Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Parasite and host biomass and reproductive output in barnacle populations in the rocky intertidal zone

Impact:
Here, we provide an initial insight into the role of parasites in rocky intertidal communities by examining how H. balani impacts Chthamalus fissus hosts and populations using the currencies of biomass and reproduction. Chthamalus fissus is a simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacle susceptible to parasitism by H. balani that inhabits the high rocky intertidal zone. We first documented the relationship between body size and reproductive output for both individual hosts and parasites. We then applied these relationships to natural barnacle populations from 12 localities throughout Southern California, allowing us to express the impacts of parasitism at the population-level in terms of host and parasite standing-stock biomasses and reproductive outputs.

Search Recent Publications

  • Stephens BM, Wankel SD, J. Beman M, Rabines AJ, Allen AE, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (δ15N and δ18O, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the California...

  • Costa J.AV, Freitas B.CB, Rosa G.M, Moraes L., Morais M.G, Mitchell B.G.  2019.  Operational and economic aspects of Spirulina-based biorefinery. 292
    Abstract Summary:

    Microalgae biorefinery systems have been extensively studied from the perspective of resources, energy expenditure, biofuel production potential, and high-added value products. The genus Spirulina (Arthrospira) stands out among the microalgae of commercial importance. It accounts for over 30% of biomass produced globally because of high protein concentration and, carotenoid and phycocyanin content. Spirulina cultivation can be used to reduce...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Objectively determining the level of ecosystem model complexity necessary to achieve meaningful representations of biogeochemical cycles at different spatial and temporal scales is an outstanding issue in marine ecosystem modeling. As part of the development of a three-dimensional (3D) Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) application for the northwest North Atlantic Ocean, we compare model results from three alternative ecosystem model...

  • Smith SR, Dupont CL, McCarthy JK, Broddrick JT, Oborník M, Horák A, Füssy Z, Cihlář J, Kleessen S, Zheng H et al..  2019.  Evolution and regulation of nitrogen flux through compartmentalized metabolic networks in a marine diatom. 10:4552.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms outcompete other phytoplankton for nitrate, yet little is known about the mechanisms underpinning this ability. Genomes and genome-enabled studies have shown that diatoms possess unique features of nitrogen metabolism however, the implications for nutrient utilization and growth are poorly understood. Using a combination of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, fluxomics, and flux balance analysis to examine short-term shifts in...

  • Coale TH, Moosburner M, Horák A, Oborník M, Barbeau KA, Allen AE.  2019.  Reduction-dependent siderophore assimilation in a model pennate diatom.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms can access inorganic iron with remarkable efficiency, but this process is contingent on carbonate ion concentration. As ocean acidification reduces carbonate concentration, inorganic iron uptake may be discouraged in favor of carbonate-independent uptake. We report details of an iron assimilation process that needs no carbonate but requires exogenous compounds produced by cooccurring organisms. We show this process to be critical for...

  • Luo M, Gieskes J, Chen L, Scholten J, Pan B, Lin G, Chen D.  2019.  Sources, degradation, and transport of organic matter in the New Britain Shelf-Trench continuum, Papua New Guinea. 124:1680-1695.
    Abstract Summary:

    Abstract Hadal trenches are considered as depocenters for organic matter and hotspots for microbial diagenetic activity. Here, we explore the sources, degradation, and transport of organic matter in the shelf-trench continuum using seven short sediment cores collected along two transects with water depths ranging between 1,553 and 8,901 m in the New Britain Trench area, Papua New Guinea. Carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) and radiocarbon...

  • Bortolus A., Adam P., Adams J.B, Ainouche M.L, Ayres D., Bertness M.D, Bouma T.J, Bruno J.F, Cacador I., Carlton J.T et al..  2019.  Supporting Spartina: Interdisciplinary perspective shows Spartina as a distinct solid genus.
    Abstract Summary:

    In 2014, a DNA-based phylogenetic study confirming the paraphyly of the grass subtribe Sporobolinae proposed the creation of a large monophyletic genus Sporobolus, including (among others) species previously included in the genera Spartina, Calamovilfa, and Sporobolus. Spartina species have contributed substantially (and continue contributing) to our knowledge in multiple disciplines, including ecology, evolutionary biology, molecular biology...

