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Recent Publications

  • Spackeen J.L, Sipler R.E, Bertrand E.M, Xu K., McQuaid J.B, Walworth N.G, Hutchins D.A, Allen A.E, Bronk D.A.  2019.  Impact of temperature, CO2, and iron on nutrient uptake by a late-season microbial community from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 82:145-159.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Southern Ocean is rapidly changing as a result of rising sea surface temperatures, elevated CO2 concentrations, and modifications to iron sources and sinks. The Southern Ocean has seasonally high rates of primary production, making it critical to determine how changes will impact biogeochemical rate processes in this important sink for CO2. During the austral summer, we measured nitrogen and carbon uptake rates by a late-season Ross Sea...

  • Stukel M.R, Biard T., Krause J., Ohman MD.  2018.  Large Phaeodaria in the twilight zone: Their role in the carbon cycle. Limnology and Oceanography. 63:2579-2594.
    Abstract Summary:

    Advances in in situ imaging allow enumeration of abundant populations of large Rhizarians that compose a substantial proportion of total mesozooplankton biovolume. Using a quasi-Lagrangian sampling scheme, we quantified the abundance, vertical distributions, and sinking-related mortality of Aulosphaeridae, an abundant family of Phaeodaria in the California Current Ecosystem. Inter-cruise variability was high, with average concentrations at...

  • Levy M., Franks PJS, Smith K.S.  2018.  The role of submesoscale currents in structuring marine ecosystems. Nature Communications. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    From microbes to large predators, there is increasing evidence that marine life is shaped by short-lived submesoscales currents that are difficult to observe, model, and explain theoretically. Whether and how these intense three-dimensional currents structure the productivity and diversity of marine ecosystems is a subject of active debate. Our synthesis of observations and models suggests that the shallow penetration of submesoscale vertical...

  • Van Oostende N., Dussin R., Stock C.A, Barton A.D, Curchitser E., Dunne J.P, Ward B.B.  2018.  Simulating the ocean's chlorophyll dynamic range from coastal upwelling to oligotrophy. Progress in Oceanography. 168:232-247.
    Abstract Summary:

    The measured concentration of chlorophyll a in the surface ocean spans four orders of magnitude, from similar to 0.01 mg m(-3) in the oligotrophic gyres to > 10 mg m(-3) in coastal zones. Productive regions encompass only a small fraction of the global ocean area yet they contribute disproportionately to marine resources and biogeo-chemical processes, such as fish catch and coastal hypoxia. These regions and/or the full observed range of...

  • Young AP, Flick RE, Gallien TW, Giddings SN, Guza RT, Harvey M., Lenain L, Ludka B.C, W. Melville K, O'Reilly W.C.  2018.  Southern California coastal response to the 2015–2016 El Niño. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface. 123:3069-3083.
    Abstract Summary:

    Widespread erosion associated with energetic waves of the strong 2015–2016 El Niño on the U.S. West Coast has been reported widely. However, Southern California was often sheltered from the northerly approach direction of the offshore waves. The few large swells that reached Southern California were not synchronous with the highest tides. Although west coast-wide tidal anomalies were relatively large in 2015–2016, in Southern California,...

  • Kelly T.B, Goericke R, Kahru M, Song H., Stukel M.R.  2018.  CCE II: Spatial and interannual variability in export efficiency and the biological pump in an eastern boundary current upwelling system with substantial lateral advection. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 140:14-25.
    Abstract Summary:
  • Highlighted Publication Chart superimposed on CCE-LTER photo of euphausiid
    Lilly L.E, Ohman MD.  2018.  CCE IV: El Nino-related zooplankton variability in the southern California Current System. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 140:36-51.
    Abstract Summary:

    We analyzed seven El Nino events (springs 1958-59, 1983, 1992-93, 1998, 2003, 2010, and 2016) and the 2014-15 Pacific Warm Anomaly (spring 2015) for their impacts on zooplankton biomass and community composition in the southern sector of the California Current System (CCS). Although total mesozooplankton carbon biomass was only modestly affected during El Nino springs, community composition changed substantially. Carbon biomass of five major...

