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Recent Publications

  • Ludka B.C, Gallien T.W, Crosby S.C, Guza RT.  2016.  Mid-El Nino erosion at nourished and unnourished Southern California beaches. Geophysical Research Letters. 43:4510-4516.
    Abstract Summary:

    Wave conditions in Southern California during the 2015-2016 El Nino were similar to the 2009-2010 El Nino, previously the most erosive (minimum beach widths and subaerial sand levels) in a 7 year record. As of February 2016, Torrey Pines Beach had eroded slightly below 2009-2010 levels, threatening the shoulder of a major highway. However, Cardiff, Solana, and Imperial Beaches, nourished with imported sand in 2012, were on average 1-2 m more...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We tested for depth-dependent vertical zonation in coral reef community structure with surveys conducted in 2013 at 10 m and 27 m depth off the islands of Moorea, Tahiti, Maiao, and Tetiaroa, which are distributed over similar to 3500 km(2) of the tropical south Pacific. Benthic communities were censused using photoquadrats to obtain percentage cover, first by functional groups (scleractinians, macroalgae, and crustose coralline algae, algal...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Flood extent field observations collected during a winter storm (Hs∼1.8 m, Tp∼14 s) coinciding with a spring high tide are used to evaluate the accuracy of static (‘bathtub’) and hydrodynamic coastal flood modeling methodologies. Static models rely on empirically calculated wave setup or runup and simply compare total water level (TWL) to land elevation. The dynamic model resolves temporally variable overtopping rates, overland flow, urban...

  • Moseman-Valtierra S., Levin L.A, Martin R.M.  2016.  Anthropogenic impacts on nitrogen fixation rates between restored and natural Mediterranean salt marshes. Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective. 37:370-379.
    Abstract Summary:

    To test the effects of site and successional stage on nitrogen fixation rates in salt marshes of the Venice Lagoon, Italy, acetylene reduction assays were performed with Salicornia veneta- and Spartina townsendii-vegetated sediments from three restored (6-14years) and two natural marshes. Average nitrogen fixation (acetylene reduction) rates ranged from 31 to 343 mu mol C2H4.m(-2.)h(-1) among all marshes, with the greatest average rates being...

  • Highlighted Publication A pelagic polychaete annelid called Alciope. Photo by Greg Rouse.
    Sperling EA, Frieder CA, Levin LA.  2016.  Biodiversity response to natural gradients of multiple stressors on continental margins. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 283
    Abstract Summary:

    Sharp increases in atmospheric CO2 are resulting in ocean warming, acidification and deoxygenation that threaten marine organisms on continental margins and their ecological functions and resulting ecosystem services. The relative influence of these stressors on biodiversity remains unclear, as well as the threshold levels for change and when secondary stressors become important. One strategy to interpret adaptation potential and predict...

  • Kahru M, Elmgren R., Savchuk O.P.  2016.  Changing seasonality of the Baltic Sea. Biogeosciences. 13:1009-1018.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changes in the phenology of physical and ecological variables associated with climate change are likely to have significant effect on many aspects of the Baltic ecosystem. We apply a set of phenological indicators to multiple environmental variables measured by satellite sensors for 17-36 years to detect possible changes in the seasonality in the Baltic Sea environment. We detect significant temporal changes, such as earlier start of the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The statistics of liquid-to-crystal nucleation are measured for both water and for clathrate-forming mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and water using an automatic lag time apparatus (ALTA). We measure the nucleation temperature using this apparatus in which a single sample is repeatedly cooled, nucleated and thawed. The effect of stirring on nucleation has been evaluated numerically and is discussed. We find that stirring of the solution...

  • MacTavish A.L, Ladah L.B, Lavin M.F, Filonov A., Tapia F.J, Leichter J..  2016.  High frequency (hourly) variation in vertical distribution and abundance of meroplanktonic larvae in nearshore waters during strong internal tidal forcing. Continental Shelf Research. 117:92-99.
    Abstract Summary:

    We related the vertical distribution and abundance of nearshore meroplankton at hourly time scales with internal tidal wave events. We proposed that significant changes in plankter abundance would occur across internal tidal fronts, and that surface and bottom strata would respond in opposite fashions. First mode internal tidal bores propagating in the alongshore direction were detected in water-column currents and baroclinic temperature...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Combining gut content analysis and sampling of ambient zooplankton, we examine departures from random feeding in a planktivorous coral reef fish and explore the effects of apparent non-random feeding behavior on the relative contribution of oceanic versus reef-associated zooplankton to fish diet. The planktivorous damselfish Dascyllus flavicaudus appears to exhibit strong positive electivity for oceanic copepods including Candacia spp. and...

