Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

NADPH-dependent extracellular superoxide production is vital to photophysiology in the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica

Impact:
Batch cultures of T. oceanica were grown with replete initial nutrient concentrations under optimal light conditions, and whole cells were analyzed for net extracellular superoxide production by a flow-through chemiluminescence approach described previously. Results revealed that extracellular superoxide production rates were highest in exponential growth phase. As observed in other phytoplankton, this decline of net extracellular superoxide production with increasing age challenges the perception of superoxide as a stress-response molecule, given the continual drawdown of nutrients and the accumulation of cellular stress that occurs over time in batch cultures. These results therefore suggest that extracellular superoxide production may be a constitutive, or even beneficial physiological process in T. oceanica.

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  • Stephens B.M, Wankel S.D, Beman J.M, Rabines A.J, Allen A.E, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (delta N-15 and delta O-18, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the...

  • Chen Z.S, Du Y., Wen Z.P, Wu R.G, Xie SP.  2019.  Evolution of south Tropical Indian Ocean warming and the climatic impacts following strong El Nino Events. 32:7329-7347.
    Abstract Summary:

    The south tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warms following a strong El Nino, affecting Indo-Pacific climate in early boreal summer. While much attention has been given to the southwest TIO where the mean thermocline is shallow, this study focuses on the subsequent warming in the southeast TIO, where the mean sea surface temperature (SST) is high and deep convection is strong in early summer. The southeast TIO warming induces an anomalous...

  • Woodworth P.L, Melet A., Marcos M., Ray R.D, Woppelmann G., Sasaki Y.N, Cirano M., Hibbert A., Huthnance J.M, Monserrat S. et al..  2019.  Forcing factors affecting sea level changes at the coast. 40:1351-1397.
    Abstract Summary:

    We review the characteristics of sea level variability at the coast focussing on how it differs from the variability in the nearby deep ocean. Sea level variability occurs on all timescales, with processes at higher frequencies tending to have a larger magnitude at the coast due to resonance and other dynamics. In the case of some processes, such as the tides, the presence of the coast and the shallow waters of the shelves results in the...

  • Rogers J.S, Rayson M.D, Ko D.S, Winters KB, Fringer O.B.  2019.  A framework for seamless one-way nesting of internal wave-resolving ocean models. 143
    Abstract Summary:

    To resolve nonlinear internal wave motions in regional domains, we propose a one-way ocean model nesting framework in which a nonhydrostatic model is nested within a regional model. The nesting scheme produces internal tides that propagate freely into and out of the nonhydrostatic model domain with no reflections while nudging the low-frequency motions. We demonstrate the method with idealized test cases and a field-scale simulation of the...

  • Llovel W., Purkey S., Meyssignac B., Blazquez A., Kolodziejczyk N., Bamber J..  2019.  Global ocean freshening, ocean mass increase and global mean sea level rise over 2005-2015. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Global mean sea level has experienced an unabated rise over the 20th century. This observed rise is due to both ocean warming and increasing continental freshwater discharge. We estimate the net ocean mass contribution to sea level by assessing the global ocean salt budget based on the unprecedented amount of in situ data over 2005-2015. We obtain the ocean mass trends of 1.30 +/- 1.13 mm.yr(-1) (0-2000 m) and 1.55 +/- 1.20 mm.yr(-1) (full...

  • Wang J.K, Johnson K.R, Borsato A., Amaya D.J, Griffiths M.L, Henderson G.M, Frisia S., Mason A..  2019.  Hydroclimatic variability in Southeast Asia over the past two millennia. 525
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatiotemporal variability of the Asian Monsoon (AM) over the last two millennia has been attributed to a combination of external solar and volcanic forcing and/or internal coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, but the relative importance of these mechanisms remains unresolved. The present knowledge of multidecadal to centennial-scale AM variability over Mainland Southeast Asia is not well-constrained, despite substantial progress in...

  • Hell M.C, Cornelle B.D, Gille ST, Miller AJ, Bromirski PD.  2019.  Identifying ocean swell generation events from Ross Ice Shelf seismic data. 36:2171-2189.
    Abstract Summary:

    Strong surface winds under extratropical cyclones exert intense surface stresses on the ocean that lead to upper-ocean mixing, intensified heat fluxes, and the generation of waves, that, over time, lead to swell waves (longer than 10-s period) that travel long distances. Because low-frequency swell propagates faster than high-frequency swell, the frequency dependence of swell arrival times at a measurement site can be used to infer the...