  • Morrow R.M, Ohman MD, Goericke R, Kelly T.B, Stephens B.M, Stukel M.R.  2018.  CCE V: Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing, and the biological pump in the California Current Ecosystem: Variability and response to El Nino. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 140:52-62.
    Abstract Summary:

    Predicting marine carbon sequestration in a changing climate requires mechanistic understanding of the processes controlling sinking particle flux under different climatic conditions. The recent occurrence of a warm anomaly (2014-2015) followed by an El Nino (2015-2016) in the southern sector of the California Current System presented an opportunity to analyze changes in the biological carbon pump in response to altered climate forcing. We...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Oceanic fronts are sites of increased vertical exchange that are often associated with increased primary productivity, downward flux of organic carbon, and aggregation of plankton and higher trophic levels. Given the influence of fronts on the functioning of marine ecosystems, an improved understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of frontal activity is desirable. Here, we document changes in the frequency of sea-surface fronts and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We hypothesized that copepod egg production rates would be suppressed relative to their normal functional relationships with food availability during the NE Pacific warm anomalies of 2014-2015 and the El Nino event of 2015-2016. We also hypothesized that copepods would show increased rates of egg production and recruitment in association with ocean fronts. Three species of copepods (Calanus pacificus, Metridia pacifica, and Eucalanus...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Sinnett G., Feddersen F.  2018.  The competing effects of breaking waves on surfzone heat fluxes: Albedo versus wave heating. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:7172-7184.
    Abstract Summary:

    Depth-limited wave breaking modifies the heat flux in the surfzone relative to the inner-shelf (where waves are not breaking). Surfzone wave breaking generates heat through viscous dissipation (wave heating), but also increases surface foam coverage and albedo, thereby reducing solar heating, that is, cooling relative to the inner-shelf. These two competing breaking wave effects are quantified with a yearlong experiment at the Scripps...

  • Suanda S.H, Feddersen F, Spydell M.S, Kumar N..  2018.  The effect of barotropic and baroclinic tides on three-dimensional coastal dispersion. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:11235-11246.
    Abstract Summary:

    The effects of barotropic and baroclinic tides on three-dimensional (3-D) coastal dispersion are examined with realistic, 200-m horizontal resolution simulations of the Central Californian continental shelf during upwelling. Over multiple tidal cycles, the horizontal relative dispersion and vertical dispersion of 3-D drifters are similar between simulations with no tides and with barotropic tides. In contrast, baroclinic tides, which...

  • Venturelli R.A, Rathburn A.E, Burkett A.M, Ziebis W..  2018.  Epifaunal foraminifera in an infaunal world: Insights into the influence of heterogeneity on the benthic ecology of oxygen-poor, deep-sea habitats. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    A reduction in dissolved oxygen availability in marine habitats is among the predicted consequences of increasing global temperatures. An understanding of past oxygenation is critical for predictions of future changes in the extent and distribution of oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Benthic foraminifera have been used to assess changes in paleo-oxygenation, and according to prevailing thought, oxygen-poor marine benthic habitats are dominated by...

  • Koweek D.A, Zimmerman R.C, Hewett K.M, Gaylord B., Giddings S.N, Nickols K.J, Ruesink J.L, Stachowicz J.J, Takeshita Y, Caldeira K..  2018.  Expected limits on the ocean acidification buffering potential of a temperate seagrass meadow. Ecological Applications. 28:1694-1714.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean acidification threatens many marine organisms, especially marine calcifiers. The only global-scale solution to ocean acidification remains rapid reduction in CO2 emissions. Nevertheless, interest in localized mitigation strategies has grown rapidly because of the recognized threat ocean acidification imposes on natural communities, including ones important to humans. Protection of seagrass meadows has been considered as a possible...

  • Chaput J., Aster R.C, McGrath D., Baker M., Anthony R.E, Gerstoft P, Bromirski P., Nyblade A., Stephen R.A, Wiens D.A et al..  2018.  Near-surface environmentally forced changes in the Ross Ice Shelf observed with ambient seismic noise. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:11187-11196.
    Abstract Summary:

    Continuous seismic observations across the Ross Ice Shelf reveal ubiquitous ambient resonances at frequencies >5 Hz. These firn-trapped surface wave signals arise through wind and snow bedform interactions coupled with very low velocity structures. Progressive and long-term spectral changes are associated with surface snow redistribution by wind and with a January 2016 regional melt event. Modeling demonstrates high spectral sensitivity to...