  • Kelly T.B, Davison P.C, Goericke R, Landry MR, Ohman MD, Stukel M.R.  2019.  The importance of mesozooplankton diel vertical migration for sustaining a mesopelagic food web. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    We used extensive ecological and biogeochemical measurements obtained from quasi-Lagrangian experiments during two California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecosystem Research cruises to analyze carbon fluxes between the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones using a linear inverse ecosystem model (LIEM). Measurement constraints on the model include C-14 primary productivity, dilution-based microzooplankton grazing rates, gut pigment-based...

  • Brandon JA, Jones W, Ohman MD.  2019.  Multidecadal increase in plastic particles in coastal ocean sediments. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    We analyzed coastal sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California, for historical changes in microplastic deposition using a box core that spanned 1834–2009. The sediment was visually sorted for plastic, and a subset was confirmed as plastic polymers via FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy. After correcting for contamination introduced during sample processing, we found an exponential increase in plastic deposition from 1945 to...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The eastern Fram Strait and area north of Svalbard, are influenced by the inflow of warm Atlantic water, which is high in nutrients and CO2, influencing the carbon flux into the Arctic Ocean. However, these estimates are mainly based on summer data and there is still doubt on the size of the net ocean Arctic CO2 sink. We use data on carbonate chemistry and nutrients from three cruises in 2014 in the CarbonBridge project (January, May, and...

  • Cazenave A., Hamlington B., Horwath M., Barletta V.R, Benveniste J., Chambers D., Doll P., Hogg A.E, Legeais J.F, Merrifield M. et al..  2019.  Observational requirements for long-term monitoring of the global mean sea level and its components over the altimetry era. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Present-day global mean sea level rise is caused by ocean thermal expansion, ice mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets, as well as changes in terrestrial water storage. For that reason, sea level is one of the best indicators of climate change as it integrates the response of several components of the climate system to internal and external forcing factors. Monitoring the global mean sea level allows detecting changes (e.g., in trend or...

  • Gaidarenko O., Sathoff C., Staub K., Huesemann M.H, Vernet M, Hildebrand M.  2019.  Timing is everything: Diel metabolic and physiological changes in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica grown in simulated outdoor conditions. 42
    Abstract Summary:

    Microalgal cultures grown on a light-dark cycle experience diel patterns in metabolic and physiological processes, including cell cycle synchronization, but the implications for productivity in terms of biomass and commercially-appealing molecules are not commonly appreciated. Despite a long history of diel response studies, only recently have photobioreactor technology advances enabled the use of sinusoidal light and temperature to more...

  • Kenitz K.M, Visser A.W, Ohman MD, Landry MR, Andersen K.H.  2019.  Community trait distribution across environmental gradients. 22:968-980.
    Abstract Summary:

    Variability in community composition is often attributed to underlying differences in physical environments. However, predator-prey interactions can play an equally important role in structuring communities. Although environmental differences select for different species assemblages, less is known about their impacts on trait compositions. We develop a trait-based analysis of plankton communities of the southern California Current System...

  • Winters KB, Ulloa H.N, Wuest A., Bouffard D..  2019.  Energetics of radiatively heated ice-covered lakes. 46:8913-8925.
    Abstract Summary:

    We derive the mechanical energy budget for shallow, ice-covered lakes energized by penetrative solar radiation. Radiation increases the available and background components of the potential energy at different rates. Available potential energy drives under-ice motion, including diurnally active turbulence in a near-surface convective mixing layer. Heat loss at the ice-water interface depletes background potential energy at a rate that depends...

  • Jiang M., Measures C.I, Barbeau K.A, Charette MA, Gille ST, Hatta M., Kahru M, Mitchell B.G, Garabato A.CN, Reiss C et al..  2019.  Fe sources and transport from the Antarctic Peninsula shelf to the southern Scotia Sea. 150
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) shelf is an important source of dissolved iron (Fe) to the upper ocean in the southern Scotia Sea, one of the most productive regions of the Southern Ocean. Here we present results from a four-year (2003-2006) numerical simulation using a regional coupled physical-biogeochemical model to assess the Fe sources and transport on the AP shelf and toward the southern Scotia Sea. The model was validated with a suite of...

  • Ellen J.S, Graff C.A, Ohman MD.  2019.  Improving plankton image classification using context metadata. 17:439-461.
    Abstract Summary:

    Advances in both hardware and software are enabling rapid proliferation of in situ plankton imaging methods, requiring more effective machine learning approaches to image classification. Deep Learning methods, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), show marked improvement over traditional feature-based supervised machine learning algorithms, but require careful optimization of hyperparameters and adequate training sets. Here, we...

