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Recent Publications

  • Inman B.G, Davies CJ, Torres C.R, Franks PJS.  2020.  Deformation of ambient chemical gradients by sinking spheres. 892
    Abstract Summary:

    A sphere sinking through a chemical gradient drags fluid with it, deforming the gradient. The sphere leaves a trail of gradient enhancement that persists longer than the velocity disturbance in the Reynolds , Froude and Peclet regime considered here. We quantify the enhancement of the gradient and the diffusive flux in the trail of disturbed chemical left by the passing sphere using a combination of numerical simulations and scaling analyses...

  • Jagannathan A., Winters KB, Armi L..  2020.  The effect of a strong density step on blocked stratified flow over topography. 889
    Abstract Summary:

    The dynamical connection between topographic control and wave excitation aloft is investigated theoretically and numerically in the idealized setting of two-dimensional stratified flow over an isolated ridge. We consider a constant far upstream inflow with uniform stratification except for a sharp density step located above the height of the ridge crest. Below this step, the stratification is sufficiently strong that the low level flow is...

  • Faktorova D., Nisbet R.ER, Robledo J.AF, Casacuberta E., Sudek L., Allen A.E, Ares M., Areste C., Balestreri C., Barbrook A.C et al..  2020.  Genetic tool development in marine protists: emerging model organisms for experimental cell biology.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diverse microbial ecosystems underpin life in the sea. Among these microbes are many unicellular eukaryotes that span the diversity of the eukaryotic tree of life. However, genetic tractability has been limited to a few species, which do not represent eukaryotic diversity or environmentally relevant taxa. Here, we report on the development of genetic tools in a range of protists primarily from marine environments. We present evidence for...

  • Goffredi S.K, Tilic E., Mullin S.W, Dawson K.S, Keller A., Lee R.W, Wu F.B, Levin L.A, Rouse GW, Cordes E.E et al..  2020.  Methanotrophic bacterial symbionts fuel dense populations of deep-sea feather duster worms (Sabellida, Annelida) and extend the spatial influence of methane seepage. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Deep-sea cold seeps are dynamic sources of methane release and unique habitats supporting ocean biodiversity and productivity. Here, we describe newly discovered animal-bacterial symbioses fueled by methane, between two species of annelid (a serpulid Laminatubus and sabellid Bispira) and distinct aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the Methylococcales, localized to the host respiratory crown. Worm tissue delta C-13 of -44 to -58...

  • Tunnicliffe V., Metaxas A., Le J., Ramirez-Llodra E., Levin L.A.  2020.  Strategic environmental goals and objectives: Setting the basis for environmental regulation of deep seabed mining. 114
    Abstract Summary:

    Deep seabed mining is a major new intersection of human enterprise and deep-ocean ecosystems. This paper reviews the concept and process for a holistic approach to planning environmental management in the deep sea based on Strategic Environmental Goals and Objectives. Strategic planning around the environment can establish a vision for the future condition of the ocean floor for which the International Seabed Authority (ISA) can draw on a...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In the present study, we extensively characterized potential toxin-related genes, including polyketide synthase (PKS), saxitoxin (STX) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) from the non-toxin producing marine dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, comparing to those of a toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum. RNA sequencing revealed 50 and 271 PKS contigs from C. polykrikoides and A. pacificum, respectively. According to domain...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Natural gradient systems can be used to examine the vulnerability of deep-sea communities to climate change. The Gulf of California presents an ideal system for examining relationships between faunal patterns and environmental conditions of deep-sea communities because deep-sea conditions change from warm and oxygen-rich in the north to cold and severely hypoxic in the south. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) remotely...

  • Yao Y., Zhang Q.M, Becker J.M, Merrifield M.A.  2020.  Boussinesq modeling of wave processes in field fringing reef environments. 95
    Abstract Summary:

    Boussinesq modeling of wave transformation over coral reefs to date focuses mainly on wave dynamics at the laboratory scale using idealized fringing reef profiles with relatively smooth surfaces. To better understand the cross-shore wave dynamics associated with coastal wave run-up in field studies of fringing reefs, a numerical study based on the one-dimensional horizontal (1DH) weakly dispersive, highly nonlinear Boussinesq equations is...

