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Recent Publications

  • Abstract Summary:

    In Tasmania (Australia), during the marine phase, it has been observed that flesh pigmentation significantly drops in summer, possibly due to high water temperatures (> 20 degrees C). Although this deleterious effect of summer temperatures has been ascertained, there is a lack of knowledge of the actual mechanisms behind the impaired uptake and/or loss of pigments in Atlantic salmon in a challenging environment. Since the microbial...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Exposure to and colonization by bacteria during development have wide-ranging beneficial effects on animal biology but can also inhibit growth or cause disease. The immune system is the prime mediator of these microbial interactions and is itself shaped by them. Studies using diverse animal taxa have begun to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the acquisition and transmission of bacterial symbionts and their interactions with developing...

  • Harding A.R, Ricke K., Heyen D., MacMartin D.G, Moreno-Cruz J..  2020.  Climate econometric models indicate solar geoengineering would reduce inter-country income inequality. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Exploring heterogeneity in the economic impacts of solar geoengineering is a fundamental step towards understanding the risk tradeoff associated with a geoengineering option. To evaluate impacts of solar geoengineering and greenhouse gas-driven climate change on equal terms, we apply macroeconomic impact models that have been widely applied to climate change impacts assessment. Combining historical evidence with climate simulations of mean...

  • Stock B.C, Ward E.J, Eguchi T, Jannot J., Thorson J.T, Feist B.E, Semmens B.X.  2020.  Comparing predictions of fisheries bycatch using multiple spatiotemporal species distribution model frameworks. 77:146-163.
    Abstract Summary:

    Spatiotemporal predictions of bycatch (i.e., catch of nontargeted species) have shown promise as dynamic ocean management tools for reducing bycatch. However, which spatiotemporal model framework to use for generating these predictions is unclear. We evaluated a relatively new method, Gaussian Markov random fields (GMRFs), with two other frameworks, generalized additive models (GAMs) and random forests. We fit geostatistical delta-models to...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Some high-resolution CTD data collected in the spring of 2017 are analyzed using Thorpe sorting and scale analyses, including both the commonly used "Thorpe scale" method and a lesser-used method that is based on directly estimating the "available overturn potential energy" (AOPE): the difference between potential energies of the raw versus sorted density profiles in a mixing "turbulent patch." The speed of the profiler varied, so the spatial...

  • Skarsoulis E.K, Cornuelle BD.  2020.  Cross-correlation sensitivity kernels with respect to noise source distribution. 147:1-9.
    Abstract Summary:

    The cross correlation of the underwater noise field recorded at two receivers conveys information about the time-domain Green's function between the two locations, provided that sufficient energy is channeled into the acoustic paths connecting these. The efficiency of this procedure depends on the locations and characteristics of the receivers and noise sources, as well as on the refraction properties of the ocean sound channel. The...

  • Grimes D.J, Feddersen F, Giddings S.N, Pawlak G..  2020.  Cross-shore deformation of a surfzone-released dye plume by an internal tide on the inner shelf. 50:35-54.
    Abstract Summary:

    An inner-shelf (IS) dye plume that formed following a 3.84-h early morning surfzone (SZ) dye release off of Imperial Beach, California, is analyzed with in situ and aerial remotely sensed observations. Midmorning, 5 h after release start, the IS plume extended 800 m offshore (or approximate to 8L(sz), where L-sz is the surfzone width) and was surface intensified. Over the next approximate to 2 h, the IS plume deformed (narrowed) cross-shore...

  • Solsona-Berga A., Frasier K.E, Baumann-Pickering S., Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2020.  DetEdit: A graphical user interface for annotating and editing events detected in long-term acoustic monitoring data. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Passive acoustic monitoring has become an important data collection method, yielding massive datasets replete with biological, environmental and anthropogenic information. Automated signal detectors and classifiers are needed to identify events within these datasets, such as the presence of species-specific sounds or anthropogenic noise. These automated methods, however, are rarely a complete substitute for expert analyst review. The ability...

  • Harvey M.E, Giddings S.N, Stein E.D, Crooks J.A, Whitcraft C., Gallien T., Largier J.L, Tiefenthaler L., Meltzer H., Pawlak G. et al..  2020.  Effects of elevated sea levels and waves on Southern California estuaries during the 2015-2016 El Nino.
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2015-2016 El Nino provided insight into how low-inflow estuaries might respond to future climate regimes, including high sea levels and more intense waves. High waves and water levels coupled with low rainfall along the Southern California coastline provided the opportunity to examine how extreme ocean forcing impacts estuaries independently from fluvial events. From November 2015 to April 2016, water levels were measured in 13 Southern...