  • Gudmundsson G.H, Paolo F.S, Adusumilli S., Fricker H.A.  2019.  Instantaneous Antarctic ice sheet mass loss driven by thinning ice shelves.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent observations show that the rate at which the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) is contributing to sea level rise is increasing. Increases in ice-ocean heat exchange have the potential to induce substantial mass loss through the melting of its ice shelves. Lack of data and limitations in modeling, however, has made it challenging to quantify the importance of ocean-induced changes in ice shelf thickness as a driver for ongoing mass loss. Here,...

  • Smith B., Fricker H.A, Holschuh N., Gardner AS, Adusumilli S., Brunt K.M, Csatho B., Harbeck K., Huth A., Neumann T. et al..  2019.  Land ice height-retrieval algorithm for NASA's ICESat-2 photon-counting laser altimeter. 233
    Abstract Summary:

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) and its sole scientific instrument, the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), was launched on 15 September 2018 with a primary goal of measuring changes in the surface of the Earth's land ice (glaciers and ice sheets). ATLAS is a photon-counting laser altimeter, which records the transit time of individual photons in order to reconstruct surface height along track. The...

  • Natali S.M, Watts J.D, Rogers B.M, Potter S., Ludwig S.M, Selbmann A.K, Sullivan P.F, Abbott B.W, Arndt K.A, Birch L. et al..  2019.  Large loss of CO2 in winter observed across the northern permafrost region. 9:852-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent warming in the Arctic, which has been amplified during the winter(1-3), greatly enhances microbial decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent release of carbon dioxide (CO2)(4). However, the amount of CO2 released in winter is not known and has not been well represented by ecosystem models or empirically based estimates(5,6). Here we synthesize regional in situ observations of CO2 flux from Arctic and boreal soils to assess...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We carried out a multicomponent electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Scarborough gas field in 950 m water on the northwest Australian shelf. Magnetotelluric (MT) data, along with transmitter inline horizontal electric (Ey), vertical electric (Ez), and horizontal magnetic (Bx) field controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data were collected. The Scarborough reservoir is a challenging EM target because it lies between a resistive overlying...

  • Brignac K.C, Jung M.R, King C., Royer S.J, Bickley L., Lamson M.R, Potemra J.T, Lynch J.M.  2019.  Marine debris polymers on main Hawaiian island beaches, sea surface, and seafloor. 53:12218-12226.
    Abstract Summary:

    Polymeric differences of plastic debris were assessed across four compartments of the Main Hawaiian Islands (sea surface, windward beaches, leeward beaches, and seafloor) to better describe sources and fate. Plastic debris pieces (n = 4671) were collected from 11 beaches, three sea surface tows, and three seafloor dives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified the polymers of 3551 pieces. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Global radiative-convective equilibrium simulations are used to investigate the hypothesis that mutual interactions among cloud albedo, sea surface temperature gradients, and atmospheric circulation constrain the net cloud radiative effect (CRE) to be similar in convective and nonconvective regions over the tropical warm pools. We perform an experiment in which convective clouds interact naturally with the ocean and atmosphere by forming over...

  • Asher E., Hornbrook R.S, Stephens B.B, Kinnison D., Morgan E.J, Keeling RF, Atlas E.L, Schauffler S.M, Tilmes S., Kort E.A et al..  2019.  Novel approaches to improve estimates of short-lived halocarbon emissions during summer from the Southern Ocean using airborne observations. 19:14071-14090.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fluxes of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the Southern Ocean remain poorly understood, and few atmospheric measurements exist to constrain modeled emissions of these compounds. We present observations of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH3I, CHClBr2, CHBrCl2, and CH3Br during the O-2/N-2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study and the second Atmospheric Tomography mission (ATom-2) in January and February of 2016 and 2017. Good...

