Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Assessment of the upper-ocean observing system in the equatorial Pacific: The role of Argo in resolving intraseasonal to interannual variability*

Impact:
Using more than 10 years of Argo temperature and salinity profiles (2004–14), a new mapping of the upper ocean in the equatorial Pacific, with high temporal resolution, is presented. Following RG09 procedures, which were formulated for describing monthly large-scale anomalies globally, here anomaly fields at 5-day intervals are constructed utilizing improvements in the optimal interpolation that include more accurate representation of zonal and meridional scales and the noise-to-signal ratio, and by including the time domain.

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  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40 degrees C and forage in -1.8 degrees C waters. Their ability to maintain 38 degrees C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy...

  • Highlighted Publication A distinct shift in echolocation behavior from day to night.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many terrestrial and marine species have a diel activity pattern, and their acoustic signaling follows their current behavioral state. Whistles and echolocation clicks on long-term recordings produced by melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) at Palmyra Atoll indicated that these signals were used selectively during different phases of the day, strengthening the idea of nighttime foraging and daytime resting with afternoon socializing...

  • Highlighted Publication Intraseasonal altimetric SSH (cm) from delayed-time AVISO product
    Abstract Summary:

    Using more than 10 years of Argo temperature and salinity profiles (2004-14), a new optimal interpolation (OI) of the upper ocean in the equatorial Pacific is presented. Following Roemmich and Gilson's procedures, which were formulated for describing monthly large-scale anomalies, here every 5 days anomaly fields are constructed with improvements in the OI spatial covariance function and by including the time domain. The comparison of Argo...

  • Highlighted Publication Mean settlement of (A)  Orbicella faveolata and (B)  Agaricia humilis larvae
    Abstract Summary:

    Oil spills cause damage to marine wildlife that lasts well past their immediate aftermath. Marine offspring that must settle and metamorphose to reach adulthood may be particularly prone to harm if the legacy of oil exposure interrupts later transitions across life stages. Following an oil spill on Curacao, we found that oil-contaminated seawater reduced settlement of 2 coral species by 85% and 40% after exposure had ended. The effect of...

  • Highlighted Publication Cumulative slip distribution of and static stress drop due to the Gorkha earthquake.
    Abstract Summary:

    Detailed geodetic imaging of earthquake ruptures enhances our understanding of earthquake physics and associated ground shaking. The 25 April 2015 moment magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Gorkha, Nepal was the first large continental megathrust rupture to have occurred beneath a high-rate (5-hertz) Global Positioning System (GPS) network. We used GPS and interferometric synthetic aperture radar data to model the earthquake rupture as a slip pulse...

  • Highlighted Publication Snapshots of evolving volcanic plume from Santiaguito volcano
    Abstract Summary:

    The details of volcanic plume source conditions or internal structure cannot readily be revealed by simple visual images or other existing remote imaging techniques. For example, one predominant observable quantity, the spreading rate in steady or quasi-steady volcanic plumes, is independent of source buoyancy flux. However, observable morphological features of short-duration unsteady plumes appear to be strongly controlled by volcanic source...

  • Highlighted Publication Time-integrated images of backprojected P waves.
    Abstract Summary:

    We analyze the rupture process of the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake with globally recorded teleseismic P waves. The rupture propagated east-southeast from the hypocenter for about 160km with a duration of similar to 55s. Backprojection of both high-frequency (HF, 0.2 to 3Hz) and low-frequency (LF, 0.05 to 0.2Hz) P waves suggest a multistage rupture process. From the low-frequency images, we resolve an initial slow downdip (northward) rupture...

  • Highlighted Publication Schematic viewof dielcycle of dissipation
    Abstract Summary:

    Sverdrup (1953. On conditions for the vernal blooming of phytoplankton. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer, 18: 287295) was quite careful in formulating his critical depth hypothesis, specifying a "thoroughly mixed top layer" with mixing "strong enough to distribute the plankton organisms evenly through the layer". With a few notable exceptions, most subsequent tests of the critical depth hypothesis have ignored...