  • Long S.M, Xie SP, Du Y., Liu QY, Zheng XT, Huang G, Hu KM, Ying J..  2020.  Effects of ocean slow response under low warming targets. 33:477-496.
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2015 Paris Agreement proposed targets to limit global-mean surface temperature (GMST) rise well below 2 degrees C relative to preindustrial level by 2100, requiring a cease in the radiative forcing (RF) increase in the near future. In response to changing RF, the deep ocean responds slowly (ocean slow response), in contrast to the fast ocean mixed layer adjustment. The role of the ocean slow response under low warming targets is...

  • Yi J.S, Yoo H.W, Kim E.J, Yang Y.H, Kim B.G.  2020.  Engineering Streptomyces coelicolor for production of monomethyl branched chain fatty acids. 307:69-76.
    Abstract Summary:

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are an appealing biorefinery-driven target of fatty acid (FA) production. BCFAs typically have lower melting points compared to straight chain FAs, making them useful in lubricants and biofuels. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, have unique secondary metabolism that are capable of producing not only antibiotics, but also high percentage of BCFAs in their membrane lipids. Since biosynthesis of...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The autonomous passive-acoustic lander Deep Sound was deployed at five locations during the Office of Naval Research (ONR)-supported Seabed Characterization Experiment, a multi-institutional field effort held at the New England Mud Patch, where the seabed is known to consist of a thick layer of silt and clay overlying a medium and coarse sand. The five deployments of Deep Sound were up to 9h long, during which time ambient noise data, taken...

  • O'Rourke A., Zoumplis A., Wilburn P., Lee M.D, Lee Z., Vecina M., Mercader K..  2020.  Following the astrobiology roadmap: Origins, habitability and future exploration. 38:1-31.
    Abstract Summary:

    Astrobiology asks three fundamental questions as outlined by the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap: 1. How did Life begin and evolve?; Is there Life elsewhere in the Universe?; and, What is the future of Life on Earth? As we gain perspective on how Life on Earth arose and adapted to its many niches, we too gain insight into how a planet achieves habitability. Here on Earth, microbial Life has evolved to exist in a wide range of habitats from aquatic...

  • Neely W.R, Borsa A.A, Silverii F..  2020.  GInSAR: A cGPS correction for enhanced InSAR time series. 58:136-146.
    Abstract Summary:

    Earth surface displacements from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) have long been used to study deformation from a wide range of geophysical processes. Whereas deformation rates can be robustly estimated from InSAR by averaging many individual deformation observations, noise in these observations has limited their utility for generating deformation time series. In this article, we introduce a novel combination of InSAR and...

  • Lindner F., Walter F., Laske G., Gimbert F..  2020.  Glaciohydraulic seismic tremors on an Alpine glacier. 14:287-308.
    Abstract Summary:

    Hydraulic processes impact viscous and brittle ice deformation. Water-driven fracturing as well as turbulent water flow within and beneath glaciers radiate seismic waves which provide insights into otherwise hard-to-access englacial and subglacial environments. In this study, we analyze glaciohydraulic tremors recorded by four seismic arrays installed in different parts of Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland. Data were recorded during the...

  • Shackleton S., Baggenstos D, Menking J.A, Dyonisius M.N, Bereiter B., Bauska T.K, Rhodes R.H, Brook E.J, Petrenko VV, McConnell J.R et al..  2020.  Global ocean heat content in the Last Interglacial. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    The Last Interglacial (129-116 thousand years ago (ka)) represents one of the warmest climate intervals of the past 800,000 years and the most recent time when sea level was metres higher than today. However, the timing and magnitude of the peak warmth varies between reconstructions, and the relative importance of individual sources that contribute to the elevated sea level (mass gain versus seawater expansion) during the Last Interglacial...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Collections of holothurians taken in 2012-2016 by three German-Russian deep-sea expeditions to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (KuramBio, SokhoBio and KuramBio II) were examined. Here we present data on the genus Psychropotes (Psychropotidae, Elasipodida). Based on new material and some additional (mainly old) material from the North-West and East Pacific, we re-describe the species Psychropotes Iongicauda Theel, 1882, describe two varieties...