  • Costa J.AV, Freitas B.CB, Rosa G.M, Moraes L., Morais M.G, Mitchell B.G.  2019.  Operational and economic aspects of Spirulina-based biorefinery. 292
    Abstract Summary:

    Microalgae biorefinery systems have been extensively studied from the perspective of resources, energy expenditure, biofuel production potential, and high-added value products. The genus Spirulina (Arthrospira) stands out among the microalgae of commercial importance. It accounts for over 30% of biomass produced globally because of high protein concentration and, carotenoid and phycocyanin content. Spirulina cultivation can be used to reduce...

  • Abstract Summary:

    An extensive data set of measurements within the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas is used to characterize the optical properties of seawater associated with different phytoplankton communities. Hierarchical cluster analysis of diagnostic pigment concentrations partitioned stations into four distinct surface phytoplankton communities based on taxonomic composition and average cell size. Concurrent optical measurements of spectral absorption and...

  • Gonzalez-Solis D., Soler-Jimenez L.C, Aguirre-Macedo M.L, McLaughlin J.P, Shaw J.C, James A.K, Hechinger R.E, Kuris A.M, Lafferty K.D, Vidal-Martinez V.M.  2019.  Parasitic nematodes of marine fishes from Palmyra Atoll, East Indo-Pacific, including a new species of Spinitectus (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae). :1-26.
    Abstract Summary:

    Here, we present the results of a taxonomic survey of the nematodes parasitizing fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll, Eastern Indo-Pacific. We performed quantitative parasitological surveys of 653 individual fish from each of the 44 species using the intertidal sand flats that border the atoll's lagoon. We provide morphological descriptions, prevalence, and mean intensities of the recovered seven species of adult nematode (...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Abstract Microplastics (< 5 mm) have long been a concern in marine debris research, but quantifying the smallest microplastics (< 333 μm) has been hampered by appropriate collection methods, like net tows. We modified standard epifluorescence microscopy methods to develop a new technique to enumerate < 333 μm microplastics (mini-microplastics) from filtered surface seawater samples and salp stomach contents. This permitted us to...

  • Meskhidze N., Volker C., Al-Abadleh H.A, Barbeau K., Bressac M., Buck C., Bundy R.M, Croot P., Feng Y., Ito A. et al..  2019.  Perspective on identifying and characterizing the processes controlling iron speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface. 217
    Abstract Summary:

    It is well recognized that the atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) affects ocean productivity, atmospheric CO2 uptake, ecosystem diversity, and overall climate. Despite significant advances in measurement techniques and modeling efforts, discrepancies persist between observations and models that hinder accurate predictions of processes and their global effects. Here, we provide an assessment report on where the current state of knowledge is...

  • Gove JM, Whitney J.L, McManus MA, Lecky J., Carvalho F.C, Lynch J.M, Li J.W, Neubauer P., Smith K.A, Phipps J.E et al..  2019.  Prey-size plastics are invading larval fish nurseries. 116:24143-24149.
    Abstract Summary:

    Life for many of the world's marine fish begins at the ocean surface. Ocean conditions dictate food availability and govern survivorship, yet little is known about the habitat preferences of larval fish during this highly vulnerable life-history stage. Here we show that surface slicks, a ubiquitous coastal ocean convergence feature, are important nurseries for larval fish from many ocean habitats at ecosystem scales. Slicks had higher...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The adverse health impact of high heat is widely documented and can lead to a substantial public health burden. Although heat-related illness in western countries is largely preventable, extreme heat remains the main weather contributor to the burden of disease in the United States. In most US cities, local National Weather Service offices issue heat alerts in advance of forecast periods of high heat. In some locations, additional local heat...

  • Coale T.H, Moosburner M., Horak A., Obornik M., Barbeau K.A, Allen A.E.  2019.  Reduction-dependent siderophore assimilation in a model pennate diatom. 116:23609-23617.
    Abstract Summary:

    Iron uptake by diatoms is a biochemical process with global biogeochemical implications. In large regions of the surface ocean diatoms are both responsible for the majority of primary production and frequently experiencing iron limitation of growth. The strategies used by these phytoplankton to extract iron from seawater constrain carbon flux into higher trophic levels and sequestration into sediments. In this study we use reverse genetic...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Morphological plasticity is a critical mechanism that animals use to cope with variations in resource availability. During periods of food scarcity, sea urchins demonstrate an increase in jaw length relative to test diameter. This trait is thought to be reversible and adaptive by yielding an increase in feeding efficiency. We directly tested the hypotheses that (1) there are reversible shifts in jaw length to test diameter ratios with food...

