Recent Publications

  • Kenitz K.M, Visser A.W, Ohman MD, Landry MR, Andersen K.H.  2019.  Community trait distribution across environmental gradients. 22:968-980.
    Abstract Summary:

    Variability in community composition is often attributed to underlying differences in physical environments. However, predator-prey interactions can play an equally important role in structuring communities. Although environmental differences select for different species assemblages, less is known about their impacts on trait compositions. We develop a trait-based analysis of plankton communities of the southern California Current System...

  • Winters KB, Ulloa H.N, Wuest A., Bouffard D..  2019.  Energetics of radiatively heated ice-covered lakes. 46:8913-8925.
    Abstract Summary:

    We derive the mechanical energy budget for shallow, ice-covered lakes energized by penetrative solar radiation. Radiation increases the available and background components of the potential energy at different rates. Available potential energy drives under-ice motion, including diurnally active turbulence in a near-surface convective mixing layer. Heat loss at the ice-water interface depletes background potential energy at a rate that depends...

  • Jiang M., Measures C.I, Barbeau K.A, Charette MA, Gille ST, Hatta M., Kahru M, Mitchell B.G, Garabato A.CN, Reiss C et al..  2019.  Fe sources and transport from the Antarctic Peninsula shelf to the southern Scotia Sea. 150
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) shelf is an important source of dissolved iron (Fe) to the upper ocean in the southern Scotia Sea, one of the most productive regions of the Southern Ocean. Here we present results from a four-year (2003-2006) numerical simulation using a regional coupled physical-biogeochemical model to assess the Fe sources and transport on the AP shelf and toward the southern Scotia Sea. The model was validated with a suite of...

  • Ellen J.S, Graff C.A, Ohman MD.  2019.  Improving plankton image classification using context metadata. 17:439-461.
    Abstract Summary:

    Advances in both hardware and software are enabling rapid proliferation of in situ plankton imaging methods, requiring more effective machine learning approaches to image classification. Deep Learning methods, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), show marked improvement over traditional feature-based supervised machine learning algorithms, but require careful optimization of hyperparameters and adequate training sets. Here, we...

  • Prend C.J, Gille ST, Talley LD, Mitchell B.G, Rosso I., Mazloff MR.  2019.  Physical drivers of phytoplankton bloom initiation in the Southern Ocean's Scotia Sea. 124:5811-5826.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Scotia Sea is the site of one of the largest spring phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Past studies suggest that shelf-iron inputs are responsible for the high productivity in this region, but the physical mechanisms that initiate and sustain the bloom are not well understood. Analysis of profiling float data from 2002 to 2017 shows that the Scotia Sea has an unusually shallow mixed-layer depth during the transition from winter...

  • Sanz-Martin M., Vernet M, Cape M.R, Mesa E., Delgado-Huertas A., Reigstad M., Wassmann P., Duarte C.M.  2019.  Relationship between carbon- and oxygen-based primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean, Svalbard Archipelago. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton contribute half of the primary production (PP) in the biosphere and are the major source of energy for the Arctic Ocean ecosystem. While PP measurements are therefore fundamental to our understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling, the extent to which current methods provide a definitive estimate of this process remains uncertain given differences in their underlying approaches, and assumptions. This is especially the case in...

  • Chen Z., Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Lee W.S, Yun S., Olinger S.D, Aster R.C, Wiens D.A, Nyblade A.A.  2019.  Ross Ice shelf Icequakes Associated With Ocean Gravity Wave Activity. 46:8893-8902.
    Abstract Summary:

    Gravity waves impacting ice shelves illicit a suite of responses that can affect ice shelf integrity. Broadband seismometers deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, complemented by a near-icefront seafloor hydrophone, establish the association of strong icequake activity with ocean gravity wave amplitudes (A(G)) below 0.04 Hz. The Ross Ice Shelf-front seismic vertical displacement amplitudes (A(SV)) are well correlated with A(G), allowing estimating...

  • Ray R.D, Merrifield M.A.  2019.  The semiannual and 4.4-year modulations of extreme high tides. 124:5907-5922.
    Abstract Summary:

    In most places extreme high tides undergo a clear seasonal variation. It is well known that semidiurnal tides tend to peak during equinox seasons, and diurnals during solstice seasons. This is a consequence of the solar and lunar declinations, which when large maximize diurnal tides at the expense of semidiurnals. The semiannual range modulation of tidal extremes for a pure semidiurnal tide is determined mainly by the amplitude of the K-2...