  • Sanz-Martin M., Vernet M, Cape M.R, Mesa E., Delgado-Huertas A., Reigstad M., Wassmann P., Duarte C.M.  2019.  Relationship between carbon- and oxygen-based primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean, Svalbard Archipelago. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton contribute half of the primary production (PP) in the biosphere and are the major source of energy for the Arctic Ocean ecosystem. While PP measurements are therefore fundamental to our understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling, the extent to which current methods provide a definitive estimate of this process remains uncertain given differences in their underlying approaches, and assumptions. This is especially the case in...

  • Chen Z., Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Lee W.S, Yun S., Olinger S.D, Aster R.C, Wiens D.A, Nyblade A.A.  2019.  Ross Ice shelf Icequakes Associated With Ocean Gravity Wave Activity. 46:8893-8902.
    Abstract Summary:

    Gravity waves impacting ice shelves illicit a suite of responses that can affect ice shelf integrity. Broadband seismometers deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, complemented by a near-icefront seafloor hydrophone, establish the association of strong icequake activity with ocean gravity wave amplitudes (A(G)) below 0.04 Hz. The Ross Ice Shelf-front seismic vertical displacement amplitudes (A(SV)) are well correlated with A(G), allowing estimating...

  • Ludka B.C, Guza RT, O'Reilly W.C, Merrifield M.A, Flick RE, Bak A.S, Hesser T., Bucciarelli R., Olfe C., Woodward B. et al..  2019.  Sixteen years of bathymetry and waves at San Diego beaches. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Sustained, quantitative observations of nearshore waves and sand levels are essential for testing beach evolution models, but comprehensive datasets are relatively rare. We document beach profiles and concurrent waves monitored at three southern California beaches during 2001-2016. The beaches include offshore reefs, lagoon mouths, hard substrates, and cobble and sandy (medium-grained) sediments. The data span two energetic El Nino winters...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Valente A., Sathyendranath S., Brotas V., Groom S., Grant M., Taberner M., Antoine D., Arnone R., Balch W.M, Barker K. et al..  2019.  A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications - version two. 11:1037-1068.
    Abstract Summary:

    A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT and GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2018...

  • Kolody B.C, McCrow J.P, L. Allen Z, Aylward F.O, Fontanez K.M, Moustafa A., Moniruzzaman M., Chavez F.P, Scholin C.A, Allen EE et al..  2019.  Diel transcriptional response of a California Current plankton microbiome to light, low iron, and enduring viral infection.
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton and associated microbial communities provide organic carbon to oceanic food webs and drive ecosystem dynamics. However, capturing those dynamics is challenging. Here, an in situ, semi-Lagrangian, robotic sampler profiled pelagic microbes at 4 h intervals over ~2.6 days in North Pacific high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters. We report on the community structure and transcriptional dynamics of microbes in an operationally large...

  • Romero-Romero S., Choy C.A, Hannides C.CS, Popp BN, Drazen J.C.  2019.  Differences in the trophic ecology of micronekton driven by diel vertical migration. 64:1473-1483.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many species of micronekton perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs), which ultimately contributes to carbon export to the deep sea. However, not all micronekton species perform DVM, and the nonmigrators, which are often understudied, have different energetic requirements that might be reflected in their trophic ecology. We analyze bulk tissue and whole animal stable nitrogen isotopic compositions (delta N-15 values) of micronekton species...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) are considered hotspots of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the deep sea, but are also characterised by a high vulnerability to disturbance and a low recovery potential. Since 2006, a series of United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions have been developed, attempting to ensure the protection of VMEs in international waters. In the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) Regulatory...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Zooplankton are important consumers of sinking particles in the ocean's twilight zone. However, the impact of different taxa depends on their feeding mode. In contrast to typical suspension-feeding zooplankton, flux-feeding taxa preferentially consume rapidly sinking particles that would otherwise penetrate into the deep ocean. To quantify the potential impact of two flux-feeding zooplankton taxa [Aulosphaeridae (Rhizaria), and Limacina...