  • Sandoval J.A, Jadhav S., Quan H.C, Deheyn DD, Tolley M.T.  2019.  Reversible adhesion to rough surfaces both in and out of water, inspired by the clingfish suction disc. 14
    Abstract Summary:

    Adhesion is difficult to achieve on rough surfaces both in air and underwater. In nature, the northern clingfish (Gobiesox maeandricus) has evolved the impressive ability to adhere onto substrates of various shapes and roughnesses, while subject to strong intertidal surges. The suction disc of the clingfish relies on suction and friction to achieve and maintain adhesion. Inspired by this mechanism of attachment, we designed an artificial...

  • Ohishi S., Katsura S., Aiki H..  2019.  Salinity frontogenesis/frontolysis in the northeastern subtropical Pacific region. 53:5927-5943.
    Abstract Summary:

    Detailed mechanisms of reinforcement/relaxation of a sea surface salinity front, i.e. frontogenesis/frontolysis, in the northeastern subtropical Pacific region are investigated using observational datasets. Throughout the year, meridional shears of zonal wind induce meridional ageostrophic convergence around the front. Saltier water is advected on the southern side than the northern side, and thus the convergence contributes to frontogenesis...

  • Meijers A.JS, Cerovecki I, King B.A, Tamsitt V..  2019.  A see-saw in Pacific subantarctic mode water formation driven by atmospheric modes.
    Abstract Summary:

    Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) in the Pacific forms in two distinct pools in the south central and southeast Pacific, which subduct into the ocean interior and impact global storage of heat and carbon. Wintertime thickness of the central and eastern SAMW pools vary predominantly out of phase with each other, by up to +/- 150 m between years, resulting in an interannual thickness see-saw. The thickness in the eastern (central) pool is found to...

  • Uchida T., Balwada D., Abernathey R., Prend C.J, Boss E., Gille ST.  2019.  Southern Ocean phytoplankton blooms observed by biogeochemical floats.
    Abstract Summary:

    The spring bloom in the Southern Ocean is the rapid-growth phase of the seasonal cycle in phytoplankton. Many previous studies have characterized the spring bloom using chlorophyll estimates from satellite ocean color observations. Assumptions regarding the chlorophyll-to-carbon ratio within phytoplankton and vertical structure of biogeochemical variables lead to uncertainty in satellite-based estimates of phytoplankton carbon biomass. Here,...

  • Enzminger T.L, Small E.E, Borsa A.A.  2019.  Subsurface water dominates Sierra Nevada seasonal hydrologic storage.
    Abstract Summary:

    Vertical displacements (dz) in permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) station positions enable estimation of water storage changes (Delta S), which historically have been impossible to measure directly. We use dz from 924 GPS stations in the western United States to estimate daily Delta S in California's Sierra Nevada and compare it to seasonal snow accumulation and melt over water years 2008-2017. Seasonal variations in GPS-based Delta S...

  • Morgan E.J, Stephens B.B, Long M.C, Keeling RF, Bent J.D, McKain K., Sweeney C, Hoecker-Martinez M.S, Kort E.A.  2019.  Summertime atmospheric boundary layer gradients of O-2 and CO2 over the Southern Ocean.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present airborne observations of the vertical gradient of atmospheric oxygen (delta(O-2/N-2)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) through the atmospheric boundary layer (BL) over the Drake Passage region of the Southern Ocean, during the O-2/N-2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean Study, from 15 January to 29 February 2016. Gradients were predominately anticorrelated, with excesses of delta(O-2/N-2) and depletions of CO2 found within the boundary...