  • Ludka B.C, Guza RT, O'Reilly W.C, Merrifield M.A, Flick RE, Bak A.S, Hesser T., Bucciarelli R., Olfe C., Woodward B. et al..  2019.  Sixteen years of bathymetry and waves at San Diego beaches. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Sustained, quantitative observations of nearshore waves and sand levels are essential for testing beach evolution models, but comprehensive datasets are relatively rare. We document beach profiles and concurrent waves monitored at three southern California beaches during 2001-2016. The beaches include offshore reefs, lagoon mouths, hard substrates, and cobble and sandy (medium-grained) sediments. The data span two energetic El Nino winters...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Valente A., Sathyendranath S., Brotas V., Groom S., Grant M., Taberner M., Antoine D., Arnone R., Balch W.M, Barker K. et al..  2019.  A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications - version two. 11:1037-1068.
    Abstract Summary:

    A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT and GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2018...

  • Kolody B.C, McCrow J.P, L. Allen Z, Aylward F.O, Fontanez K.M, Moustafa A., Moniruzzaman M., Chavez F.P, Scholin C.A, Allen EE et al..  2019.  Diel transcriptional response of a California Current plankton microbiome to light, low iron, and enduring viral infection.
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton and associated microbial communities provide organic carbon to oceanic food webs and drive ecosystem dynamics. However, capturing those dynamics is challenging. Here, an in situ, semi-Lagrangian, robotic sampler profiled pelagic microbes at 4 h intervals over ~2.6 days in North Pacific high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters. We report on the community structure and transcriptional dynamics of microbes in an operationally large...

  • Romero-Romero S., Choy C.A, Hannides C.CS, Popp BN, Drazen J.C.  2019.  Differences in the trophic ecology of micronekton driven by diel vertical migration. 64:1473-1483.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many species of micronekton perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs), which ultimately contributes to carbon export to the deep sea. However, not all micronekton species perform DVM, and the nonmigrators, which are often understudied, have different energetic requirements that might be reflected in their trophic ecology. We analyze bulk tissue and whole animal stable nitrogen isotopic compositions (delta N-15 values) of micronekton species...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) are considered hotspots of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the deep sea, but are also characterised by a high vulnerability to disturbance and a low recovery potential. Since 2006, a series of United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions have been developed, attempting to ensure the protection of VMEs in international waters. In the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) Regulatory...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Zooplankton are important consumers of sinking particles in the ocean's twilight zone. However, the impact of different taxa depends on their feeding mode. In contrast to typical suspension-feeding zooplankton, flux-feeding taxa preferentially consume rapidly sinking particles that would otherwise penetrate into the deep ocean. To quantify the potential impact of two flux-feeding zooplankton taxa [Aulosphaeridae (Rhizaria), and Limacina...

  • Kranzler CF, Krause JW, Brzezinski MA, Edwards BR, Biggs WP, Maniscalco M, McCrow JP, Van Mooy BAS, Bidle KD, Allen AE et al..  2019.  Silicon limitation facilitates virus infection and mortality of marine diatoms.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms are among the most globally distributed and ecologically successful organisms in the modern ocean, contributing upwards of 40% of total marine primary productivity1,2. By converting dissolved silicon into biogenic silica, and photosynthetically fixing carbon dioxide into particulate organic carbon, diatoms effectively couple the silicon (Si) and carbon cycles and ballast substantial vertical flux of carbon out of the euphotic zone...

  • Ponte R.M, Carson M., Cirano M., Domingues C.M, Jevrejeva S., Marcos M., Mitchum G., van de Wal R.SW, Woodworth P.L, Ablain M. et al..  2019.  Towards comprehensive observing and modeling systems for monitoring and predicting regional to coastal sea level. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    A major challenge for managing impacts and implementing effective mitigation measures and adaptation strategies for coastal zones affected by future sea level (SL) rise is our limited capacity to predict SL change at the coast on relevant spatial and temporal scales. Predicting coastal SL requires the ability to monitor and simulate a multitude of physical processes affecting SL, from local effects of wind waves and river runoff to remote...

  • Thompson C.F, Young A.P, Dickson M.E.  2019.  Wave impacts on coastal cliffs: Do bigger waves drive greater ground motion?
    Abstract Summary:

    Coastal cliff erosion is caused by a combination of marine forcing and sub-aerial processes, but linking cliff erosion to the environmental drivers remains challenging. One key component of these drivers is energy transfer from wave-cliff interaction. The aim of this study is to directly observe cliff ground motion in response to wave impacts at an individual wave scale. Measurements are described from two coastal cliff sites: a 45-minute...