  • Bryk T., Haymet A.DJ.  2016.  Profiles of electrostatic potential across the water-vapor, ice-vapor and ice-water interfaces. Condensed Matter Physics. 19
    Abstract Summary:

    Ice-water, water-vapor interfaces and ice surface are studied by molecular dynamics simulations with the SPC/E model of water molecules having the purpose to estimate the profiles of electrostatic potential across the interfaces. We have proposed a methodology for calculating the profiles of electrostatic potential based on a trial particle, which showed good agreement for the case of electrostatic potential profile of the water-vapor...

  • Winters KB.  2016.  The turbulent transition of a supercritical downslope flow: sensitivity to downstream conditions. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 792:997-1012.
    Abstract Summary:

    Blocked, continuously stratified, crest-controlled flows have hydraulically supercritical downslope flow in the lee of a ridge-like obstacle. The downslope flow separates from the obstacle and, depending on conditions further downstream, transitions to a subcritical state. A controlled, stratified overflow and its transition to a subcritical state are investigated here in a set of three-dimensional numerical experiments in which the height of...

  • Barton A.D, Irwin A.J, Finkel Z.V, Stock C.A.  2016.  Anthropogenic climate change drives shift and shuffle in North Atlantic phytoplankton communities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113:2964-2969.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic climate change has shifted the biogeography and phenology of many terrestrial and marine species. Marine phytoplankton communities appear sensitive to climate change, yet understanding of how individual species may respond to anthropogenic climate change remains limited. Here, using historical environmental and phytoplankton observations, we characterize the realized ecological niches for 87 North Atlantic diatom and...

  • Highlighted Publication Cruise overview. Upper left panel shows CRD study region in the Eastern Tropical Pacific.
    Stukel M.R, Benitez-Nelson C.R, Decima M, Taylor A.G, Buchwald C., Landry MR.  2016.  The biological pump in the Costa Rica Dome: an open-ocean upwelling system with high new production and low export. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:348-365.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Costa Rica Dome is a picophytoplankton-dominated, open-ocean upwelling system in the Eastern Tropical Pacific that overlies the ocean's largest oxygen minimum zone. To investigate the efficiency of the biological pump in this unique area, we used shallow (90-150 m) drifting sediment traps and Th-234: U-238 deficiency measurements to determine export fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in sinking particles. Simultaneous measurements...

  • Goes J.I, Gomes H.D, Selph K.E, Landry MR.  2016.  Biological response of Costa Rica Dome phytoplankton to Light, Silicic acid and Trace metals. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:290-304.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) is a unique open-ocean upwelling system, with picophytoplankton dominance of phytoplankton biomass and suppressed diatoms, yet paradoxically high export of biogenic silica. As a part of Flux and Zinc Experiments cruise in summer (June-July 2010), we conducted shipboard incubation experiments in the CRD to examine the potential roles of Si, Zn, Fe and light as regulating factors of phytoplankton biomass and community...

  • Freibott A., Taylor A.G, Selph K.E, Liu H.B, Zhang W.C, Landry MR.  2016.  Biomass and composition of protistan grazers and heterotrophic bacteria in the Costa Rica Dome during summer 2010. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:230-243.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated biomass and composition of heterotrophic microbes in the Costa Rica Dome during June-July 2010 as part of a broader study of plankton trophic dynamics. Because picophytoplankton (, 2 mm) are known to dominate in this unique upwelling region, we hypothesized tight biomass relationships between size-determined predator-prey pairs (i.e. picoplankton-nano-grazers, nanoplankton-micro-grazers) within the microbial community....