  • Li K., Dai S.K, Chen Q.R, Zhang Q.J, Zhao D.D, Wang S.G, Ling J.X.  2019.  Three-dimensional modeling of magnetic anomaly integral solution in a mixed space-wavenumber domain. 62:4437-4450.
    Abstract Summary:

    The paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) modeling method, engaged with a mixed space-wavenumber domain, for the magnetic anomaly field. Based on the fact that the 3D space domain integral for magnetic potential is convolution, the 3D integral problem of magnetic potential in space domain can be transformed into one dimensional (1D) integral problems in vertical direction independently to each other using the two-dimensional (2D) Fourier...

  • Johnson A.C, Aarons S.M, Dauphas N., Nie N.X, Zeng H., Helz R.T, Romaniello S.J, Anbar A.D.  2019.  Titanium isotopic fractionation in Kilauea Iki lava lake driven by oxide crystallization. 264:180-190.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent work has demonstrated that titanium (Ti) isotopes undergo mass-dependent isotope fractionation during magmatic differentiation, leaving evolved silicic melts preferentially enriched in heavy Ti isotopes. Preferential incorporation of light Ti isotopes in crystallizing Fe-Ti oxides is thought to be the mechanism responsible for this fractionation in magmatic rocks. To test this hypothesis, we present Ti isotope measurements of Fe-Ti...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In response to environmental change, organisms rely on both genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to adjust key traits that are necessary for survival and reproduction. Given the accelerating rate of climate change, plasticity may be particularly important. For organisms in warming aquatic habitats, upper thermal tolerance is likely to be a key trait, and many organisms express plasticity in this trait in response to developmental or...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Conductivity-temperature-depth data from instrumented seals of the Marine Mammals Exploring Oceans from Pole to Pole program are analyzed to characterize the water masses and the seasonality of the marginal seas. Bottom temperatures are found to be in a cold regime in Dense Shelf Water (DSW) producing regions, identified in this study as the southern Weddell Sea, Cape Darnley, Prydz Bay, Adelie Coast, and the western Ross Sea. DSW occupies...

  • Chen C.L, Wang G.H, Xie SP, Liu W.  2019.  Why does global warming weaken the Gulf Stream but intensify the Kuroshio? 32:7437-7451.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Kuroshio and Gulf Stream, the subtropical western boundary currents of the North Pacific and North Atlantic, play important roles in meridional heat transport and ocean-atmosphere interaction processes. Using a multimodel ensemble of future projections, we show that a warmer climate intensifies the upper-layer Kuroshio, in contrast to the previously documented slowdown of the Gulf Stream. Our ocean general circulation model experiments...

  • Trexler A.W, Knudsen G.A, Nicklisch S.CT, Birnbaum L.S, Cannon R.E.  2019.  2,4,6-tribromophenol exposure decreases p-glycoprotein transport at the blood-brain barrier. 171:463-472.
    Abstract Summary:

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol (TBP, CAS No. 118-79-6) is a brominated chemical used in the production of flame-retardant epoxy resins and as a wood preservative. In marine environments, TBP is incorporated into shellfish and consumed by predatory fish. Food processing and water treatment facilities produce TBP as a byproduct. 2,4,6-Tribromophenol has been detected in human blood and breast milk. Biologically, TBP interferes with estrogen and thyroid...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Background: High ambient temperature has been linked to a number of types of morbidity, such as cardiovascular disease and dehydration. Fewer studies have explored specifically the relationship between ambient temperature and liver, kidney, and urinary system morbidity despite known biological impacts of extreme high temperatures on those systems. Objective: We assessed the relationship between temperature and hospitalizations related to...

  • Fish M.A, Wilson A.M, Ralph FM.  2019.  Atmospheric river families: Definition and associated synoptic conditions. 20:2091-2108.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause flooding when they are strong and stall over an already wet watershed. While earlier studies emphasized the role of individual, long-duration ARs in triggering floods, it is not uncommon for floods to be associated with a series of ARs that strike in close succession. This study uses measurements from an atmospheric river observatory at Bodega Bay (BBY), in Northern California, to identify periods when...

  • Lilly L.E, Send U, Lankhorst M., Martz T.R, Feely R.A, Sutton A.J, Ohman MD.  2019.  Biogeochemical anomalies at two Southern California Current system moorings during the 2014-2016 Warm Anomaly-El Nino Sequence.
    Abstract Summary:

    We analyzed impacts of the 2014-2015 Pacific Warm Anomaly and 2015-2016 El Nino on physical and biogeochemical variables at two southern California Current System moorings (CCE2, nearshore upwelling off Point Conception; CCE1, offshore California Current). Nitrate and Chl-a fluorescence were <1 mu M and <1 Standardized Fluorescence Unit, respectively, at CCE2 for the entire durations of the Warm Anomaly and El Nino, the two longest...