  • Pearlman J., Bushnell M., Coppola L., Karstensen J, Buttigieg P.L, Pearlman F., Simpsons P., Barbier M., Muller-Karger F.E, Munoz-Mas C. et al..  2019.  Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet's ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies...

  • Sutherland K.M, Coe A., Gast R.J, Plummer S., Suffridge C.P, Diaz J.M, Bowman J.S, Wankel S.D, Hansel C.M.  Submitted.  Extracellular superoxide production by key microbes in the global ocean.
    Abstract Summary:

    Bacteria and eukaryotes produce the reactive oxygen species superoxide both within and outside the cell. Although superoxide is typically associated with the detrimental and sometimes fatal effects of oxidative stress, it has also been shown to be involved in a range of essential biochemical processes, including cell signaling, growth, differentiation, and defense. Light-independent extracellular superoxide production has been shown to be...

  • Lundesgaard O., Powell B., Merrifield M., Hahn-Woernle L., Winsor P..  2019.  Response of an Antarctic Peninsula fjord to summer katabatic wind events. 49:1485-1502.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fjords along the western Antarctic Peninsula are episodically exposed to strong winds flowing down marine-terminating glaciers and out over the ocean. These wind events could potentially be an important mechanism for the ventilation of fjord waters. A strong wind event was observed in Andvord Bay in December 2015, and was associated with significant increases in upper-ocean salinity. We examine the dynamical impacts of such wind events during...

  • Vittori G., Blondeaux P., Coco G., Guza RT.  2019.  Subharmonic edge wave excitation by narrow-band, random incident waves. 868
    Abstract Summary:

    A monochromatic, small amplitude, normally incident standing wave on a sloping beach is unstable to perturbation by subharmonic (half the frequency) edge waves. At equilibrium, edge wave shoreline amplitudes can exceed incident wave amplitudes. Here, the effect of incident wave randomness on subharmonic edge wave excitation is explored following a weakly nonlinear stability analysis under the assumption of narrow-band incident random waves....

  • Lu W.H, Cusack C., Baker M., Wang T., Chen M.B, Paige K., Zhang X.F, Levin L., Escobar E., Amon D. et al..  2019.  Successful blue economy examples with an emphasis on international perspectives. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Careful definition and illustrative case studies are fundamental work in developing a Blue Economy. As blue research expands with the world increasingly understanding its importance, policy makers and research institutions worldwide concerned with ocean and coastal regions are demanding further and improved analysis of the Blue Economy. Particularly, in terms of the management connotation, data access, monitoring, and product development,...

  • Choy C.A, Robison B.H, Gagne T.O, Erwin B., Firl E., Halden R.U, Hamilton J.A, Katija K., Lisin S.E, Rolsky C. et al..  2019.  The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Plastic waste has been documented in nearly all types of marine environments and has been found in species spanning all levels of marine food webs. Within these marine environments, deep pelagic waters encompass the largest ecosystems on Earth. We lack a comprehensive understanding of the concentrations, cycling, and fate of plastic waste in sub-surface waters, constraining our ability to implement effective, large-scale policy and...

  • Dorman C.E, Mejia J., Koracin D., McEvoy D..  2019.  World marine fog analysis based on 58-years of ship observations.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study presents the first global-scale comprehensive climatology of marine fog and is based on ICOADS ship present weather observations for the period 1950-2007. In general, the median marine fog occurrence away from the polar oceans is low (0.2%). Substantially greater marine fog occurrences are limited to four regions, not including the polar region. Fog occurrence maxima along the western side of the sub-polar ocean gyre occur during...

  • Svensen C., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Franze G., Dmoch K., Lavrentyev P.J, Kwasniewski S..  2019.  Zooplankton communities associated with new and regenerated primary production in the Atlantic inflow north of Svalbard. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly with respect to ice cover extent and volume, growth season duration and biological production. Zooplankton are important components in the arctic marine food web, and tightly coupled to the strong seasonality in primary production. In this study, we investigate zooplankton composition, including microzooplankton, copepod nauplii, as well as small and large copepod taxa, and primary productivity in the...