  • Morato T., Gonzalez-Irusta J.M, Dominguez-Carrio C., Wei C.L, Davies A., Sweetman A.K, Taranto G.H, Beazley L., Garcia-Alegre A., Grehan A. et al..  2020.  Climate-induced changes in the suitable habitat of cold-water corals and commercially important deep-sea fishes in the North Atlantic.
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep sea plays a critical role in global climate regulation through uptake and storage of heat and carbon dioxide. However, this regulating service causes warming, acidification and deoxygenation of deep waters, leading to decreased food availability at the seafloor. These changes and their projections are likely to affect productivity, biodiversity and distributions of deep-sea fauna, thereby compromising key ecosystem services....

  • Kahru M, Elmgren R., Kaiser J., Wasmund N., Savchuk O..  2020.  Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea: Correlations with environmental factors. 92
    Abstract Summary:

    Massive cyanobacteria blooms occur almost every summer in the Baltic Sea but the capability to quantitatively predict their extent and intensity is poorly developed. Here we analyse statistical relationships between multi-decadal satellite-derived time series of the frequency of cyanobacteria surface accumulations (FCA) in the central Baltic Sea Proper and a suite of environmental variables. Over the decadal scale (similar to 5-20 years) FCA...

  • Danovaro R., Fanelli E., Aguzzi J., Billett D., Carugati L., Corinaldesi C., Dell'Anno A., Gjerde K., Jamieson A.J, Kark S. et al..  2020.  Ecological variables for developing a global deep-ocean monitoring and conservation strategy. 4:181-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Expert elicitation methods identify a set of essential ecological variables that may be used to guide effective conservation and management of the deep sea. The deep sea (>200 m depth) encompasses >95% of the world's ocean volume and represents the largest and least explored biome on Earth (<0.0001% of ocean surface), yet is increasingly under threat from multiple direct and indirect anthropogenic pressures. Our ability to preserve...

  • Lundesgaard O., Winsor P., Truffer M., Merrifield M., Powell B., Statscewich H., Eidam E., Smith C.R.  2020.  Hydrography and energetics of a cold subpolar fjord: Andvord Bay, western Antarctic Peninsula. 181
    Abstract Summary:

    Fjords along the western Antarctic Peninsula contain rich marine ecosystems and tidewater glaciers potentially sensitive to ocean change, but much is unknown about the physical oceanography of these fjords. This paper presents a comprehensive description of the physical environment of Andvord Bay, a glacial fjord located in the Gerlache Strait on the northern end of the Peninsula. Measurements were collected as part of the FjordEco program...

  • Krause J.W, Brzezinski M.A, Largier J.L, McNair H.M, Maniscalco M., Bidle K.D, Allen A.E, Thamatrakoln K..  2020.  The interaction of physical and biological factors drives phytoplankton spatial distribution in the northern California Current.
    Abstract Summary:

    Transitions in phytoplankton community composition are typically attributed to ecological succession even in physically dynamic upwelling systems like the California Current Ecosystem (CCE). An expected succession from a high-chlorophyll (similar to 10 mu g L-1) diatom-dominated assemblage to a low-chlorophyll (< 1.0 mu g L-1) non-diatom dominated assemblage was observed during a 2013 summer upwelling event in the CCE. Using an...

  • Villarino E., Irigoien X., Villate F., Iriarte A., Uriarte I., Zervoudaki S., Carstensen J., O'Brien T.D, Chust G..  2020.  Response of copepod communities to ocean warming in three time-series across the North Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. 636:47-61.
    Abstract Summary:

    The rapid warming of the world's oceans during the last few decades has affected distributional patterns of marine planktonic communities. Here, we analyse links between sea warming and changes in copepod community composition over the last 3 decades (1980-2012). We used zooplankton time-series data which included 79 species of copepods collected at 3 sites in the eastern North Atlantic (Bay of Biscay and the Kattegat Sea) and the...

  • Grimes D.J, Feddersen F, Giddings S.N, Pawlak G..  2020.  Cross-shore deformation of a surfzone-released dye plume by an internal tide on the inner shelf. 50:35-54.
    Abstract Summary:

    An inner-shelf (IS) dye plume that formed following a 3.84-h early morning surfzone (SZ) dye release off of Imperial Beach, California, is analyzed with in situ and aerial remotely sensed observations. Midmorning, 5 h after release start, the IS plume extended 800 m offshore (or approximate to 8L(sz), where L-sz is the surfzone width) and was surface intensified. Over the next approximate to 2 h, the IS plume deformed (narrowed) cross-shore...