  • Wyatt ASJ, Leichter J.J, Toth L.T, Miyajima T., Aronson R.B, Nagata T..  2020.  Heat accumulation on coral reefs mitigated by internal waves. 13:28-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich, productive and economically valuable ecosystems on Earth but increasingly frequent pantropical coral bleaching events are threatening their persistence on a global scale. The 2015-2016 El Nino led to the hottest sea surface temperatures on record and widespread bleaching of shallow-water corals. However, the causes of spatial variation in bleaching are poorly understood, and near-surface estimates...

  • McCall L.I, Callewaert C., Zhu Q.Y, Song S.J, Bouslimani A., Minich J.J, Ernst M., Ruiz-Calderon J.F, Cavallin H., Pereira H.S et al..  2020.  Home chemical and microbial transitions across urbanization. 5:108-115.
    Abstract Summary:

    Urbanization represents a profound shift in human behaviour, and has considerable cultural and health-associated consequences(1,2). Here, we investigate chemical and microbial characteristics of houses and their human occupants across an urbanization gradient in the Amazon rainforest, from a remote Peruvian Amerindian village to the Brazilian city of Manaus. Urbanization was found to be associated with reduced microbial outdoor exposure,...

  • Simpson C., Herrera-Cubilla A., Jackson J.BC.  2020.  How colonial animals evolve. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The evolution of modular colonial animals such as reef corals and bryozoans is enigmatic because of the ability for modules to proliferate asexually as whole colonies reproduce sexually. This reproductive duality creates an evolutionary tension between modules and colonies because selection operates at both levels. To understand how this evolutionary conflict is resolved, we compared the evolutionary potential of module- and colony-level...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Shallow (<= 40 km), low magnitude (M >= 2.0) seismicity in southern Alaska is examined for seasonal variations during the annual hydrological cycle. The seismicity is declustered with a spatio-temporal epidemic type aftershock sequence model. The removal of aftershock sequences allows detailed investigation of seismicity rate changes as water, snow and ice loads modulate crustal stresses throughout the year. The GRACE surface loads are...

  • Hull P.M, Bomemann A., Penman D.E, Henehan M.J, Norris RD, Wilson PA, Blum P., Alegret L., Batenburg S.J, Bown P.R et al..  2020.  On impact and volcanism across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. 367:266-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The cause of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction is vigorously debated, owing to the occurrence of a very large bolide impact and flood basalt volcanism near the boundary. Disentangling their relative importance is complicated by uncertainty regarding kill mechanisms and the relative timing of volcanogenic outgassing, impact, and extinction We used carbon cycle modeling and paleotemperature records to constrain the timing of volcanogenic...

  • Rocha C.B, Bossy T., Smith SGL, Young W.R.  2020.  Improved bounds on horizontal convection. 883
    Abstract Summary:

    For the problem of horizontal convection the Nusselt number based on entropy production is bounded from above by C Ra-1/3 as the horizontal convective Rayleigh number Ra -> infinity for some constant C (Siggers et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55-70). We re-examine the variational arguments leading to this `ultimate regime' by using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to solve the variational problem in the Ra -> infinity...

  • Stanley K.M, Say D., Mühle J, Harth CM, Krummel PB, Young D, O'Doherty S.J, Salameh PK, Simmonds PG, Weiss RF et al..  2020.  Increase in global emissions of HFC-23 despite near-total expected reductions. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, new controls are being implemented to reduce emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3), a by-product during the manufacture of HCFC-22 (CHClF2). Starting in 2015, China and India, who dominate global HCFC-22 production (75% in 2017), set out ambitious programs to reduce HFC-23 emissions. Here, we estimate that these measures should have seen global emissions drop by 87% between 2014 and 2017. Instead,...

  • Wang Q., Li B., Benmarhnia T., Hajat S., Ren M., Liu T., Knibbs L.D, Zhang H.H, Bao J.Z, Zhang Y.W et al..  2020.  Independent and combined effects of heatwaves and PM2.5 on preterm birth in Guangzhou, China: A survival analysis. 128
    Abstract Summary:

    BACKGROUND: Both extreme heat and air pollution exposure during pregnancy have been associated with preterm birth; however, their combined effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to estimate the independent and joint effects of heatwaves and fine particulate matter [PM <2.5 mu m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)], exposure during the final gestational week on preterm birth. METHODS: Using birth registry data from Guangzhou, China, we...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Biomass distribution among size classes follows a power law where the Log-abundance of taxa scales to Log-size with a slope that responds to environmental abiotic and biotic conditions. The interactions between ecological mechanisms controlling the slope of locally realized size-abundance relationships (SAR) are however not well understood. Here we tested how warming, nutrient levels, and grazing affect the slope of phytoplankton community...