  • Cardenas P., Lange C.B, Vernet M, Esper O., Srain B., Vorrath M.E, Ehrhardt S., Muller J., Kuhn G., Arz H.W et al..  2019.  Biogeochemical proxies and diatoms in surface sediments across the Drake Passage reflect oceanic domains and frontal systems in the region. 174:72-88.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the world's largest current system connecting all major ocean basins of the global ocean. Its flow, driven by strong westerly winds, is constricted to its narrowest extent in the Drake Passage, located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Due to the remoteness of the area, harsh weather conditions and strong bottom currents, sediment recovery is difficult and data coverage is still inadequate...

  • de Morals M.G, de Morais E.G, Duarte J.H, Deamici K.M, Mitchell B.G, Costa J.AV.  2019.  Biological CO2 mitigation by microalgae: technological trends, future prospects and challenges. 35
    Abstract Summary:

    The increase in the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has been a topic of worldwide concern since anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases began increasing considerably during the industrial period. The effects of these mass emissions are probably the main cause of global warming, which has been observed over recent decades. Among the various techniques of CO2 capture, microalgal biofixation by photosynthesis is considered a...

  • Stukel M.R, Kelly T.B, Aluwihare LI, Barbeau K.A, Goericke R, Krause J.W, Landry MR, Ohman MD.  2019.  The Carbon:(234)Thorium ratios of sinking particles in the California current ecosystem 1: relationships with plankton ecosystem dynamics. Marine Chemistry. 212:1-15.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated variability in the C:Th-234 ratio of sinking particles and its relationship to changing water column characteristics and plankton ecological dynamics during 29 Lagrangian experiments conducted on six cruises of the California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program. C:Th-234 ratios of sinking particles collected by a surface-tethered sediment trap ((CThST)-Th-:234) varied from 2.3 to 20.5 mu mol C...

  • Broddrick J.T, Du N., Smith S.R, Tsuji Y., Jallet D., Ware M.A, Peers G., Matsuda Y., Dupont C.L, Mitchell B.G et al..  2019.  Cross-compartment metabolic coupling enables flexible photoprotective mechanisms in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. New Phytologist. 222:1364-1379.
    Abstract Summary:

    Photoacclimation consists of short- and long-term strategies used by photosynthetic organisms to adapt to dynamic light environments. Observable photophysiology changes resulting from these strategies have been used in coarse-grained models to predict light-dependent growth and photosynthetic rates. However, the contribution of the broader metabolic network, relevant to species-specific strategies and fitness, is not accounted for in these...

  • Hetherington E.D, Kurle C.M, Ohman MD, Popp BN.  2019.  Effects of chemical preservation on bulk and amino acid isotope ratios of zooplankton, fish, and squid tissues. 33:935-945.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rationale It is imperative to understand how chemical preservation alters tissue isotopic compositions before using historical samples in ecological studies. Specifically, although compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) is becoming a widely used tool, there is little information on how preservation techniques affect amino acid delta N-15 values. Methods We evaluated the effects of chemical preservatives on bulk tissue...

  • Eddebbar Y.A, Rodgers K.B, Long M.C, Subramanian AC, Xie SP, Keeling RF.  2019.  El Nino-like physical and biogeochemical ocean response to tropical eruptions. Journal of Climate. 32:2627-2649.
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceanic response to recent tropical eruptions is examined in Large Ensemble (LE) experiments from two fully coupled global climate models, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (ESM2M), each forced by a distinct volcanic forcing dataset. Following the simulated eruptions of Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo, the ocean loses heat and gains oxygen and carbon, in general...

  • Koslow JA, Davison P., Ferrer E., Rosenberg S, Aceves-Medina G., Watson W.  2019.  The evolving response of mesopelagic fishes to declining midwater oxygen concentrations in the southern and central California Current. 76:626-638.
    Abstract Summary:

    Declining oxygen concentrations in the deep ocean, particularly in areas with pronounced oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), are a growing global concern related to global climate change. Its potential impacts on marine life remain poorly understood. A previous study suggested that the abundance of a diverse suite of mesopelagic fishes off southern California was closely linked to trends in midwater oxygen concentration. This study expands the...

  • Olli K., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Lavrentyev P.J, Franze G., Sanz-Martin M., Paulsen M.L, Reigstad M..  2019.  Food web functions and interactions during spring and summer in the Arctic Water inflow region: Investigated through inverse modeling. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    We used inverse modeling to reconstruct major planktonic food web carbon flows in the Atlantic Water inflow, east and north of Svalbard during spring (18-25 May) and summer (9-13 August), 2014. The model was based on three intensively sampled stations during both periods, corresponding to early, peak, and decline phases of a Phaeocystis and diatom dominated bloom (May), and flagellates dominated post bloom stages (August). The food web carbon...