  • Kranzler CF, Krause JW, Brzezinski MA, Edwards BR, Biggs WP, Maniscalco M, McCrow JP, Van Mooy BAS, Bidle KD, Allen AE et al..  2019.  Silicon limitation facilitates virus infection and mortality of marine diatoms.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms are among the most globally distributed and ecologically successful organisms in the modern ocean, contributing upwards of 40% of total marine primary productivity1,2. By converting dissolved silicon into biogenic silica, and photosynthetically fixing carbon dioxide into particulate organic carbon, diatoms effectively couple the silicon (Si) and carbon cycles and ballast substantial vertical flux of carbon out of the euphotic zone...

  • Ponte R.M, Carson M., Cirano M., Domingues C.M, Jevrejeva S., Marcos M., Mitchum G., van de Wal R.SW, Woodworth P.L, Ablain M. et al..  2019.  Towards comprehensive observing and modeling systems for monitoring and predicting regional to coastal sea level. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    A major challenge for managing impacts and implementing effective mitigation measures and adaptation strategies for coastal zones affected by future sea level (SL) rise is our limited capacity to predict SL change at the coast on relevant spatial and temporal scales. Predicting coastal SL requires the ability to monitor and simulate a multitude of physical processes affecting SL, from local effects of wind waves and river runoff to remote...

  • Thompson C.F, Young A.P, Dickson M.E.  2019.  Wave impacts on coastal cliffs: Do bigger waves drive greater ground motion?
    Abstract Summary:

    Coastal cliff erosion is caused by a combination of marine forcing and sub-aerial processes, but linking cliff erosion to the environmental drivers remains challenging. One key component of these drivers is energy transfer from wave-cliff interaction. The aim of this study is to directly observe cliff ground motion in response to wave impacts at an individual wave scale. Measurements are described from two coastal cliff sites: a 45-minute...

  • Pearlman J., Bushnell M., Coppola L., Karstensen J, Buttigieg P.L, Pearlman F., Simpsons P., Barbier M., Muller-Karger F.E, Munoz-Mas C. et al..  2019.  Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet's ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies...

  • Sutherland K.M, Coe A., Gast R.J, Plummer S., Suffridge C.P, Diaz J.M, Bowman J.S, Wankel S.D, Hansel C.M.  Submitted.  Extracellular superoxide production by key microbes in the global ocean.
    Abstract Summary:

    Bacteria and eukaryotes produce the reactive oxygen species superoxide both within and outside the cell. Although superoxide is typically associated with the detrimental and sometimes fatal effects of oxidative stress, it has also been shown to be involved in a range of essential biochemical processes, including cell signaling, growth, differentiation, and defense. Light-independent extracellular superoxide production has been shown to be...

  • Lundesgaard O., Powell B., Merrifield M., Hahn-Woernle L., Winsor P..  2019.  Response of an Antarctic Peninsula fjord to summer katabatic wind events. 49:1485-1502.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fjords along the western Antarctic Peninsula are episodically exposed to strong winds flowing down marine-terminating glaciers and out over the ocean. These wind events could potentially be an important mechanism for the ventilation of fjord waters. A strong wind event was observed in Andvord Bay in December 2015, and was associated with significant increases in upper-ocean salinity. We examine the dynamical impacts of such wind events during...

  • Vittori G., Blondeaux P., Coco G., Guza RT.  2019.  Subharmonic edge wave excitation by narrow-band, random incident waves. 868
    Abstract Summary:

    A monochromatic, small amplitude, normally incident standing wave on a sloping beach is unstable to perturbation by subharmonic (half the frequency) edge waves. At equilibrium, edge wave shoreline amplitudes can exceed incident wave amplitudes. Here, the effect of incident wave randomness on subharmonic edge wave excitation is explored following a weakly nonlinear stability analysis under the assumption of narrow-band incident random waves....

  • Lu W.H, Cusack C., Baker M., Wang T., Chen M.B, Paige K., Zhang X.F, Levin L., Escobar E., Amon D. et al..  2019.  Successful blue economy examples with an emphasis on international perspectives. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Careful definition and illustrative case studies are fundamental work in developing a Blue Economy. As blue research expands with the world increasingly understanding its importance, policy makers and research institutions worldwide concerned with ocean and coastal regions are demanding further and improved analysis of the Blue Economy. Particularly, in terms of the management connotation, data access, monitoring, and product development,...

  • Choy C.A, Robison B.H, Gagne T.O, Erwin B., Firl E., Halden R.U, Hamilton J.A, Katija K., Lisin S.E, Rolsky C. et al..  2019.  The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Plastic waste has been documented in nearly all types of marine environments and has been found in species spanning all levels of marine food webs. Within these marine environments, deep pelagic waters encompass the largest ecosystems on Earth. We lack a comprehensive understanding of the concentrations, cycling, and fate of plastic waste in sub-surface waters, constraining our ability to implement effective, large-scale policy and...