  • Sahoo GB, Forrest A.L, Schladow SG, Reuter JE, Coats R, Dettinger M.  2016.  Climate change impacts on lake thermal dynamics and ecosystem vulnerabilities. Limnology and Oceanography. 61:496-507.
    Abstract Summary:

    Using water column temperature records collected since 1968, we analyzed the impacts of climate change on thermal properties, stability intensity, length of stratification, and deep mixing dynamics of Lake Tahoe using a modified stability index (SI). This new SI is easier to produce and is a more informative measure of deep lake stability than commonly used stability indices. The annual average SI increased at 16.62 kg/m(2)/decade although...

  • Edmunds P.J, Leichter J.J, Johnston E.C, Tong E.J, Toonen RJ.  2016.  Ecological and genetic variation in reef-building corals on four Society Islands. Limnology and Oceanography. 61:543-557.
    Abstract Summary:

    We quantified benthic community structure on shallow (10 m isobath) reefs separated by 3-130 km on four islands in the south Pacific, and evaluated the roles of disturbances vs. coral recruitment as causes of spatial heterogeneity. Reefs were surveyed in 2013 on Moorea, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, and Maiao, with community structure sampled at two sites on each island using photoquadrats. The effects of coral recruitment on population structure were...

  • Baines S.B, Chen X., Twining B.S, Fisher NS, Landry MR.  2016.  Factors affecting Fe and Zn contents of mesozooplankton from the Costa Rica Dome. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:331-347.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mineral limitation of mesozooplankton production is possible in waters with low trace metal availability. As a step toward estimating mesozooplankton Fe and Zn requirements under such conditions, we measured tissue concentrations of major and trace nutrient elements within size-fractioned zooplankton samples collected in and around the Costa Rica Upwelling Dome, a region where phytoplankton growth may be co-limited by Zn and Fe. The geometric...

  • Beijbom O, Treibitz T, Kline DI, Eyal G, Khen A, Neal B, Loya Y, B. Mitchell G, Kriegman D.  2016.  Improving automated annotation of benthic survey images using wide-band fluorescence. Scientific Reports. 6:23166.
    Abstract Summary:

    Large-scale imaging techniques are used increasingly for ecological surveys. However, manual analysis can be prohibitively expensive, creating a bottleneck between collected images and desired data-products. This bottleneck is particularly severe for benthic surveys, where millions of images are obtained each year. Recent automated annotation methods may provide a solution, but reflectance images do not always contain sufficient information...

  • Decima M, Landry MR, Stukel M.R, Lopez-Lopez L., Krause J.W.  2016.  Mesozooplankton biomass and grazing in the Costa Rica Dome: amplifying variability through the plankton food web. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:317-330.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated standing stocks and grazing rates of mesozooplankton assemblages in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD), an open-ocean upwelling ecosystem in the eastern tropical Pacific. While phytoplankton biomass in the CRD is dominated by picophytoplankton (<2-mu m cells) with especially high concentrations of Synechococcus spp., we found high mesozooplankton biomass (similar to 5 g dry weight m(-2)) and grazing impact (12-50% integrated water...

  • Baines SB, Chen X, Vogt S, Fisher NS, Twining BS, Landry MR.  2016.  Microplankton trace element contents: implications for mineral limitation of mesozooplankton in an HNLC area. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:256-270.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mesozooplankton production in high-nutrient low-chlorophyll regions of the ocean may be reduced if the trace element concentrations in their food are insufficient to meet growth and metabolic demands. We used elemental microanalysis (SXRF) of single-celled plankton to determine their trace metal contents during a series of semi-Lagrangian drift studies in an HNLC upwelling region, the Costa Rica Dome (CRD). Cells from the surface mixed layer...

  • Kumar N., Feddersen F, Suanda S., Uchiyama Y., McWilliams J..  2016.  Mid- to inner-shelf coupled ROMS-SWAN model-data comparison of currents and temperature: Diurnal and semidiurnal variability. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 46:841-862.
    Abstract Summary:

    Accurately representing diurnal and semidiurnal internal variability is necessary to investigate inner-shelf to midshelf exchange processes. Here, a coupled Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS)-Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model is compared to observed diurnal and semidiurnal internal tidal variability on the mid and inner shelf (26-8 m water depth) near San Pedro Bay, California. Modeled mean stratification is about one-half of that...