  • Fleming A.H, Yack T., Redfern JV, Becker EA, Moore TJ, Barlow J.  2018.  Combining acoustic and visual detections in habitat models of Dall's porpoise. Ecological Modelling. 384:198-208.
    Abstract Summary:

    Habitat-based distribution modelling is an established method for predicting species distributions and is necessary for many conservation and management applications. Cetacean habitat models have primarily been developed using data from visual surveys. However, numerous techniques exist for detecting animal presence and each capture a portion of the true population. Combining detection data gathered from multiple survey methods, such as...

  • Shen W.S, Wiens D.A, Anandakrishnan S., Aster R.C, Gerstoft P, Bromirski PD, Hansen S.E, Dalziel I.WD, Heeszel D.S, Huerta A.D et al..  2018.  The crust and upper mantle structure of central and west Antarctica from bayesian inversion of rayleigh wave and receiver functions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:7824-7849.
    Abstract Summary:

    We construct a new seismic model for central and West Antarctica by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities along with P wave receiver functions. Ambient noise tomography exploiting data from more than 200 seismic stations deployed over the past 18years is used to construct Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion maps. Comparison between the ambient noise phase velocity maps with those constructed using...

  • Keen E.M, Wray J., Pilkington JF, Thompson K.L, Picard C.R.  2018.  Distinct habitat use strategies of sympatric rorqual whales within a fjord system. Marine Environmental Research. 140:180-189.
    Abstract Summary:

    We used ecosystem sampling during systematic surveys and opportunistic focal follows, comparison tests, and random forest models to evaluate fin whale (Balaenoptera physallts) and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeonglicte)habitat associations within an inland feeding ground (Kitimat Fjord System, British Columbia, Canada). Though these species are sympatric and share a common prey source, they were attuned to different aspects of the local...

  • Murik O, Tirichine L, Prihoda J, Thomas Y, Araújo WL, Allen AE, Fernie AR, Bowler C.  2018.  Downregulation of mitochondrial alternative oxidase affects chloroplast function, redox status and stress response in a marine diatom. New Phytologist.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms dominance in contemporary aquatic environments indicates that they have developed unique and effective mechanisms to cope with the rapid and considerable fluctuations that characterize these environments. In view of their evolutionary history from a secondary endosymbiosis, inter-organellar regulation of biochemical activities may be of particular relevance. Diatom mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is believed to play a...

  • Pethybridge H., Choy C.A, Logan J.M, Allain V., Lorrain A., Bodin N., Somes C.J, Young J., Menard F., Langlais C. et al..  2018.  A global meta-analysis of marine predator nitrogen stable isotopes: Relationships between trophic structure and environmental conditions. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 27:1043-1055.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aim We examined potential environmental drivers of broad-scale spatial patterns in the trophic structure of marine ecosystems as represented by nitrogen stable isotopes in globally distributed marine predators. Additionally, we assessed the effects of spatial scale on the predictive capabilities of environmental variables. LocationTime periodGlobal oceans. 2000 to 2015. Major taxa studiedMethodsTunas: Thunnus albacares, Thunnus obesus,...

  • Aburto-Oropeza O, Johnson A.F, Agha M., Allen E.B, Allen M.F, Gonzalez J.A, Moreno D.MA, Beas-Luna R., Butterfield S., Caetano G. et al..  2018.  Harnessing cross-border resources to confront climate change. Environmental Science & Policy. 87:128-132.
    Abstract Summary:

    The US and Mexico share a common history in many areas, including language and culture. They face ecological changes due to the increased frequency and severity of droughts and rising energy demands; trends that entail economic costs for both nations and major implications for human wellbeing. We describe an ongoing effort by the Environment Working Group (EWG), created by The University of California's UC-Mexico initiative in 2015, to...

  • Highlighted Publication Sampling nets photographed from under water
    McClatchie S., Gao J., Drenkard E.J, Thompson A.R, Watson W, Ciannelli L., Bograd SJ, Thorson J.T.  2018.  Interannual and secular variability of larvae of mesopelagic and forage fishes in the southern California Current System. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:6277-6295.
    Abstract Summary:

    We used univariate and multivariate spatiotemporal delta models to quantify changes in the distribution of ichthyoplankton in the southern California Current System from 1951 to 2016. We focus on mesopelagic species, because they are most abundant, and on northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), because they are important commercial and forage fish species. Univariate...