  • Highlighted Publication NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) Collection, Allen Shimada, NOAA/NMFS/OST/AMD
    Xu Y, Xie SP.  2015.  Ocean mediation of tropospheric response to reflecting and absorbing aerosols. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 15:5827-5833.
    Abstract Summary:

    Radiative forcing by reflecting (e.g., sulfate, SO4) and absorbing (e.g., black carbon, BC) aerosols is distinct: the former cools the planet by reducing solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere and the surface, without largely affecting the atmospheric column, while the latter heats the atmosphere directly. Despite the fundamental difference in forcing, here we show that the structure of the tropospheric response is remarkably similar...

  • Highlighted Publication Unit source locations generating the largest amplitude waves at target sites on the U.S. West Coast.
    Abstract Summary:

    Tsunami propagation simulations are used to identify which tsunami source locations would produce the highest amplitude waves on approach to key population centers along the U.S. West Coast. The reasons for preferential influence of certain remote excitation sites are explored by examining model time sequences of tsunami wave patterns emanating from the source. Distant bathymetric features in the West and Central Pacific can redirect tsunami...

  • Highlighted Publication Near-field processes in the Luzon Strait
    Abstract Summary:

    Internal gravity waves, the subsurface analogue of the familiar surface gravity waves that break on beaches, are ubiquitous in the ocean. Because of their strong vertical and horizontal currents, and the turbulent mixing caused by their breaking, they affect a panoply of ocean processes, such as the supply of nutrients for photosynthesis(1), sediment and pollutant transport(2) and acoustic transmission(3); they also pose hazards for man-made...

  • Highlighted Publication Ecological health index.
    Abstract Summary:

    The recovery of historic community assemblages on reefs is a primary objective for the management of marine ecosystems. Working under the overall hypothesis that, as fishing pressure increases, the abundance in upper trophic levels decreases followed by intermediate levels, we develop an index that characterizes the comparative health of rocky reefs. Using underwater visual transects to sample rocky reefs in the Gulf of California, Mexico, we...

  • Highlighted Publication Schematic of the global model of climate and sea ice described in section 2.
    Wagner T.JW, Eisenman I.  2015.  How climate model complexity influences sea ice stability. Journal of Climate. 28:3998-4014.
    Abstract Summary:

    Record lows in Arctic sea ice extent have been making frequent headlines in recent years. The change in albedo when sea ice is replaced by open water introduces a nonlinearity that has sparked an ongoing debate about the stability of the Arctic sea ice cover and the possibility of Arctic "tipping points.'' Previous studies identified instabilities for a shrinking ice cover in two types of idealized climate models: (i) annual-mean...

  • Highlighted Publication Snapshots of runup modeling of the coast surrounding an area of Sendai Bay
    Melgar D, Bock Y.  2015.  Kinematic earthquake source inversion and tsunami runup prediction with regional geophysical data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 120:3324-3349.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rapid near-source earthquake source modeling relying only on strong motion data is limited by instrumental offsets and magnitude saturation, adversely affecting subsequent tsunami prediction. Seismogeodetic displacement and velocity waveforms estimated from an optimal combination of high-rate GPS and strong motion data overcome these limitations. Supplementing land-based data with offshore wave measurements by seafloor pressure sensors and...

  • Highlighted Publication Large particle number concentrations versus submicrometer sea-salt mass concentrations
    Abstract Summary:

    Primary marine aerosol (PMA)-cloud interactions off the coast of California were investigated using observations of marine aerosol, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and stratocumulus clouds during the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE) and the Stratocumulus Observations of Los-Angeles Emissions Derived Aerosol-Droplets (SOLEDAD) studies. Based on recently reported measurements of PMA size distributions, a constrained...

  • Highlighted Publication Locations of the microstructure projects plotted over regions with a variety of seafloor roughness
    Abstract Summary:

    Finescale methods are currently being applied to estimate the mean turbulent dissipation rate and diffusivity on regional and global scales. This study evaluates finescale estimates derived from isopycnal strain by comparing them with average microstructure profiles from six diverse environments including the equator, above ridges, near seamounts, and in strong currents. The finescale strain estimates are derived from at least 10 nearby Argo...