  • Krause J.W, Stukel M.R, Taylor A.G, Taniguchi D.AA, de Verneil A., Landry MR.  2016.  Net biogenic silica production and the contribution of diatoms to new production and organic matter export in the Costa Rica Dome ecosystem. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:216-229.
    Abstract Summary:

    We determined the net rate of biogenic silica (bSiO(2)) production and estimated the diatom contribution to new production and organic matter export in the Costa Rica Dome during summer 2010. The shallow thermocline significantly reduces bSiO(2) dissolution rates below the mixed layer, leading to significant enhancement of bSiO(2) relative to organic matter (silicate-pump condition). This may explain why deep export of bSiO(2) in this region...

  • Zirino A., Elwany H., Facca C., Maicu F., Neira C., Mendoza G..  2016.  Nitrogen to phosphorus ratio in the Venice (Italy) Lagoon (2001-2010) and its relation to macroalgae. Marine Chemistry. 180:33-41.
    Abstract Summary:

    Analysis of the annually-averaged 2001-2010 monthly nutrient data from 13 stations in the Venice Lagoon (Italy) shows that the concentrations of dissolved nitrogen (N) species, measured as total dissolved N (TDN), have increased over time while that of phosphorus (P) species, measured as total dissolved P (TDP) have decreased. During the study period, the TDN/TDP ratio in the lagoon rose from about 46:1 to 100:1 (by atoms), a level at which...

  • Ohman MD, Romagnan J.B.  2016.  Nonlinear effects of body size and optical attenuation on Diel Vertical Migration by zooplankton. Limnology and Oceanography. 61:765-770.
    Abstract Summary:

    We adopt a trait-based approach to explain Diel Vertical Migration (DVM) across a diverse assemblage of planktonic copepods, utilizing body size as a master trait. We find a reproducible pattern of body size-dependence of day and night depths occupied, and of DVM. Both the smallest surface-dwelling and the largest deeper-dwelling copepods refrain from migrations, while intermediate-sized individuals show pronounced DVM. This pattern...

  • Taylor A.G, Landry MR, Freibott A., Selph K.E, Gutierrez-Rodriguez A..  2016.  Patterns of microbial community biomass, composition and HPLC diagnostic pigments in the Costa Rica upwelling dome. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:183-198.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated biomass, size-structure, composition, depth distributions and spatial variability of the phytoplankton community in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) in June-July 2010. Euphotic zone profiles were sampled daily during Lagrangian experiments in and out of the dome region, and the community was analyzed using a combination of digital epifluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and HPLC pigments. The mean depth-integrated biomass of...

  • Gutierrez-Rodriguez A., Selph K.E, Landry MR.  2016.  Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing dynamics across vertical environmental gradients determined by transplant in situ dilution experiments. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:271-289.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) represents a classic case of the bloom-forming capacity of small phytoplankton. Unlike other upwelling systems, autotrophic biomass in the CRD is dominated by picocyanobacteria and small eukaryotes that outcompete larger diatoms and reach extremely high biomass levels. We investigated responses of the subsurface phytoplankton community of the CRD to changes associated with vertical displacement of water masses,...

  • Landry MR, Selph K.E, Decima M, Gutierrez-Rodriguez A., Stukel M.R, Taylor A.G, Pasulka A.L.  2016.  Phytoplankton production and grazing balances in the Costa Rica Dome. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:366-379.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated phytoplankton production rates and grazing fates in the Costa Rica Dome (CRD) during summer 2010 based on dilution depth profiles analyzed by flow cytometry and pigments and mesozooplankton grazing assessed by gut fluorescence. Three community production estimates, from C-14 uptake (1025+/-113 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) and from dilution experiments analyzed for total Chla (990+/-106 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) and flow cytometry populations...