  • Luo M., Algeo T.J, Tong H.P, Gieskes J., Chen L.Y, Shi X.F, Chen D.F.  2018.  More reducing bottom-water redox conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern Challenger Deep (Mariana Trench, western Pacific) driven by enhanced productivity. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 155:70-82.
    Abstract Summary:

    The modern southern Mariana Trench is characterized by oligotrophic surface waters, resulting in low primary productivity and well-oxygenated bottom waters. This study investigates changes in the redox conditions of bottom waters in the southern Mariana Trench during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and their potential causes. We measured major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in three gravity cores (GC03, GC04, and GC05) and one box core...

  • Siegelman-Charbit L., Koslow JA, Jacox M.G, Hazen E.L, Bograd SJ, Miller E.F.  2018.  Physical forcing on fish abundance in the southern California Current System. Fisheries Oceanography. 27:475-488.
    Abstract Summary:

    The California Current System (CCS) is an eastern boundary current system with strong biological productivity largely due to seasonal wind-driven upwelling and transport of the California Current (CC). Two independent, yet complementary time series, CalCOFI ichthyoplankton surveys and sampling of southern California power plant cooling-water intakes, have indicated that an assemblage of predominantly cool-water affinity fishes spanning...

  • Matsumoto H, Young A.  2018.  Automated cobble mapping of a mixed sand-cobble beach using a mobile LiDAR system. Remote Sensing. 10:1253.
    Abstract Summary:

    Cobbles (64–256 mm) are found on beaches throughout the world, influence beach morphology, and can provide shoreline stability. Detailed, frequent, and spatially large-scale quantitative cobble observations at beaches are vital toward a better understanding of sand-cobble beach systems. This study used a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial LiDAR system and a raster-based classification approach to map cobbles automatically. Rasters of LiDAR...

  • Bender S.J, Moran D.M, McIlvin M.R, Zheng H., McCrow J.P, Badger J., DiTullio G.R, Allen A.E, Saito M.A.  2018.  Colony formation in Phaeocystis antarctica: connecting molecular mechanisms with iron biogeochemistry. Biogeosciences. 15:4923-4942.
    Abstract Summary:

    Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phytoplankter of the Ross Sea where it dominates the early season bloom after sea ice retreat and is a major contributor to carbon export. The factors that influence Phaeocystis colony formation and the resultant Ross Sea bloom initiation have been of great scientific interest, yet there is little known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for these phenomena. Here, we present laboratory and field...

  • Wing S.R, Leichter J.J, Wing L.C, Stokes D., Genovese S.J, McMullin R.M, Shatova O.A.  2018.  Contribution of sea ice microbial production to Antarctic benthic communities is driven by sea ice dynamics and composition of functional guilds. Global Change Biology. 24:3642-3653.
    Abstract Summary:

    Organic matter produced by the sea ice microbial community (SIMCo) is an important link between sea ice dynamics and secondary production in near-shore food webs of Antarctica. Sea ice conditions in McMurdo Sound were quantified from time series of MODIS satellite images for Sept. 1 through Feb. 28 of 2007-2015. A predictable sea ice persistence gradient along the length of the Sound and evidence for a distinct change in sea ice dynamics in...

  • Edmunds P.J, McIlroy S.E, Adjeroud M., Ang P., Bergman J.L, Carpenter R.C, Coffroth M.A, Fujimura A.G, Hench J.L, Holbrook S.J et al..  2018.  Critical information gaps impeding understanding of the role of larval connectivity among coral reef islands in an era of global change. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Populations of marine organisms on coral reef islands (CRI) are connected in space and time by seawater that transports propagules of plants, animals, and algae. Yet, despite this reality, it is often assumed that routine replenishment of populations of marine organisms on CRI is supported by locally-sourced propagules (hereafter, larvae). Following large disturbances, however, distantly-sourced larvae from less disturbed CRI within a...