  • Highlighted Publication Scanning electronic micrographs illustrating different types of shell dissolution.
    Abstract Summary:

    We tested the sensitivity of the vertical distributions and shell dissolution patterns of thecosome pteropods to spatial gradients associated with an eddy-associated front in the southern California Current System. The aragonite saturation horizon (Omega(arag) = 1.0) shoaled from > 200 to <75 m depth across the front. The vertical distribution of thecosome pteropods tracked these changes, with all 5 species showing reduced occurrence at...

  • Highlighted Publication Model output for the Ricker, extended Ricker, and multivariate EDM models.
    Ye H, Beamish R.J, Glaser S.M, Grant S.CH, Hsieh CH, Richards L.J, Schnute J.T, Sugihara G.  2015.  Equation-free mechanistic ecosystem forecasting using empirical dynamic modeling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112:E1569-E1576.
    Abstract Summary:

    It is well known that current equilibrium-based models fall short as predictive descriptions of natural ecosystems, and particularly of fisheries systems that exhibit nonlinear dynamics. For example, model parameters assumed to be fixed constants may actually vary in time, models may fit well to existing data but lack out-of-sample predictive skill, and key driving variables may be misidentified due to transient (mirage) correlations that are...

  • Highlighted Publication Satellite image of near-surface chlorophyll a
    Abstract Summary:

    Protistan grazers and viruses are major agents of mortality in marine microbial communities with substantially different implications for food-web dynamics, carbon cycling and diversity maintenance. While grazers and viruses are typically studied independently, their impacts on microbial communities may be complicated by direct and indirect interactions of their mortality effects. Using a modification of the seawater dilution approach, we...

  • Highlighted Publication Swell with λ = 500m emitted by a point-source in the Southern Ocean.
    Gallet B., Young W.R.  2014.  Refraction of swell by surface currents. Journal of Marine Research. 72:105-126.
    Abstract Summary:

    Using recordings of swell from pitch-and-roll buoys, we have reproduced the classic observations of long-range surface wave propagation originally made by Munk et al. (1963) using a triangular array of bottom pressure measurements. In the modern data, the direction of the incoming swell fluctuates by about +/- 10 degrees on a time scale of one hour. But if the incoming direction is averaged over the duration of an event then, in contrast with...

  • Highlighted Publication Global ocean heat gain
    Abstract Summary:

    Increasing heat content of the global ocean dominates the energy imbalance in the climate system(1). Here we show that ocean heat gain over the 0-2,000 m layer continued at a rate of 0.4-0.6 W m(-2) during 2006-2013. The depth dependence and spatial structure of temperature changes are described on the basis of the Argo Program's(2) accurate and spatially homogeneous data set, through comparison of three Argo-only analyses. Heat gain was...

  • Highlighted Publication Evolution of the rate of thickness change in the Antarctic Peninsula.
    Abstract Summary:

    The floating ice shelves surrounding the Antarctic Ice Sheet restrain the grounded ice-sheet flow. Thinning of an ice shelf reduces this effect, leading to an increase in ice discharge to the ocean. Using eighteen years of continuous satellite radar altimeter observations we have computed decadal-scale changes in ice-shelf thickness around the Antarctic continent. Overall, average ice-shelf volume change accelerated from negligible loss at 25...

  • Highlighted Publication Climatological mean and standard deviation of column-integrated sea salt burden
    Abstract Summary:

    This study examines multiyear climate variability associated with sea salt aerosols and their contribution to the variability of shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF) using a 150 year simulation for preindustrial conditions of the Community Earth System Model version 1.0. The results suggest that changes in sea salt and related cloud and radiative properties on interannual timescales are dominated by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation cycle. Sea salt...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    Time difference of arrival (TDOA) methods for acoustically localizing multiple marine mammals have been applied to recorded data from the Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility in order to localize and track humpback whales. Modifications to established methods were necessary in order to simultaneously track multiple animals on the range faster than real-time and in a fully automated way, while minimizing the number of incorrect localizations...