  • Selph K.E, Landry MR, Taylor A.G, Gutierrez-Rodriguez A., Stukel M.R, Wokuluk J., Pasulka A..  2016.  Phytoplankton production and taxon-specific growth rates in the Costa Rica Dome. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:199-215.
    Abstract Summary:

    During summer 2010, we investigated phytoplankton production and growth rates at 19 stations in the eastern tropical Pacific, where winds and strong opposing currents generate the Costa Rica Dome (CRD), an open-ocean upwelling feature. Primary production (C-14-incorporation) and group-specific growth and net growth rates (two-treatment sea-water dilution method) were estimated from samples incubated in situ at eight depths. Our cruise...

  • Landry MR, de Verneil A., Goes J.I, Moffett J.W.  2016.  Plankton dynamics and biogeochemical fluxes in the Costa Rica Dome: introduction to the CRD Flux and Zinc Experiments. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:167-182.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) is an open-ocean upwelling system in the Eastern Tropical Pacific that overlies the ocean's largest oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). The region has unique characteristics, biomass dominance by picophytoplankton, suppressed diatoms, high biomass of higher consumers and presumptive trace metal limitation, but is poorly understood in terms of pelagic stock and process relationships, including productivity and production...

  • Chappell P.D, Vedmati J., Selph K.E, Cyr H.A, Jenkins B.D, Landry MR, Moffett J.W.  2016.  Preferential depletion of zinc within Costa Rica upwelling dome creates conditions for zinc co-limitation of primary production. Journal of Plankton Research. 38:244-255.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) is a wind-driven feature characterized by high primary production and an unusual cyanobacterial bloom in surface waters. It is not clear whether this bloom arises from top-down or bottom-up processes. Several studies have argued that trace metal geochemistry within the CRD contributes to the composition of the phytoplankton assemblages, since cyanobacteria and eukaryotic phytoplankton have different transition metal...

  • Switzer RD, P. Parnell E, Leichter JL, Driscoll NW.  2016.  The effects of tectonic deformation and sediment allocation on shelf habitats and megabenthic distribution and diversity in southern California. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 169:25-37.
    Abstract Summary:

    Landscape and seascape structures are typically complex and manifest as patch mosaics within characteristic biomes, bordering one another in gradual or abrupt ecotones. The underlying patch structure in coastal shelf ecosystems is driven by the interaction of tectonic, sedimentary, and sea level dynamic processes. Animals and plants occupy and interact within these mosaics. Terrestrial landscape ecological studies have shown that patch...

  • Cloern J.E, Abreu P.C, Carstensen J., Chauvaud L., Elmgren R., Grall J., Greening H., Johansson J.OR, Kahru M, Sherwood E.T et al..  2016.  Human activities and climate variability drive fast-paced change across the world's estuarine-coastal ecosystems. Global Change Biology. 22:513-529.
    Abstract Summary:

    Time series of environmental measurements are essential for detecting, measuring and understanding changes in the Earth system and its biological communities. Observational series have accumulated over the past 2-5 decades from measurements across the world's estuaries, bays, lagoons, inland seas and shelf waters influenced by runoff. We synthesize information contained in these time series to develop a global view of changes occurring in...

  • Smith SR, Glé C, Abbriano RM, Traller JC, Davis A, Trentacoste E, Vernet M, Allen AE, Hildebrand M.  2016.  Transcript level coordination of carbon pathways during silicon starvation-induced lipid accumulation in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. New Phytologist.
    Abstract Summary:

    * Diatoms are one of the most productive and successful photosynthetic taxa on Earth and possess attributes such as rapid growth rates and production of lipids, making them candidate sources of renewable fuels. Despite their significance, few details of the mechanisms used to regulate growth and carbon metabolism are currently known, hindering metabolic engineering approaches to enhance productivity. * To characterize the transcript level...

  • Booth A.D, Emir E., Diez A..  2016.  Approximations to seismic AVA responses: Validity and potential in glaciological applications. Geophysics. 81:WA1-WA11.
    Abstract Summary:

    Amplitude-variation-with-angle (AVA) methods establish the seismic properties of material either side of a reflective interface, and their use is growing in glaciology. The AVA response of an interface is defined by the complex Knott-Zoeppritz (K-Z) equations, numerous approximations to which we typically assume weak interface contrasts and isotropic propagation, inconsistent with the strong contrasts at glacier beds and the vertically...