  • Navarro M.O, Parnell P.E, Levin L.A.  2018.  Essential market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) embryo habitat: A baseline for anticipated ocean climate change. Journal of Shellfish Research. 37:601-614.
    Abstract Summary:

    The market squid Doryteuthis opalescens deposits embryo capsules onto the continental shelf from Baja California to southern Alaska, yet little is known about the environment of embryo habitat. This study provides a baseline of environmental data and insights on factors underlying site selection for embryo deposition off southern California, and defines current essential embryo habitat using (1) remotely operated vehicle-supported surveys of...

  • Sathasivam R., Guo R., Wang H, Lim W.A, Ki J.S.  2018.  Expressed sequence tag library of the marine green alga Tetraselmis suecica: a focus on stress-related genes for marine pollution. Journal of Applied Phycology. 30:2387-2402.
    Abstract Summary:

    The marine green microalga, Tetraselmis suecica, is an important food source for aquaculture, lipid source for biofuel production, and a potential model organism for toxicity assays because of its rapid growth and ability to produce useful chemicals. In order to gain molecular toxicogenomic insights, we determined expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of T. suecica by pyrosequencing, and attained 741 K reads, including 290 Mb of cDNA information....

  • Schlitzer R., Anderson R.F, Dodas E.M, Lohan M., Geibere W., Tagliabue A., Bowie A., Jeandel C., Maldonado M.T, Landing W.M et al..  2018.  The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017. Chemical Geology. 493:210-223.
    Abstract Summary:

    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical...

  • Cazenave A., Meyssignac B., Ablain M., Balmaseda M., Bamber J., Barletta V., Beckley B., Benveniste J., Berthier E, Blazquez A. et al..  2018.  Global sea-level budget 1993-present. Earth System Science Data. 10:1551-1590.
    Abstract Summary:

    Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g.,acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly known contributions, such as the unsurveyed deep ocean or the still uncertain land water...

  • Ashford O.S, Kenny A.J, Frojan C, Bonsall M.B, Horton T., Brandt A., Bird G.J, Gerken S., Rogers A.D.  2018.  Phylogenetic and functional evidence suggests that deep-ocean ecosystems are highly sensitive to environmental change and direct human disturbance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 285
    Abstract Summary:

    An understanding of the balance of interspecific competition and the physical environment in structuring organismal communities is crucial because those communities structured primarily by their physical environment typically exhibit greater sensitivity to environmental change than those structured predominantly by competitive interactions. Here, using detailed phylogenetic and functional information, we investigate this question in...

  • Sato K.N, Andersson AJ, Day JMD, Taylor J.RA, Frank M.B, Jung J.Y, McKittrick J., Levin L.A.  2018.  Response of sea urchin fitness traits to environmental gradients across the Southern California oxygen minimum zone. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine calcifiers are considered to be among the most vulnerable taxa to climate-forced environmental changes occurring on continental margins with effects hypothesized to occur on microstructural, biomechanical, and geochemical properties of carbonate structures. Natural gradients in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and pH on an upwelling margin combined with the broad depth distribution (100-1,100 m) of the pink fragile sea urchin,...

  • Rosencranz J.A, Thorne K.M, Buffington K.J, Takekawa J.Y, Hechinger R.F, Stewart T.E, Ambrose R.F, MacDonald G.M, Holmgren M.A, Crooks J.A et al..  2018.  Sea-level rise, habitat loss, and potential extirpation of a salt marsh specialist bird in urbanized landscapes. Ecology and Evolution. 8:8115-8125.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sea-level rise (SLR) impacts on intertidal habitat depend on coastal topology, accretion, and constraints from surrounding development. Such habitat changes might affect species like Belding's savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi; BSSP), which live in high-elevation salt marsh in the Southern California Bight. To predict how BSSP habitat might change under various SLR scenarios, we first constructed a suitability model by...

  • Spackeen JL, Bronk DA, Sipler RE, Bertrand EM, Hutchins DA, Allen AE.  2018.  Stoichiometric N:P Ratios, Temperature, and Iron Impact Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake by Ross Sea Microbial Communities. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.
    Abstract Summary:

    APhytoplankton growth in the seasonally productive Southern Ocean is typically limited by iron (Fe). In the next century, however, Fe inputs and temperature are predicted to increase. Dissolved concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) may also change due to physical and biological drivers, altering the stoichiometric N:P ratio of the water column. Two separate experiments were conducted to study how these predicted changes will...