  • James A.K, Washburn L., Gotschalk C., Maritorena S., Alldredge A., Nelson CE, Hench J.L, Leichter J.J, Wyatt ASJ, Carlson CA.  2020.  An island mass effect resolved near Mo'orea, French Polynesia. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    We sought to resolve the extent, variability, and magnitude of productivity enrichment around a high tropical island consistent with the phenomenon of an Island Mass Effect (IME). Key biogeochemical constituents and physical oceanographic parameters were measured offshore over the upper 500 m from July 27 to August 7, 2014 around the Society Island of Mo'orea in French Polynesia in association with the nearshore measurements of the Mo'orea...

  • Dailey S.K, Clift P.D, Kulhanek D.K, Blusztajn J., Routledge C.M, Calves G., O'Sullivan P., Jonell T.N, Pandey D.K, Ando S. et al..  2020.  Large-scale mass wasting on the Miocene continental margin of western India. 132:85-112.
    Abstract Summary:

    A giant mass-transport complex was recently discovered in the eastern Arabian Sea, exceeding in volume all but one other known complex on passive margins worldwide. The complex, named the Nataraja Slide, was drilled by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 in two locations where it is similar to 300 m (Site U1456) and similar to 200 m thick (Site U1457). The top of this mass-transport complex is defined by the presence...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Marginal probability distributions for parameters representing an effective sound-speed structure of a fine-grained sediment are inferred from a data ensemble maximum entropy method that utilizes a sparse spatially distributed set of received pressure time series resulting from multiple explosive sources in a shallow-water ocean environment possessing significant spatial variability of the seabed. A remote sensing seabed acoustics experiment...

  • Moosburner M.A, Gholami P., McCarthy JK, Tan M., Bielinski V.A, Allen A.E.  2020.  Multiplexed knockouts in the model diatom phaeodactylum by episomal delivery of a selectable Cas9. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine diatoms are eukaryotic microalgae that play significant ecological and biogeochemical roles in oceans. They also have significant potential as organismal platforms for exploitation to address biotechnological and industrial goals. In order to address both modes of research, sophisticated molecular and genetic tools are required. We presented here new and improved methodologies for introducing CRISPR-Cas9 to the model diatom...

  • Lindkvist E., Wijermans N., Daw T.M, Gonzalez-Mon B., Giron-Nava A., Johnson A.F, van Putten I., Basurto X., Schluter M..  2020.  Navigating complexities: Agent-based modeling to support research, governance, and management in small-scale fisheries. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The sustainable governance and management of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging, largely due to their dynamic and complex nature. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a computational modeling approach that can account for the dynamism and complexity in SSF by modeling entities as individual agents with different characteristics and behavior, and simulate how their interactions can give rise to emergent phenomena, such as over-fishing and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    By mass, dust is the largest contributor to global aerosol burden, yet long-term observational records of dust, particularly over the ocean, are limited. Here, two nearly global observational datasets of dust aerosol optical depth tau(d) are created primarily on the basis of optical measurements of the aerosol column from 1) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite spanning from 2001 to 2018 and 2)...

  • McSweeney J.M, Lerczak J.A, Barth J.A, Becherer J., Colosi J.A, MacKinnon JA, Macmahan J.H, Moum J.N, Pierce S.D, Waterhouse A.F.  2020.  Observations of shoaling nonlinear internal bores across the central California inner shelf. 50:111-132.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present observations of shoaling nonlinear internal bores off the coast of central California. The dataset includes 15 moorings deployed during September-October 2017 and cross-shore shipboard surveys. We describe the cross-shore structure and evolution of large-amplitude internal bores as they transit from 9 km (100-m depth) to 1 km offshore (10 m). We observe that two bores arrive each semidiurnal period, both propagating from the...