  • Dorman C.E, Mejia J., Koracin D., McEvoy D..  2019.  World marine fog analysis based on 58-years of ship observations.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study presents the first global-scale comprehensive climatology of marine fog and is based on ICOADS ship present weather observations for the period 1950-2007. In general, the median marine fog occurrence away from the polar oceans is low (0.2%). Substantially greater marine fog occurrences are limited to four regions, not including the polar region. Fog occurrence maxima along the western side of the sub-polar ocean gyre occur during...

  • Svensen C., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Franze G., Dmoch K., Lavrentyev P.J, Kwasniewski S..  2019.  Zooplankton communities associated with new and regenerated primary production in the Atlantic inflow north of Svalbard. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly with respect to ice cover extent and volume, growth season duration and biological production. Zooplankton are important components in the arctic marine food web, and tightly coupled to the strong seasonality in primary production. In this study, we investigate zooplankton composition, including microzooplankton, copepod nauplii, as well as small and large copepod taxa, and primary productivity in the...

  • Cardenas P., Lange C.B, Vernet M, Esper O., Srain B., Vorrath M.E, Ehrhardt S., Muller J., Kuhn G., Arz H.W et al..  2019.  Biogeochemical proxies and diatoms in surface sediments across the Drake Passage reflect oceanic domains and frontal systems in the region. 174:72-88.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the world's largest current system connecting all major ocean basins of the global ocean. Its flow, driven by strong westerly winds, is constricted to its narrowest extent in the Drake Passage, located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Due to the remoteness of the area, harsh weather conditions and strong bottom currents, sediment recovery is difficult and data coverage is still inadequate...

  • de Morals M.G, de Morais E.G, Duarte J.H, Deamici K.M, Mitchell B.G, Costa J.AV.  2019.  Biological CO2 mitigation by microalgae: technological trends, future prospects and challenges. 35
    Abstract Summary:

    The increase in the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has been a topic of worldwide concern since anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases began increasing considerably during the industrial period. The effects of these mass emissions are probably the main cause of global warming, which has been observed over recent decades. Among the various techniques of CO2 capture, microalgal biofixation by photosynthesis is considered a...

  • Stukel M.R, Kelly T.B, Aluwihare LI, Barbeau K.A, Goericke R, Krause J.W, Landry MR, Ohman MD.  2019.  The Carbon:(234)Thorium ratios of sinking particles in the California current ecosystem 1: relationships with plankton ecosystem dynamics. Marine Chemistry. 212:1-15.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated variability in the C:Th-234 ratio of sinking particles and its relationship to changing water column characteristics and plankton ecological dynamics during 29 Lagrangian experiments conducted on six cruises of the California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program. C:Th-234 ratios of sinking particles collected by a surface-tethered sediment trap ((CThST)-Th-:234) varied from 2.3 to 20.5 mu mol C...

  • Broddrick J.T, Du N., Smith S.R, Tsuji Y., Jallet D., Ware M.A, Peers G., Matsuda Y., Dupont C.L, Mitchell B.G et al..  2019.  Cross-compartment metabolic coupling enables flexible photoprotective mechanisms in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. New Phytologist. 222:1364-1379.
    Abstract Summary:

    Photoacclimation consists of short- and long-term strategies used by photosynthetic organisms to adapt to dynamic light environments. Observable photophysiology changes resulting from these strategies have been used in coarse-grained models to predict light-dependent growth and photosynthetic rates. However, the contribution of the broader metabolic network, relevant to species-specific strategies and fitness, is not accounted for in these...

  • Hetherington E.D, Kurle C.M, Ohman MD, Popp BN.  2019.  Effects of chemical preservation on bulk and amino acid isotope ratios of zooplankton, fish, and squid tissues. 33:935-945.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rationale It is imperative to understand how chemical preservation alters tissue isotopic compositions before using historical samples in ecological studies. Specifically, although compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) is becoming a widely used tool, there is little information on how preservation techniques affect amino acid delta N-15 values. Methods We evaluated the effects of chemical preservatives on bulk tissue...