  • Young A.P, Carilli JE.  2019.  Global distribution of coastal cliffs. 44:1309-1316.
    Abstract Summary:

    Previous studies have estimated that coastal cliffs exist on about 80% of the global shoreline, but have not been validated on a global scale. This study uses two approaches to capture information on the worldwide existence and erosion of coastal cliffs: a detailed literature survey and imagery search, and a GIS-based global mapping analysis. The literature and imagery review show coastal cliffs exist in 93% of the combined recognized...

  • Levin L.A, Bett B.J, Gates A.R, Heimbach P., Howe B.M, Janssen F., McCurdy A., Ruhl H.A, Snelgrove P., Stocks K.I et al..  2019.  Global observing needs in the deep ocean. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean...

  • White-Gaynor A.L, Nyblade A.A, Aster R.C, Wiens D.A, Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Hansen S.E, Wilson T., Dalziel I.W et al..  2019.  Heterogeneous upper mantle structure beneath the Ross Sea Embayment and Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, revealed by P-wave tomography. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 513:40-50.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present an upper mantle P-wave velocity model for the Ross Sea Embayment (RSE) region of West Antarctica, constructed by inverting relative P-wave travel-times from 1881 teleseismic earthquakes recorded by two temporary broadband seismograph deployments on the Ross Ice Shelf, as well as by regional ice- and rock-sited seismic stations surrounding the RSE. Faster upper mantle P-wave velocities (similar to +1%) characterize the eastern part...

  • Anderson C.R, Berdalet E., Kudela R.M, Cusack C.K, Silke J., O'Rourke E., Dugan D., McCammon M., Newton J.A, Moore S.K et al..  2019.  Scaling up from regional case studies to a global Harmful Algal Bloom observing system. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) produce local impacts in nearly all freshwater and marine systems. They are a problem that occurs globally requiring an integrated and coordinated scientific understanding, leading to regional responses and solutions. Given that these natural phenomena will never be completely eliminated, an improved scientific understanding of HAB dynamics coupled with monitoring and ocean observations, facilitates new prediction...

  • Jagannathan A., Winters K., Armi L..  2019.  Stratified flows over and around long dynamically tall mountain ridges. 76:1265-1287.
    Abstract Summary:

    Uniformly stratified flows approaching long and dynamically tall ridges develop two distinct flow components over disparate time scales. The fluid upstream and below a "blocking level" is stagnant in the limit of an infinite ridge and flows around the sides when the ridge extent is finite. The streamwise half-width of the obstacle at the blocking level arises as a natural inner length scale for the flow, while the excursion time over this...

  • Lombard F., Boss E., Waite AM, Vogt M., Uitz J., Stemmann L., Sosik H.M, Schulz J., Romagnan J.B, Picheral M. et al..  2019.  Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general-and plankton in particular-in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and...

  • Gutierrez-Rodriguez A., Stukel M.R, Santos A.L dos, Biard T., Scharek R., Vaulot D., Landry MR, Not F..  2019.  High contribution of Rhizaria (Radiolaria) to vertical export in the California Current Ecosystem revealed by DNA metabarcoding. Isme Journal. 13:964-976.
    Abstract Summary:

    Passive sinking of particulate organic matter (POM) is the main mechanism through which the biological pump transports surface primary production to the ocean interior. However, the contribution and variability of different biological sources to vertical export is not fully understood. Here, we use DNA metabarcoding of the 18S rRNA gene and particle interceptor traps (PITs) to characterize the taxonomic composition of particles sinking out of...

  • Spydell M.S, Feddersen F, Suanda S..  2019.  Inhomogeneous turbulent dispersion across the nearshore induced by surfzone eddies. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 49:1015-1034.
    Abstract Summary:

    In various oceanic regions, drifter-derived diffusivities reach a temporal maximum and subsequently decrease. Often, these are regions of inhomogeneous eddies, however, the effect of inhomogeneous turbulence on dispersion is poorly understood. The nearshore region (spanning from the surfzone to the inner shelf) also has strong cross-shore inhomogeneous turbulence. Nearshore Lagrangian statistics are estimated from drifter trajectories...