  • Highlighted Publication Southern California shaded relief map with the study site
    Abstract Summary:

    Airborne LiDAR collected during the period 1998–2010 and differential GPS surveys conducted over 2008–2013 show recent reactivation and movement of a large deep-seated coastal landslide at San Onofre State Beach, San Diego County, California. The overall slide complex extends about 700 m alongshore, 150 m inland, and an unknown distance offshore. Differencing digital elevation models and tracking field monuments (benchmarks) provide time...

  • Highlighted Publication  Sensitivity of Sahelian precipitation to surface temperature in CMIP5 models and observations.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Sahel region of West Africa experiences decadal swings between periods of drought and abundant rainfall, and a large body of work asserts that these variations in the West African monsoon are a response to changes in the temperatures of the tropical Atlantic and Indian Oceans. However, here it is shown that when forced by SST alone, most state-of-the-art climate models do not reproduce a statistically significant upward trend in Sahelian...

  • Highlighted Publication Model of host-driven CCM in scleractinian corals.
    Barott KL, Venn A.A, Perez S.O, Tambutte S., Tresguerres M.  2015.  Coral host cells acidify symbiotic algal microenvironment to promote photosynthesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112:607-12.
    Abstract Summary:

    Symbiotic dinoflagellate algae residing inside coral tissues supply the host with the majority of their energy requirements through the translocation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. The algae, in turn, rely on the host for the supply of inorganic carbon. Carbon must be concentrated as CO2 in order for photosynthesis to proceed, and here we show that the coral host plays an active role in this process. The host-derived symbiosome membrane...

  • Highlighted Publication Goliath grouper at a REEF diver site at the Aquarius Undersea Laboratory, near Plantation Key, Florida
    Abstract Summary:

    Managing natural populations and communities requires detailed information regarding demographic processes at large spatial and temporal scales. This combination is challenging for both traditional scientific surveys, which often operate at localized scales, and recent citizen science designs, which often provide data with few auxiliary information (i.e., no information about individual age or condition). We therefore combine citizen science...

  • Highlighted Publication Coulomb stressing rate in the El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) rupture zone
    Abstract Summary:

    The M-w 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake ruptured a complex fault system in northern Baja California that was previously considered inactive. The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF), site of the world's second largest geothermal power plant, is located approximately 15km to the northeast of the EMC hypocenter. We investigate whether anthropogenic fluid extraction at the CPGF caused a significant perturbation to the stress field in the...

  • Highlighted Publication Camera diagram; Time series of evolving surface foam area
    Abstract Summary:

    Air-entraining breaking waves form oceanic whitecaps and play a key role in climate regulation through air-sea bubble-mediated gas transfer, and sea spray aerosol production. The effect of varying sea surface temperature on air entrainment, subsurface bubble plume dynamics, and surface foam evolution intrinsic to oceanic whitecaps has not been well studied. By using a breaking wave analog in the laboratory over a range of water temperatures (...

  • Highlighted Publication Estimated basal mass budget for (a) Ross Ice Shelf and (b) Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf.
    Abstract Summary:

    Traditional methods of deriving temporal variability of Antarctic ice-shelf elevation from satellite altimetry use a fixed (“Eulerian”) reference frame, where the measured changes include advection of ice thickness gradients between measurement epochs. We present a new method which removes advection effects by using an independent velocity field to compare elevations in a moving (“Lagrangian”) reference frame. Applying the technique to ICESat...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    Global climate and the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are correlated over recent glacial cycles(1,2). The combination of processes responsible for a rise in atmospheric CO2 at the last glacial termination(1,3) (23,000 to 9,000 years ago), however, remains uncertain(1-3). Establishing the timing and rate of CO2 changes in the past provides critical insight into the mechanisms that influence the carbon cycle and helps put...

  • Highlighted Publication The comparison between waveforms processed using a 2-D starting model and 1-D PREM
    Abstract Summary:

    A new method is developed to measure Rayleigh- and Love-wave phase velocities globally using a cluster analysis technique. This method clusters similar waveforms recorded at different stations from a single event and allows users to make measurements on hundreds of waveforms, which are filtered at a series of frequency ranges, at the same time. It also requires minimal amount of user interaction and allows easy assessment of the data quality...