  • Matsumoto H., Young A.P, Guza RT.  2020.  Observations of surface cobbles at two southern California beaches. 419
    Abstract Summary:

    Southern California beaches are often sandy, but with largely undocumented cobble patches and berms. We describe the first multi-year, spatially extensive observations of surface cobbles at southern California beaches. The variation (spatial and temporal) of surface cobble distribution and backshore (e.g. upper foreshore) cobble morphology (slope, vertical extent, and elevation) are characterized using 11 years (2008-2018) of observations...

  • Zhang J.J, Tang X.Y, Huan T., Ross AC, Moore BS.  2020.  Pass-back chain extension expands multimodular assembly line biosynthesis. 16:42-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymatic assembly lines are large and dynamic protein machines that generally effect a linear sequence of catalytic cycles. Here, we report the heterologous reconstitution and comprehensive characterization of two hybrid NRPS-PKS assembly lines that defy many standard rules of assembly line biosynthesis to generate a large combinatorial library of cyclic...

  • Oliveira M.I, Acevedo O.C, Sorgel M., Nascimento E.L, Manzi A.O, Oliveira P.ES, Brondani D.V, Tsokankunku A., Andreae M.O.  2020.  Planetary boundary layer evolution over the Amazon rainforest in episodes of deep moist convection at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. 20:15-27.
    Abstract Summary:

    In this study, high-frequency, multilevel measurements, performed from late October to mid-November of 2015 at a 80m tall tower of the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) project in the central state of Amazonas, Brazil, were used to diagnose the evolution of thermodynamic and kinematic variables as well as scalar fluxes during the passage of outflows generated by deep moist convection (DMC). Outflow associated with DMC activity over or near...

  • Waterhouse L., Heppell S.A, Pattengill-Semmens C.V, McCoy C., Bush P., Johnson B.C, Semmens B.X.  2020.  Recovery of critically endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) in the Cayman Islands following targeted conservation actions. 117:1587-1595.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many large-bodied marine fishes that form spawning aggregations, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), have suffered regional overfishing due to exploitation during spawning. In response, marine resource managers in many locations have established marine protected areas or seasonal closures to recover these overfished stocks. The challenge in assessing management effectiveness lies largely in the development of accurate estimates...

  • Skiba M.A, Tran C.L, Dan Q.Y, Sikkema A.P, Klaver Z., Gerwick WH, Sherman D.H, Smith J.L.  2020.  Repurposing the GNAT fold in the initiation of polyketide biosynthesis. 28:63-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways are replete with enzymes repurposed for new catalytic functions. In some modular polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways, a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT)-like enzyme with an additional decarboxylation function initiates biosynthesis. Here, we probe two PKS GNAT-like domains for the dual activities of S-acyl transfer from coenzyme A (CoA) to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and decarboxylation. The GphF...

  • Aguilera R., Gershunov A, Ilango S.D, Guzman-Morales J., Benmarhnia T..  2020.  Santa Ana winds of Southern California impact PM2.5 with and without smoke from wildfires. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) raises human health concerns since it can deeply penetrate the respiratory system and enter the bloodstream, thus potentially impacting vital organs. Strong winds transport and disperse PM2.5, which can travel over long distances. Smoke from wildfires is a major episodic and seasonal hazard in Southern California (SoCal), where the onset of Santa Ana winds (SAWs) in early fall before the first rains of winter...

  • Katsura S., Ueno H., Mitsudera H., Kouketsu S..  2020.  Spatial distribution and seasonality of halocline structures in the subarctic north Pacific. 50:95-109.
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatial distribution and seasonality of halocline structures in the subarctic North Pacific (SNP) were investigated using Argo profiling float data and various surface flux data collected in 2003-17. The permanent halocline (PH) showed zonal patterns in the spatial distributions of its depth and intensity and tended to be shallow and strong in the eastern SNP but deep and weak in the west. Mean distributions of PH depth and intensity...

  • Waters C.L, Day JMD, Watanabe S., Sayit K., Zanon V., Olson K.M, Hanan B.B, Widom E..  2020.  Sulfide mantle source heterogeneity recorded in basaltic lavas from the Azores. 268:422-445.
    Abstract Summary:

    New highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) abundance and Os isotopic compositions, along with major- and trace-element abundance and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope data are reported for high-MgO (>8-17 wt.%) lavas from the islands of Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Faial in the Azores archipelago. The lavas span the range of Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope and trace-element abundance variability reported previously for the islands. Pico and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Radar interferograms provide a map of the phase difference between the reference and repeat acquisitions modulo . Under ideal conditions, the phase can be unwrapped to provide an absolute phase connection across the map, although there is always an unknown integer phase ambiguity (i.e., ) for the entire map. Here, we demonstrate a practical time series method to solve for these integer ambiguities in order to recover the absolute phase change...

