial patterns of cloud albedo in the region. From November 2015 to December 2016, the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) measured submicron aerosol properties near McMurdo Station at the southern tip of Ross Island. Submicron organic mass (OM), particle...

  • Birner B., Buizert C, Wagner T.JW, Severinghaus JP.  2018.  The influence of layering and barometric pumping on firn air transport in a 2-D model. Cryosphere. 12:2021-2037.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ancient air trapped in ice core bubbles has been paramount to developing our understanding of past climate and atmospheric composition. Before air bubbles become isolated in ice, the atmospheric signal is altered in the firn column by transport processes such as advection and diffusion. However, the influence of low-permeability layers and barometric pumping (driven by surface pressure variability) on firn air transport is not well understood...

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