  • Harvey M.E, Giddings S.N, Stein E.D, Crooks J.A, Whitcraft C., Gallien T., Largier J.L, Tiefenthaler L., Meltzer H., Pawlak G. et al..  2020.  Effects of elevated sea levels and waves on Southern California estuaries during the 2015-2016 El Nino.
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2015-2016 El Nino provided insight into how low-inflow estuaries might respond to future climate regimes, including high sea levels and more intense waves. High waves and water levels coupled with low rainfall along the Southern California coastline provided the opportunity to examine how extreme ocean forcing impacts estuaries independently from fluvial events. From November 2015 to April 2016, water levels were measured in 13 Southern...

  • O'Rourke A., Zoumplis A., Wilburn P., Lee M.D, Lee Z., Vecina M., Mercader K..  2020.  Following the astrobiology roadmap: Origins, habitability and future exploration. 38:1-31.
    Abstract Summary:

    Astrobiology asks three fundamental questions as outlined by the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap: 1. How did Life begin and evolve?; Is there Life elsewhere in the Universe?; and, What is the future of Life on Earth? As we gain perspective on how Life on Earth arose and adapted to its many niches, we too gain insight into how a planet achieves habitability. Here on Earth, microbial Life has evolved to exist in a wide range of habitats from aquatic...

  • Wyatt ASJ, Leichter J.J, Toth L.T, Miyajima T., Aronson R.B, Nagata T..  2020.  Heat accumulation on coral reefs mitigated by internal waves. 13:28-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich, productive and economically valuable ecosystems on Earth but increasingly frequent pantropical coral bleaching events are threatening their persistence on a global scale. The 2015-2016 El Nino led to the hottest sea surface temperatures on record and widespread bleaching of shallow-water corals. However, the causes of spatial variation in bleaching are poorly understood, and near-surface estimates...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Biomass distribution among size classes follows a power law where the Log-abundance of taxa scales to Log-size with a slope that responds to environmental abiotic and biotic conditions. The interactions between ecological mechanisms controlling the slope of locally realized size-abundance relationships (SAR) are however not well understood. Here we tested how warming, nutrient levels, and grazing affect the slope of phytoplankton community...

  • James A.K, Washburn L., Gotschalk C., Maritorena S., Alldredge A., Nelson CE, Hench J.L, Leichter J.J, Wyatt ASJ, Carlson CA.  2020.  An island mass effect resolved near Mo'orea, French Polynesia. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    We sought to resolve the extent, variability, and magnitude of productivity enrichment around a high tropical island consistent with the phenomenon of an Island Mass Effect (IME). Key biogeochemical constituents and physical oceanographic parameters were measured offshore over the upper 500 m from July 27 to August 7, 2014 around the Society Island of Mo'orea in French Polynesia in association with the nearshore measurements of the Mo'orea...

  • Moosburner M.A, Gholami P., McCarthy JK, Tan M., Bielinski V.A, Allen A.E.  2020.  Multiplexed knockouts in the model diatom phaeodactylum by episomal delivery of a selectable Cas9. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine diatoms are eukaryotic microalgae that play significant ecological and biogeochemical roles in oceans. They also have significant potential as organismal platforms for exploitation to address biotechnological and industrial goals. In order to address both modes of research, sophisticated molecular and genetic tools are required. We presented here new and improved methodologies for introducing CRISPR-Cas9 to the model diatom...

  • Matsumoto H., Young A.P, Guza RT.  2020.  Observations of surface cobbles at two southern California beaches. 419
    Abstract Summary:

    Southern California beaches are often sandy, but with largely undocumented cobble patches and berms. We describe the first multi-year, spatially extensive observations of surface cobbles at southern California beaches. The variation (spatial and temporal) of surface cobble distribution and backshore (e.g. upper foreshore) cobble morphology (slope, vertical extent, and elevation) are characterized using 11 years (2008-2018) of observations...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Radar interferograms provide a map of the phase difference between the reference and repeat acquisitions modulo . Under ideal conditions, the phase can be unwrapped to provide an absolute phase connection across the map, although there is always an unknown integer phase ambiguity (i.e., ) for the entire map. Here, we demonstrate a practical time series method to solve for these integer ambiguities in order to recover the absolute phase change...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As part of a broad-scale study of the biogeography of rocky reefs in the Gulf of California, Mexico (GOC), we collected a continuous 1-yr temperature time series at similar to 5 m water depth at 16 sites spanning 5 degrees of latitude and similar to 700 km along the western boundary of the basin. Throughout the region, thermal conditions were most variable in summer with fluctuations concentrated at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies,...