  • Highlighted Publication Lumpy stratocumulus clouds. Photo courtesy of NOAA.
    Abstract Summary:

    Over the tropical North Atlantic, during boreal summer, both stratocumulus clouds and mineral aerosols are ubiquitous. We find that low cloud fraction increases in response to high mineral aerosols loadings by 3% to 10% over much of the tropical North Atlantic, in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISSCP) and Pathfinder Atmosphere Extended (PATMOSx) observations. Using the single-column mode of the Community Earth System Model...

  • Highlighted Publication Side view of living Asymmetron lucayanum
    Abstract Summary:

    Cephalochordates, the sister group of tunicates plus vertebrates, have been called "living fossils" due to their resemblance to fossil chordates from Cambrian strata. The genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae shares remarkable synteny with vertebrates and is free from whole-genome duplication. We performed RNA sequencing from larvae and adults of Asymmetron lucayanum, a cephalochordate distantly related to B. floridae....

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    Inspired by the developments of synthetic biology and the need for improved genetic tools to exploit cyanobacteria for the production of renewable bio-products, we developed a versatile platform for the construction of broad-host-range vector systems. This platform includes the following features: (i) an efficient assembly strategy in which modules released from 3 to 4 donor plasmids or produced by polymerase chain reaction are assembled by...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    The addition of atmospheric acoustic sensors as part of the transportable stations of USArray has allowed a detailed explanation to be provided to the public and media regarding a significant meteor event observed over the region of Montreal, Canada. The meteor, obscured by cloudy conditions, was perceived by residents only as a bright blue flash followed subsequently by loud thunderous sounds and rumbling. The event quickly became a source...

  • Highlighted Publication Dunaliella
    Abstract Summary:

    According to modern oceanographic perspectives that emphasize microbial pathways, phagotrophic protists comprise one to several levels of intermediate consumers between phytoplankton and larger metazooplankton (copepods and krill). However, recent attempts to quantify pelagic trophic structure in the open ocean using nitrogen stable isotope techniques have brought into question whether such measurements adequately account for protistan...

  • Highlighted Publication Selection differential equation over image of fish
    Abstract Summary:

    An individual's phenotype will usually influence its probability of survival. However, when evaluating the dynamics of populations, the role of selective mortality is not always clear. Not all mortality is selective, patterns of selective mortality may vary, and it is often unknown how selective mortality compares or interacts with other sources of mortality. As a result, there is seldom a clear expectation for how changes in the phenotypic...

  • Highlighted Publication Central Pacific comparison of mass accumulation rates for different trophic groups
    Abstract Summary:

    Open-ocean ecosystems experienced profound disruptions to biodiversity and ecological structure during the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction about 66 million years ago(1-3). It has been suggested that during this mass extinction, a collapse of phytoplankton production rippled up the food chain, causing the wholesale loss of consumers and top predators(3-5). Pelagic fish represent a key trophic link between primary producers and top...

  • Highlighted Publication Spatio-temporal mapping of transporters.
    Abstract Summary:

    One quarter of eukaryotic genes encode membrane proteins. These include nearly 1,000 transporters that translocate nutrients, signaling molecules, and xenobiotics across membranes. While it is well appreciated that membrane transport is critical for development, the specific roles of many transporters have remained cryptic, in part because of their abundance and the diversity of their substrates. Multidrug resistance ATP-binding cassette (ABC...

  • Highlighted Publication NASA Visible Earth image of African dust storm
    Evan AT, Flamant C., Fiedler S., Doherty O..  2014.  An analysis of aeolian dust in climate models. Geophysical Research Letters. 41:5996-6001.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aeolian dust is a key aspect of the climate system. Dust can modify the Earth's energy budget, provide long-range transport of nutrients, and influence land surface processes via erosion. Consequently, effective modeling of the climate system, particularly at regional scales, requires a reasonably accurate representation of dust emission, transport, and deposition. Here we evaluate African dust in 23 state-of-the-art global climate models...