  • Snyder S., Nadler L.E, Bayley J.S, Svendsen M.BS, Johansen J.L, Domenici P., Steffensen J.F.  2016.  Effect of closed v. intermittent-flow respirometry on hypoxia tolerance in the shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata. Journal of Fish Biology. 88:252-264.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study compares the critical oxygen saturation (O-2crit) levels of the shiner perch Cymatogaster aggregata obtained using two different methods wherein hypoxia is induced either by the fish's respiration (closed respirometry) or by degassing oxygen with nitrogen (intermittent-flow respirometry). Fish exhibited loss of equilibrium at a higher O-2 saturation in the closed respirometry method when compared with the intermittent-flow method....

  • Lindegren M, Checkley DM, Ohman MD, Koslow JA, Goericke R.  2016.  Resilience and stability of a pelagic marine ecosystem. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 283
    Abstract Summary:

    The accelerating loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services worldwide has accentuated a long-standing debate on the role of diversity in stabilizing ecological communities and has given rise to a field of research on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF). Although broad consensus has been reached regarding the positive BEF relationship, a number of important challenges remain unanswered. These primarily concern the underlying...

  • Neira C., Mendoza G., Porrachia M., Stransky C., Levin L.A.  2015.  Macrofaunal recolonization of copper-contaminated sediments in San Diego Bay. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 101:794-804.
    Abstract Summary:

    Effects of Cu-loading on macrofaunal recolonization were examined in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (San Diego Bay, California). Sediments with high and low Cu levels were defaunated and Cu-spiked, translocated, and then placed back into the environment These demonstrated that the alteration observed in benthic communities associated with Cu contamination occurs during initial recolonization. After a 3-month exposure to sediments with varying Cu...

  • Mehring A.S, Levin L.A.  2015.  Potential roles of soil fauna in improving the efficiency of rain gardens used as natural stormwater treatment systems. Journal of Applied Ecology. 52:1445-1454.
    Abstract Summary:

    Natural treatment systems such as rain gardens aim to overcome the negative effects of urbanization on water quality, availability, and freshwater and marine ecosystem integrity by mimicking the natural water cycle in urban planning and design. While soils in these systems are inhabited by a diverse array of invertebrates, the soil macrofauna is ignored in the vast majority of studies on new or existing rain gardens. Here, we review the...

  • Masich J., Chereskin TK, Mazloff MR.  2015.  Topographic form stress in the Southern Ocean State Estimate. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 120:7919-7933.
    Abstract Summary:

    We diagnose the Southern Ocean momentum balance in a 6 year, eddy-permitting state estimate of the Southern Ocean. We find that 95% of the zonal momentum input via wind stress at the surface is balanced by topographic form stress across ocean ridges, while the remaining 5% is balanced via bottom friction and momentum flux divergences at the northern and southern boundaries of the analysis domain. While the time-mean zonal wind stress field...

  • Levin L.A, Le Bris N..  2015.  The deep ocean under climate change. Science. 350:766-768.
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep ocean absorbs vast amounts of heat and carbon dioxide, providing a critical buffer to climate change but exposing vulnerable ecosystems to combined stresses of warming, ocean acidification, deoxygenation, and altered food inputs. Resulting changes may threaten biodiversity and compromise key ocean services that maintain a healthy planet and human livelihoods. There exist large gaps in understanding of the physical and ecological...

  • Rose K.A, Fiechter J., Curchitser E.N, Hedstrom K., Bernal M., Creekmore S., Haynie A., Ito S., Lluch-Cota S., Megrey B.A et al..  2015.  Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current. Progress in Oceanography. 138:348-380.
    Abstract Summary:

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled sub-models: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and...

  • Ludka B.C, Guza RT, O'Reilly W.C, Yates M.L.  2015.  Field evidence of beach profile evolution toward equilibrium. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 120:7574-7597.
    Abstract Summary:

    An equilibrium framework is used to describe the evolution of the cross-shore profile of five beaches (medium grain size sand) in southern California. Elevations were observed quarterly on cross-shore transects extending from the back beach to 8 m depth, for 3-10 years. Transects spaced 100 m in the alongshore direction are alongshore averaged into nineteen 700-900 m long sections. Consistent with previous observations, changes about the time...