  • Garcon V., Karstensen J, Palacz A., Telszewski M., Lara T.A, Breitburg D., Chavez F., Coelho P., Cornejo-D'Ottone M., Santos C. et al..  2019.  Multidisciplinary observing in the world ocean's oxygen minimum zone regions: From climate to fish - The VOICE Initiative. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Multidisciplinary ocean observing activities provide critical ocean information to satisfy ever-changing socioeconomic needs and require coordinated implementation. The upper oxycline (transition between high and low oxygen waters) is fundamentally important for the ecosystem structure and can be a useful proxy for multiple observing objectives connected to eastern boundary systems (EBSs) that neighbor oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). The...

  • Garwood J.C, Lucas A.J, Naughton P., Alford MH, Roberts P.LD, Jaffe J.S, DeGelleke L., Franks PJS.  2019.  A novel cross-shore transport mechanism revealed by subsurface, robotic larval mimics: Internal wave deformation of the background velocity field.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coastal physical processes are essential for the cross-shore transport of meroplanktonic larvae to their benthic adult habitats. To investigate these processes, we released a swarm of novel, trackable, subsurface vehicles, the Mini-Autonomous Underwater Explorer (M-AUEs), which we programmed to mimic larval depth-keeping behavior. The M-AUE swarm measured a sudden net onshore transport of 30-70 m over 15-20 min, which we investigated in...

  • Resplandy L., Keeling RF, Eddebbar Y., Brooks M., Wang R., Bopp L., Long M.C, Dunne J.P, Koeve W., Oschlies A..  2019.  Quantification of ocean heat uptake from changes in atmospheric O-2 and CO2 composition. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The ocean is the main source of thermal inertia in the climate system. Ocean heat uptake during recent decades has been quantified using ocean temperature measurements. However, these estimates all use the same imperfect ocean dataset and share additional uncertainty due to sparse coverage, especially before 2007. Here, we provide an independent estimate by using measurements of atmospheric oxygen (O-2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) - levels of...

  • Hetherington E.D, Kurle C.M, Benson S.R, Jones T.T, Seminoff J.A.  2019.  Re-examining trophic dead ends: stable isotope values link gelatinous zooplankton to leatherback turtles in the California Current. 632:205-219.
    Abstract Summary:

    Predator-prey interactions provide essential information for tracing energy flow through food webs and evaluating the structure and function of ecosystems. In pelagic environments, these interactions are often difficult to discern, which is problematic for identifying specific energy pathways that support populations of protected species. We examined the trophic ecology of an endangered population of leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Trait-based simplifications of plankton community structure require accurate assessment of trait values as expressed in situ. Yet planktonic organisms live suspended in a fluid medium and often bear elongate appendages, delicate feeding structures, and mucous houses that are badly damaged upon capture or removal from the fluid environment. Fixatives further distort organisms. In situ imaging of zooplankton from a fully autonomous Zooglider...

  • Baker M.G, Aster R.C, Anthony R.E, Chaput J., Wiens D.A, Nyblade A., Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A.  2019.  Seasonal and spatial variations in the ocean-coupled ambient wavefield of the Ross Ice Shelf. 65:912-925.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is host to a broadband, multimode seismic wavefield that is excited in response to atmospheric, oceanic and solid Earth source processes. A 34-station broadband seismographic network installed on the RIS from late 2014 through early 2017 produced continuous vibrational observations of Earth's largest ice shelf at both floating and grounded locations. We characterize temporal and spatial variations in broadband ambient...

  • Franks PJS, Garwood J.C, Ouimet M., Cortes J., Musgrave R.C, Lucas A.J.  2019.  Stokes drift of plankton in linear internal waves: Cross-shore transport of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms.
    Abstract Summary:

    The meroplanktonic larvae of many invertebrate and vertebrate species rely on physical transport to move them across the shelf to their adult habitats. One potential mechanism for cross-shore larval transport is Stokes drift in internal waves. Here, we develop theory to quantify the Stokes velocities of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms in linear internal waves in shallow water. We apply the analyses to theoretical and measured...