  • McGinty N., Barton A.D, Record N.R, Finkel Z.V, Irwin A.J.  2018.  Traits structure copepod niches in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:109-126.
    Abstract Summary:

    Realised niches describe the environmental and biotic conditions that a species occupies. Among marine zooplankton, species traits, including body size, dietary mode (herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore), and diapause strategy are expected to influence the realised niche of a species. To date, realised niches are known for only a small number of copepod species. Here we quantify the realised niches of 88 copepod species measured by the...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Chenillat F, Franks PJS, Capet X, Riviere P, Grima N., Blanke B, Combes V.  2018.  Eddy properties in the Southern California Current System. Ocean Dynamics. 68:761-777.
    Abstract Summary:

    The California Current System (CCS) is an eastern boundary upwelling system characterized by strong eddies that are often generated at the coast. These eddies contribute to intense, long-distance cross-shelf transport of upwelled water with enhanced biological activity. However, the mechanisms of formation of such coastal eddies, and more importantly their capacity to trap and transport tracers, are poorly understood. Their unpredictability...

  • Merrifield M.A, Thompson P.R.  2018.  Interdecadal sea level variations in the pacific: Distinctions between the tropics and extratropics. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:6604-6610.
    Abstract Summary:

    Long tide gauge records from Fremantle and San Diego are used to examine interdecadal sea level fluctuations and their relationship to Pacific climate variability. The sea level difference between the tide gauges and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) provide a consistent depiction of trade wind variations along the equator over the past century. The sea level difference and SOI exhibit weak interdecadal variability prior to the late 1970s...

  • Collins J.R, Fredricks H.F, Bowman J.S, Ward C.P, Moreno C., Longnecker K., Marchetti A., Hansel C.M, Ducklow H.W, Van Mooy B.AS.  2018.  The molecular products and biogeochemical significance of lipid photooxidation in West Antarctic surface waters. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 232:244-264.
    Abstract Summary:

    The seasonal depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Southern Hemisphere allows abnormally high doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to reach surface waters of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) in the austral spring, creating a natural laboratory for the study of lipid photooxidation in the shallow mixed layer of the marginal ice zone. The photooxidation of lipids under such conditions has been identified as a significant source of stress...

  • Bowman J.S, Kavanaugh M.T, Doney SC, Ducklow H.W.  2018.  Recurrent seascape units identify key ecological processes along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Global Change Biology. 24:3065-3078.
    Abstract Summary:

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a bellwether of global climate change and natural laboratory for identifying interactions between climate and ecosystems. The Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) project has collected data on key ecological and environmental processes along the WAP since 1993. To better understand how key ecological parameters are changing across space and time, we developed a novel seascape classification...

  • Dunn D.C, Van Dover C.L, Etter R.J, Smith C.R, Levin L.A, Morato T., Colaco A., Dale A.C, Gebruk A.V, Gjerde K.M et al..  2018.  A strategy for the conservation of biodiversity on mid-ocean ridges from deep-sea mining. Science Advances. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Mineral exploitation has spread from land to shallow coastal waters and is now planned for the offshore, deep seabed. Large seafloor areas are being approved for exploration for seafloor mineral deposits, creating an urgent need for regional environmental management plans. Networks of areas where mining and mining impacts are prohibited are key elements of these plans. We adapt marine reserve design principles to the distinctive biophysical...

  • Miloslavich P., Bax N.J, Simmons S.E, Klein E., Appeltans W., Aburto-Oropeza O, Garcia M.A, Batten S.D, Benedetti-Cecchi L., Checkley DM et al..  2018.  Essential ocean variables for global sustained observations of biodiversity and ecosystem changes. Global Change Biology. 24:2416-2433.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sustained observations of marine biodiversity and ecosystems focused on specific conservation and management problems are needed around the world to effectively mitigate or manage changes resulting from anthropogenic pressures. These observations, while complex and expensive, are required by the international scientific, governance and policy communities to provide baselines against which the effects of human pressures and climate change may...