  • Cape M.R, Vernet M, Skvarca P, Marinsek S, Scambos T, Domack E.  2015.  Foehn winds link climate-driven warming to ice shelf evolution in Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 120:11,037-11,057.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rapid warming of the Antarctic Peninsula over the past several decades has led to extensive surface melting on its eastern side, and the disintegration of the Prince Gustav, Larsen A, and Larsen B ice shelves. The warming trend has been attributed to strengthening of circumpolar westerlies resulting from a positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), which is thought to promote more frequent warm, dry, downsloping foehn winds along the...

  • Case D.H, Pasulka A.L, Marlow J.J, Grupe B.M, Levin L.A, Orphan V.J.  2015.  Methane seep carbonates host distinct, diverse, and dynamic microbial assemblages. Mbio. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine methane seeps are globally distributed geologic features in which reduced fluids, including methane, are advected upward from the subsurface. As a result of alkalinity generation during sulfate-coupled methane oxidation, authigenic carbonates form slabs, nodules, and extensive pavements. These carbonates shape the landscape within methane seeps, persist long after methane flux is diminished, and in some cases are incorporated into the...

  • Fiedler J.W, Brodie K.L, McNinch J.E, Guza RT.  2015.  Observations of runup and energy flux on a low-slope beach with high-energy, long-period ocean swell. Geophysical Research Letters. 42:9933-9941.
    Abstract Summary:

    The transformation of surface gravity waves from 11 m depth to runup was observed on the low-sloped (1/80) Agate Beach, Oregon, with a cross-shore transect of current meters, pressure sensors, and a scanning lidar. Offshore wave heights H-0 ranged from calm (0.5 m) to energetic (> 7 m). Runup, measured with pressure sensors and a scanning lidar, increases linearly with (H0L0)(1/2), with L-0 the deep-water wavelength of the spectral peak....

  • Kahru M, Kudela R.M, Anderson C.R, Mitchell B.G.  2015.  Optimized merger of ocean chlorophyll algorithms of MODIS-Aqua and VIIRS. Ieee Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 12:2282-2285.
    Abstract Summary:

    Standard ocean chlorophyll-a (Chla) products from currently operational satellite sensors Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) underestimate medium and high in situ Chla concentrations and have approximately 9% bias between each other in the California Current. By using the regional optimization approach of Kahru et al., we minimized the differences between satellite...

  • Stukel M.R, Kahru M, Benitez-Nelson C.R, Decima M, Goericke R, Landry MR, Ohman MD.  2015.  Using Lagrangian-based process studies to test satellite algorithms of vertical carbon flux in the eastern North Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 120:7208-7222.
    Abstract Summary:

    The biological carbon pump is responsible for the transport of similar to 5-20 Pg C yr(-1) from the surface into the deep ocean but its variability is poorly understood due to an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the complex underlying planktonic processes. In fact, algorithms designed to estimate carbon export from satellite products incorporate fundamentally different assumptions about the relationships between plankton biomass,...

  • Barnard P.L, Short A.D, Harley M.D, Splinter K.D, Vitousek S., Turner I.L, Allan J., Banno M., Bryan K.R, Doria A. et al..  2015.  Coastal vulnerability across the Pacific dominated by El Nino/Southern Oscillation. Nature Geoscience. 8:801-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    To predict future coastal hazards, it is important to quantify any links between climate drivers and spatial patterns of coastal change. However, most studies of future coastal vulnerability do not account for the dynamic components of coastal water levels during storms, notably wave-driven processes, storm surges and seasonal water level anomalies, although these components can add metres to water levels during extreme events. Here we...

  • Cefarelli AO, Ferrario ME, Vernet M.  2015.  Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) associated with free-drifting Antarctic icebergs: taxonomy and distribution. Polar Biology. :1-17.
    Abstract Summary:

    Free-drifting Antarctic icebergs can alter the phytoplankton in surrounding waters. In addition, diatom mats live attached to the submerged walls of the icebergs. In this study we describe a diverse diatom community associated with these mats and an atypical planktonic community in waters affected by icebergs. Samples were collected in the winter of 2008 and fall of 2009 from Antarctic icebergs and their adjacent waters, utilizing a remote...