  • Lampe R.H, Wang S., Cassar N., Marchetti A..  2019.  Strategies among phytoplankton in response to alleviation of nutrient stress in a subtropical gyre. 13:2984-2997.
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Kuhn A.M, Dutkicwicz S., Jahn O., Clayton S., Ryncarson T.A, Mazloff MR, Barton A.D.  2019.  Temporal and spatial scales of correlation in marine phytoplankton communities.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean circulation shapes marine phytoplankton communities by setting environmental conditions and dispersing organisms. In addition, processes acting on the water column (e.g., heat fluxes and mixing) affect the community structure by modulating environmental variables that determine in situ growth and loss rates. Understanding the scales over which phytoplankton communities vary in time and space is key to elucidate the relative...

  • Randall C.J, Toth L.T, Leichter J.J, Mate J.L, Aronson R.B.  2019.  Upwelling buffers climate change impacts on coral reefs of the eastern tropical Pacific.
    Abstract Summary:

    Corals of the eastern tropical Pacific live in a marginal and oceanographically dynamic environment. Along the Pacific coast of Panama, stronger seasonal upwelling in the Gulf of Panama in the east transitions to weaker upwelling in the Gulf of Chiriqui in the west, resulting in complex regional oceanographic conditions that drive differential coral-reef growth. Over millennial timescales, reefs in the Gulf of Chiriqui recovered more quickly...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As the proportion of the human population living in cities continues to increase, understanding the factors affecting urban biodiversity is crucial to enhancing conservation efforts, urban ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Here we present the results of the first comparative study of belowground invertebrate communities in urban soils (lawns and biofilters) and remnant patches of native coastal sage scrub (CSS) in a semi-arid urban...

  • Abstract Summary:

    An oceanographic survey around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) and the South Orkney Islands (SOI) was conducted during January 2007 and February 2008, respectively, as part of the United States Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) program ecosystems surveys. At 27 stations, concentrations of dissolved labile Fe (DFe) and total acid leachable (unfiltered, TaLFe) iron (Fe) were measured in the upper 200 m (including coastal and oceanic...

  • Gallo N.D, Drenkard E., Thompson A.R, Weber E.D, Wilson-Vandenberg D., McClatchie S., Koslow JA, Semmens B.X.  2019.  Bridging from monitoring to solutions-based thinking: Lessons from CalCOFI for understanding and adapting to marine climate change impacts. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Multidisciplinary, integrated ocean observing programs provide critical data for monitoring the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) samples along the US West Coast and is one of the world's longest-running and most comprehensive time series, with hydrographic and biological data collected since 1949. The pairing of ecological and physical measurements across this...

  • Spydell M.S, Feddersen F, MacMahan J..  2019.  The effect of drifter GPS errors on estimates of submesoscale vorticity. 36:2101-2119.
    Abstract Summary:

    Differential kinematic flow properties (DKP), such as vertical vorticity, have been estimated from surface drifters. However, previous DKP error estimates were a posteriori and did not include correlated errors across drifters. To accurately estimate submesoscale (<= 1 km) DKPs from drifters, errors must be better understood. Here, the a priori vorticity standard error is derived that depends upon the number of drifters in the cluster, the...

  • Stephens BM, Wankel SD, J. Beman M, Rabines AJ, Allen AE, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (δ15N and δ18O, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the California...

  • Stephens B.M, Wankel S.D, Beman J.M, Rabines A.J, Allen A.E, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (delta N-15 and delta O-18, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the...

  • Woodworth P.L, Melet A., Marcos M., Ray R.D, Woppelmann G., Sasaki Y.N, Cirano M., Hibbert A., Huthnance J.M, Monserrat S. et al..  2019.  Forcing factors affecting sea level changes at the coast. 40:1351-1397.
    Abstract Summary:

    We review the characteristics of sea level variability at the coast focussing on how it differs from the variability in the nearby deep ocean. Sea level variability occurs on all timescales, with processes at higher frequencies tending to have a larger magnitude at the coast due to resonance and other dynamics. In the case of some processes, such as the tides, the presence of the coast and the shallow waters of the shelves results in the...