  • Cefarelli AO, Mascioni M., Simonato J., Almandoz GO, Vernet M.  2018.  Haslea crucigeroides var. australis, var. nov. (Bacillariophyta), a new marine diatom from southern South America and Antarctica. 357:179-188.
    Abstract Summary:

    A new variety of the marine diatom Haslea crucigeroides, H. crucigeroides var. australis, var. nov., is described here based on phytoplankton samples collected in sub-Antarctic coastal waters of the southern South America and Antarctica. The new taxon was characterized by using light and electron microscopy, and the holotype of H. crucigeroides, the only existing material type, was analyzed with light microscopy. Haslea crucigeroides var....

  • Abstract Summary:

    This work developed a laboratory prototype methodology for cost-effective, water-sparing drip-irrigation of seaweeds, as a model for larger-scale, on-land commercial units, which we envision as semi-automated, inexpensive polyethylene sheet-covered bow-framed greenhouses with sloping plastic covered floors, water-collecting sumps, and pumped recycling of culture media into overhead low-pressure drip emitters. Water droplets form on the...

  • Cohen R.E, James C.C, Lee A., Martinelli M.M, Muraoka W.T, Ortega M., Sadowski R., Starkey L., Szesciorka A.R, Timko S.E et al..  2018.  Marine host-pathogen dynamics: Influences of global climate change. Oceanography. 31:182-193.
    Abstract Summary:

    Host-pathogen relationships are an important subset of interspecies interactions that are capable of influencing population dynamics, community structure, and biogeochemical cycles. Relationships between hosts and pathogens are expected to shift in response to global climate change. Atmospheric and oceanic warming is already affecting many ecosystems, perhaps most markedly those in marine environments. Case studies illustrate some impacts...

  • Rathburn A.E, Willingham J., Ziebis W., Burkett A.M, Corliss B.H.  2018.  A new biological proxy for deep-sea paleo-oxygen: Pores of epifaunal benthic foraminifera. Scientific Reports. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    The negative consequences of fossil fuel burning for the oceans will likely include warming, acidification and deoxygenation, yet predicting future deoxygenation is difficult. Sensitive proxies for oxygen concentrations in ancient deep-ocean bottom-waters are needed to learn from patterns of marine deoxygenation during global warming conditions in the geological past. Understanding of past oxygenation effects related to climate change will...

  • Ludka B.C, Guza RT, O'Reilly W.C.  2018.  Nourishment evolution and impacts at four southern California beaches: A sand volume analysis. Coastal Engineering. 136:96-105.
    Abstract Summary:

    Four southern California beaches were nourished with offshore sand placed as subaerial pads several meters thick, m wide, and spanning between 500 and 1500 m alongshore. Three nourishments constructed with coarser than native sand, placed in 2012 at Imperial, Cardiff and Solana Beaches, elevated subaerial sand volumes for several years even when exposed to the energetic winter waves of the 2015-16 El Nifio, followed by a stormy 2016-17 winter...

  • Randelhoff A., Reigstad M., Chierici M., Sundfjord A., Ivanov V., Cape M, Vernet M, Tremblay J.E, Bratbak G., Kristiansen S..  2018.  Seasonality of the physical and biogeochemical hydrography in the inflow to the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Eastern Fram Strait and the shelf slope region north of Svalbard is dominated by the advection of warm, salty and nutrient-rich Atlantic Water (AW). This oceanic heat contributes to keeping the area relatively free of ice. The last years have seen a dramatic decrease in regional sea ice extent, which is expected to drive large increases in pelagic primary production and thereby changes in marine ecology and nutrient cycling. In a concerted...

  • Huang X., Rippy MA, Mehring A.S, Winfrey B.K, Jiang S.C, Grant S.B.  2018.  Shifts in dissolved organic matter and microbial community composition are associated with enhanced removal of fecal pollutants in urban stormwater wetlands. Water Research. 137:310-323.
    Abstract Summary:

    Constructed stormwater wetlands provide a host of ecosystem services, including potentially pathogen removal. We present results from a multi-wetland study that integrates across weather, chemical, microbiological and engineering design variables in order to identify patterns of microbial contaminant removal from inlet to outlet within wetlands and key drivers of those patterns. One or more microbial contaminants were detected at the inlet of...

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