  • Gauglitz J.M, Aceves C.M, Aksenov A.A, Aleti G., Almaliti J., Bouslimani A., Brown E.A, Campeau A., Caraballo-Rodriguez A.M, Chaar R. et al..  2020.  Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach unveils molecular changes in raw and processed foods and beverages. 302
    Abstract Summary:

    In our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the...

  • Bates T.S, Quinn P.K, Coffman D.J, Johnson J.E, Upchurch L., Saliba G., Lewis S., Graff J., Russell LM, Behrenfeld M.J.  2020.  Variability in marine plankton ecosystems are not observed in freshly emitted sea spray aerosol over the North Atlantic Ocean. 47
    Abstract Summary:

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) consists of both sea salt and organic components. These aerosols affect Earth's climate by scattering solar radiation and by altering cloud properties. Here we present observations of SSA particles generated at sea using an over-the-side bubbling system (Sea Sweep) and an onboard plunging wave mesocosm (Marine Aerosol Reference Tank-MART) during five cruises in the North Atlantic. The cruises were timed to sample...

  • Maboloc E.A, Batzel G., Grunbaum D., Chan K.YK.  2020.  Vertical distribution of echinoid larvae in pH stratified water columns. 167
    Abstract Summary:

    The abundance and distribution of many benthic marine organisms are shaped by the success of their dispersive larval life-history stage. An increasing number of studies have shown that ocean acidification negatively impacts the larval life-history stage, including those of echinoids which are commercially and ecologically important. However, little is known about the behavioral responses of echinoid larvae to different pH levels in the water...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Climatic changes over the central Himalaya are critical for water resources in downstream regions where hundreds of millions of people live. Warming and drying in this region have both occurred in recent decades, but the associated meteorological factors are difficult to diagnose based on observations from unevenly distributed weather stations, reanalyses, and global climate models that poorly reproduce the orographic diurnal cycle. Here,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Deterministic or statistical inversion schemes to retrieve ocean color from space often use a simplified water reflectance model that may introduce unrealistic constraints on the solution, a disadvantage compared with standard, two-step algorithms that make minimal assumptions about the water signal. In view of this, the semi-analytical models of Morel and Maritorena (2001), MM01, and Park and Ruddick (2005), PR05, used in the spectral...

  • Rutz J.J, Shields C.A, Lora J.M, Payne A.E, Guan B., Ullrich P., O'Brien T., Leung LR, Ralph FM, Wehner M. et al..  2019.  The Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project (ARTMIP): Quantifying uncertainties in atmospheric river climatology. 124:13777-13802.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are now widely known for their association with high-impact weather events and long-term water supply in many regions. Researchers within the scientific community have developed numerous methods to identify and track of ARs-a necessary step for analyses on gridded data sets, and objective attribution of impacts to ARs. These different methods have been developed to answer specific research questions and hence use...

  • Corringham T.W, Ralph FM, Gershunov A, Cayan DR, Talbot C.A.  2019.  Atmospheric rivers drive flood damages in the western United States. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are extratropical storms that produce extreme precipitation on the west coasts of the world's major landmasses. In the United States, ARs cause significant flooding, yet their economic impacts have not been quantified. Here, using 40 years of data from the National Flood Insurance Program, we show that ARs are the primary drivers of flood damages in the western United States. Using a recently developed AR scale, which...

  • Chekan J.R, Lee G.Y, A. Gamal E, Purdy T.N, Houk K.N, Moore BS.  2019.  Bacterial tetrabromopyrrole debrominase shares a reductive dehalogenation strategy with human thyroid deiodinase. 58:5329-5338.
    Abstract Summary:

    Enzymatic dehalogenation is an important and well-studied biological process in both the detoxification and catabolism of small molecules, many of which are anthro-pogenic in origin. However, dedicated dehalogenation reactions that replace a halogen atom with a hydrogen are rare in the biosynthesis of natural products. In fact, the debrominase Bmp8 is the only known example. It catalyzes the reductive debromination of the coral settlement cue...