  • Thompson P.R, Widlansky M.J, Merrifield M.A, Becker J.M, Marra J.J.  2019.  A statistical model for frequency of coastal flooding in Honolulu, Hawaii, during the 21st century. 124:2787-2802.
    Abstract Summary:

    The state of Hawaii and city of Honolulu experienced an unprecedented number of minor flooding episodes during 2017 due to the combination of seasonal high tides and record-high mean sea levels. To quantify the impact of sea level rise on the tendency for flooding events to cluster in future years, we developed a hierarchical statistical model describing the number of days per year for which sea level exceeds a prescribed threshold in...

  • Negrete-Garcia G., Lovenduski N.S, Hauri C., Krumhardt K.M, Lauvset S.K.  2019.  Sudden emergence of a shallow aragonite saturation horizon in the Southern Ocean. Nature Climate Change. 9:313-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Models project that with current CO2 emission rates, the Southern Ocean surface will be undersaturated with respect to aragonite by the end of this century(1-4). This will result in widespread impacts on biogeochemistry and ocean ecosystems(5-7), particularly the health of aragonitic organisms, such as pteropods(7), which can dominate polar surface water communities(6). Here, we quantify the depth of the present-day Southern Ocean aragonite...

  • Cape M.R, Vernet M, Pettit E.C, Wellner J., Truffer M., Akie G., Domack E., Leventer A., Smith C.R, Huber B.A.  2019.  Circumpolar deep water impacts glacial meltwater export and coastal biogeochemical cycling along the West Antarctic Peninsula. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Warming along the Antarctic Peninsula has led to an increase in the export of glacial meltwater to the coastal ocean. While observations to date suggest that this freshwater export acts as an important forcing on the marine ecosystem, the processes linking ice-ocean interactions to lower trophic-level growth, particularly in coastal bays and fjords, are poorly understood. Here, we identify salient hydrographic features in Barilari Bay, a west...

  • Landry MR, Beckley L.E, Muhling B.A.  2019.  Climate sensitivities and uncertainties in food-web pathways supporting larval bluefin tuna in subtropical oligotrophic oceans. Ices Journal of Marine Science. 76:359-369.
    Abstract Summary:

    Compared with high-latitude seas, the ecological implications of climate change for top consumers in subtropical regions are poorly understood. One critical area of knowledge deficiency is the nature of food-web connections to larvae during their vulnerable time in the plankton. Bluefin tuna (BFT) are highly migratory temperate species whose early life stages are spent in ultra-oligotrophic subtropical waters. Dietary studies of BFT larvae...

  • Kim S, Hammerstrom K, Dayton P..  2019.  Epifaunal community response to iceberg-mediated environmental change in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 613:1-14.
    Abstract Summary:

    High-latitude marine communities are dependent on sea ice patterns. Sea ice cover limits light, and hence primary production and food supply. Plankton, carried by currents from open water to areas under the sea ice, provides a transitory food resource that is spatially and temporally variable. We recorded epifaunal abundances at 17 sites in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, over 12 yr, and found differences in communities based on location and time...

  • Stark J.S, Peltzer E.T, Kline DI, Queiros A.M, Cox T.E, Headley K., Barry J, Gazeau F., Runcie J.W, Widdicombe S. et al..  2019.  Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) experiments: Scientific and technical recommendations for future in situ ocean acidification projects. Progress in Oceanography. 172:89-107.
    Abstract Summary:

    Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) experiments are a relatively recent development in ocean acidification research, designed to address the need for in situ, long-term, community level experiments. FOCE studies have been conducted across different marine benthic habitats and regions, from Antarctica to the tropics. Based on this previous research we have formed some core operating principles that will aid those embarking on future FOCE...

  • de Verneil A., Franks PJS, Ohman MD.  2019.  Frontogenesis and the creation of fine-scale vertical phytoplankton structure. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 124:1509-1523.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fine-scale spatial structuring of phytoplankton patches has significant consequences for the marine food web, from altering phytoplankton exposure to surface light and limiting nutrients, to influencing the foraging of zooplankton, modifying carbon export, and impacting patterns of diversity. Hence, it is important to identify these fine-scale features and determine what generates their variability. Here we present evidence of fine-scale,...

  • Decima M, Stukel M.R, Lopez-Lopez L., Landry MR.  2019.  The unique ecological role of pyrosomes in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. Limnology and Oceanography. 64:728-743.
    Abstract Summary:

    Pyrosomes are an important but often overlooked component of marine zooplankton communities, with limited existing information regarding their ecological and trophic roles in pelagic ecosystems. We present the first estimates of grazing and trophic interactions of the large tropical pyrosome, Pyrostremma spinosum, in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. While patchy in distribution, Pyrostremma spinosum's grazing impact was substantial, up to 17.5%...

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