  • Highlighted Publication Aerial view of PII-B-1 showing the approximate deployment locations of GPS stations
    Abstract Summary:

    We study a mechanism of iceberg breakup that may act together with the recognized melt and wave-induced decay processes. Our proposal is based on observations from a recent field experiment on a large ice island in Baffin Bay, East Canada. We observed that successive collapses of the overburden from above an unsupported wavecut at the iceberg waterline created a submerged foot fringing the berg. The buoyancy stresses induced by such a foot...

  • Highlighted Publication Mussel larvae
    Abstract Summary:

    As the ocean undergoes acidification, marine organisms will become increasingly exposed to reduced pH, yet variability in many coastal settings complicates our ability to accurately estimate pH exposure for those organisms that are difficult to track. Here we present shell-based geochemical proxies that reflect pH exposure from laboratory and field settings in larvae of the mussels Mytilus californianus and M. galloprovincialis. Laboratory-...

  • Highlighted Publication Bacterial growth, cell C, and DOC consumption of three treatments
    Pedler BE, Aluwihare LI, Azam F.  2014.  Single bacterial strain capable of significant contribution to carbon cycling in the surface ocean. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111:7202-7207.
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) encompasses one of the largest reservoirs of carbon on Earth. Heterotrophic bacteria are the primary biotic force regulating the fate of this material, yet the capacity of individual strains to significantly contribute to carbon cycling is unknown. Here we quantified the ability of a single Alteromonas strain [Alteromonas sp. strain Scripps Institution of Oceanography (AltSIO)] to drawdown ambient DOC in...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    We present a time-dependent slip model of 12 slow slip events (SSEs) occurring in the Hikurangi margin of New Zealand during 2010 and 2011. This model is obtained by inverting daily GPS solutions from GeoNet's continuous GPS network on the North Island and northern South Island. We compare the properties of these SSEs to observations in Japan, Cascadia, and Mexico and find that Hikurangi SSEs have comparatively large amounts of slip (up to 27...

  • Highlighted Publication A likelihood analysis predicts three independent acquisition events for the cya pathway.
    Ziemert N., Lechner A., Wietz M., Millan-Aguinaga N., Chavarria K.L, Jensen PR.  2014.  Diversity and evolution of secondary metabolism in the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111:E1130-E1139.
    Abstract Summary:

    Access to genome sequence data has challenged traditional natural product discovery paradigms by revealing that the products of most bacterial biosynthetic pathways have yet to be discovered. Despite the insight afforded by this technology, little is known about the diversity and distributions of natural product biosynthetic pathways among bacteria and how they evolve to generate structural diversity. Here we analyze genome sequence data...

  • Highlighted Publication Unfiltered NO3, DIC, and O2 dynamics at CCE-2 during 2011
    Abstract Summary:

    We use autonomous nitrate (NO3-), oxygen (O-2), and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) observations to examine the relationship between ratios of C:N:O at an upwelling site in the Southern California Current System. Mean ratios and 95% confidence intervals observed by sensors over 8 months were NO3-:O-2=-0.110.002, NO3-:DIC=0.140.001, and DIC:O-2=-0.830.01, in good agreement with Redfield ratios. Variability in the ratios on the weekly time...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a significant threat to human and marine organism health, and negatively impact coastal economies around the world. An improved understanding of HAB formation and transport is required to improve forecasting skill. A realistic numerical simulation of the US Pacific Northwest region is used to investigate transport pathways from known HAB formation hot spots, specifically for Pseudo-nitzschia (Pn), to the coast...

  • Highlighted Publication Annual mean OLR (W/m2) for a the twentieth century forcing
    Abstract Summary:

    The change in Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) amplitude and variance in response to anthropogenic climate change is assessed in the 1A degrees nominal resolution community climate system model, version 4 (CCSM4), which has a reasonable representation of the MJO characteristics both dynamically and statistically. The twentieth century CCSM4 run is compared with the warmest twenty-first century projection (representative concentration pathway 8...