  • Eddebbar Y.A, Rodgers K.B, Long M.C, Subramanian AC, Xie SP, Keeling RF.  2019.  El Nino-like physical and biogeochemical ocean response to tropical eruptions. Journal of Climate. 32:2627-2649.
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceanic response to recent tropical eruptions is examined in Large Ensemble (LE) experiments from two fully coupled global climate models, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (ESM2M), each forced by a distinct volcanic forcing dataset. Following the simulated eruptions of Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo, the ocean loses heat and gains oxygen and carbon, in general...

  • Koslow JA, Davison P., Ferrer E., Rosenberg S, Aceves-Medina G., Watson W.  2019.  The evolving response of mesopelagic fishes to declining midwater oxygen concentrations in the southern and central California Current. 76:626-638.
    Abstract Summary:

    Declining oxygen concentrations in the deep ocean, particularly in areas with pronounced oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), are a growing global concern related to global climate change. Its potential impacts on marine life remain poorly understood. A previous study suggested that the abundance of a diverse suite of mesopelagic fishes off southern California was closely linked to trends in midwater oxygen concentration. This study expands the...

  • Olli K., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Lavrentyev P.J, Franze G., Sanz-Martin M., Paulsen M.L, Reigstad M..  2019.  Food web functions and interactions during spring and summer in the Arctic Water inflow region: Investigated through inverse modeling. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    We used inverse modeling to reconstruct major planktonic food web carbon flows in the Atlantic Water inflow, east and north of Svalbard during spring (18-25 May) and summer (9-13 August), 2014. The model was based on three intensively sampled stations during both periods, corresponding to early, peak, and decline phases of a Phaeocystis and diatom dominated bloom (May), and flagellates dominated post bloom stages (August). The food web carbon...

  • Young A.P, Carilli JE.  2019.  Global distribution of coastal cliffs. 44:1309-1316.
    Abstract Summary:

    Previous studies have estimated that coastal cliffs exist on about 80% of the global shoreline, but have not been validated on a global scale. This study uses two approaches to capture information on the worldwide existence and erosion of coastal cliffs: a detailed literature survey and imagery search, and a GIS-based global mapping analysis. The literature and imagery review show coastal cliffs exist in 93% of the combined recognized...

  • Levin L.A, Bett B.J, Gates A.R, Heimbach P., Howe B.M, Janssen F., McCurdy A., Ruhl H.A, Snelgrove P., Stocks K.I et al..  2019.  Global observing needs in the deep ocean. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean...

  • White-Gaynor A.L, Nyblade A.A, Aster R.C, Wiens D.A, Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Hansen S.E, Wilson T., Dalziel I.W et al..  2019.  Heterogeneous upper mantle structure beneath the Ross Sea Embayment and Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, revealed by P-wave tomography. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 513:40-50.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present an upper mantle P-wave velocity model for the Ross Sea Embayment (RSE) region of West Antarctica, constructed by inverting relative P-wave travel-times from 1881 teleseismic earthquakes recorded by two temporary broadband seismograph deployments on the Ross Ice Shelf, as well as by regional ice- and rock-sited seismic stations surrounding the RSE. Faster upper mantle P-wave velocities (similar to +1%) characterize the eastern part...

  • Anderson C.R, Berdalet E., Kudela R.M, Cusack C.K, Silke J., O'Rourke E., Dugan D., McCammon M., Newton J.A, Moore S.K et al..  2019.  Scaling up from regional case studies to a global Harmful Algal Bloom observing system. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) produce local impacts in nearly all freshwater and marine systems. They are a problem that occurs globally requiring an integrated and coordinated scientific understanding, leading to regional responses and solutions. Given that these natural phenomena will never be completely eliminated, an improved scientific understanding of HAB dynamics coupled with monitoring and ocean observations, facilitates new prediction...

  • Jagannathan A., Winters K., Armi L..  2019.  Stratified flows over and around long dynamically tall mountain ridges. 76:1265-1287.
    Abstract Summary:

    Uniformly stratified flows approaching long and dynamically tall ridges develop two distinct flow components over disparate time scales. The fluid upstream and below a "blocking level" is stagnant in the limit of an infinite ridge and flows around the sides when the ridge extent is finite. The streamwise half-width of the obstacle at the blocking level arises as a natural inner length scale for the flow, while the excursion time over this...

  • Lombard F., Boss E., Waite AM, Vogt M., Uitz J., Stemmann L., Sosik H.M, Schulz J., Romagnan J.B, Picheral M. et al..  2019.  Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general-and plankton in particular-in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and...

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