  • Rogers J.S, Rayson M.D, Ko D.S, Winters KB, Fringer O.B.  2019.  A framework for seamless one-way nesting of internal wave-resolving ocean models. 143
    Abstract Summary:

    To resolve nonlinear internal wave motions in regional domains, we propose a one-way ocean model nesting framework in which a nonhydrostatic model is nested within a regional model. The nesting scheme produces internal tides that propagate freely into and out of the nonhydrostatic model domain with no reflections while nudging the low-frequency motions. We demonstrate the method with idealized test cases and a field-scale simulation of the...

  • Hell M.C, Cornelle B.D, Gille ST, Miller AJ, Bromirski PD.  2019.  Identifying ocean swell generation events from Ross Ice Shelf seismic data. 36:2171-2189.
    Abstract Summary:

    Strong surface winds under extratropical cyclones exert intense surface stresses on the ocean that lead to upper-ocean mixing, intensified heat fluxes, and the generation of waves, that, over time, lead to swell waves (longer than 10-s period) that travel long distances. Because low-frequency swell propagates faster than high-frequency swell, the frequency dependence of swell arrival times at a measurement site can be used to infer the...

  • Sinnett G., Feddersen F.  2019.  The nearshore heat budget: Effects of stratification and surfzone dynamics. 124:8219-8240.
    Abstract Summary:

    Temperature variability in the nearshore (from approximate to 6-m depth to the shoreline) is influenced by many processes including wave breaking and internal waves. A nearshore heat budget resolving these processes has not been considered. A 7-month experiment at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Pier (shoreline to 6-m depth) measured temperature and surface and cross-shore heat fluxes to examine a nearshore heat budget with fine cross...

  • Costa J.AV, Freitas B.CB, Rosa G.M, Moraes L., Morais M.G, Mitchell B.G.  2019.  Operational and economic aspects of Spirulina-based biorefinery. 292
    Abstract Summary:

    Microalgae biorefinery systems have been extensively studied from the perspective of resources, energy expenditure, biofuel production potential, and high-added value products. The genus Spirulina (Arthrospira) stands out among the microalgae of commercial importance. It accounts for over 30% of biomass produced globally because of high protein concentration and, carotenoid and phycocyanin content. Spirulina cultivation can be used to reduce...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Abstract Microplastics (< 5 mm) have long been a concern in marine debris research, but quantifying the smallest microplastics (< 333 μm) has been hampered by appropriate collection methods, like net tows. We modified standard epifluorescence microscopy methods to develop a new technique to enumerate < 333 μm microplastics (mini-microplastics) from filtered surface seawater samples and salp stomach contents. This permitted us to...

  • Gove JM, Whitney J.L, McManus MA, Lecky J., Carvalho F.C, Lynch J.M, Li J.W, Neubauer P., Smith K.A, Phipps J.E et al..  2019.  Prey-size plastics are invading larval fish nurseries. 116:24143-24149.
    Abstract Summary:

    Life for many of the world's marine fish begins at the ocean surface. Ocean conditions dictate food availability and govern survivorship, yet little is known about the habitat preferences of larval fish during this highly vulnerable life-history stage. Here we show that surface slicks, a ubiquitous coastal ocean convergence feature, are important nurseries for larval fish from many ocean habitats at ecosystem scales. Slicks had higher...

  • Fish M.A, Wilson A.M, Ralph FM.  2019.  Atmospheric river families: Definition and associated synoptic conditions. 20:2091-2108.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause flooding when they are strong and stall over an already wet watershed. While earlier studies emphasized the role of individual, long-duration ARs in triggering floods, it is not uncommon for floods to be associated with a series of ARs that strike in close succession. This study uses measurements from an atmospheric river observatory at Bodega Bay (BBY), in Northern California, to identify periods when...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Southern Ocean and coastal Antarctica provide a variety of ecosystem services with benefits for humankind that are of regional and global importance. Despite being nearly uninhabited, increasing exploitation of natural resources, a growing human presence, and environmental change threaten the sustained provisioning of these services. Ecosystem service assessments have proven as a suitable tool to understand the relevance of ecosystems for...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Objectively determining the level of ecosystem model complexity necessary to achieve meaningful representations of biogeochemical cycles at different spatial and temporal scales is an outstanding issue in marine ecosystem modeling. As part of the development of a three-dimensional (3D) Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) application for the northwest North Atlantic Ocean, we compare model results from three alternative ecosystem model...

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