  • Chaix B., Benmarhnia T., Kestens Y., Brondeel R., Perchoux C., Gerber P., Duncan D.T.  2019.  Combining sensor tracking with a GPS-based mobility survey to better measure physical activity in trips: public transport generates walking. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Background Policymakers need accurate data to develop efficient interventions to promote transport physical activity. Given the imprecise assessment of physical activity in trips, our aim was to illustrate novel advances in the measurement of walking in trips, including in trips incorporating non-walking modes. Methods We used data of 285 participants (RECORD MultiSensor Study, 2013-2015, Paris region) who carried GPS receivers and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Ground-based remote sensing measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) campaign at the McMurdo station and the ARM North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Utqia & x121;vik site are used to retrieve and analyze single-layer stratiform mixed-phase cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties for these different polar environments. Single-layer stratiform mixed-phase clouds have...

  • Cordero-Quiros N., Miller AJ, Subramanian AC, Luo J.Y, Capotondi A..  2019.  Composite physical-biological El Nino and La Nina conditions in the California Current System in CESM1-POP2-BEC. 142
    Abstract Summary:

    El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is recognized as one of the potentially predictable drivers of California Current System (CCS) variability. In this study, we analyze a 67-year coarse-resolution (similar to 1 degrees) simulation using the ocean model CESM-POP2-BEC forced by NCEP/NCAR reanalysis winds to develop a model composite of the physical-biological response of the CCS during ENSO events. The model results are also compared with...

  • Highlighted Publication Zonal–vertical distribution of (a) vertical velocity and wind vectors, (b) zonal wind and wind vectors, and (c) meridional wind  averaged between 138 and 158N for November from ERA-Interim. (d)–(f) The corresponding biases from the AMIP simulation.
    Song X.L, Zhang GJ.  2019.  Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2. 32:6349-6364.
    Abstract Summary:

    The eastern Pacific double-ITCZ bias has long been attributed to the warm bias of SST in the southeastern Pacific and associated local air-sea interaction. In this study, we conducted two simulations using the NCAR CESM1.2.1 to demonstrate that significant double-ITCZ bias can still form in the eastern Pacific through air-sea coupled feedback even when there is cold SST bias in the southeastern Pacific, indicating that other nonlocal culprits...

  • Adusumilli S., Borsa A.A, Fish M.A, McMillan H.K, Silverii F..  2019.  A decade of water storage changes across the contiguous United States From GPS and satellite gravity.
    Abstract Summary:

    Increased climate variability is driving changes in water storage across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Observational estimates of these storage changes are important for validation of hydrological models and predicting future water availability. We estimate CONUS terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA) from 2007-2017 using Global Positioning System (GPS) displacements, constrained by lower-resolution TWSA observations from Gravity...

  • Roemmich D., Sherman J.T, Davis R.E, Grindley K., McClune M., Parker C.J, Black D.N, Zilberman N., Purkey S.G, Sutton P.JH et al..  2019.  Deep SOLO: A full-depth profiling float for the Argo Program. 36:1967-1981.
    Abstract Summary:

    Deployment of Deep Argo regional pilot arrays is underway as a step toward a global array of 1250 surface-to-bottom profiling floats embedded in the upper-ocean (2000 m) Argo Program. Of the 80 active Deep Argo floats as of July 2019, 55 are Deep Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) 6000-m instruments, and the rest are composed of three additional models profiling to either 4000 or 6000 m. Early success of the Deep SOLO is owed...

  • Boudreau P.D, Miller B.W, McCall L.I, Almaliti J., Reher R., Hirata K., Le T., Siqueira-Neto J.L, Hook V., Gerwick WH.  2019.  Design of Gallinamide A analogs as potent inhibitors of the cysteine proteases human Cathepsin L and Trypanosoma cruzi Cruzain. 62:9026-9044.
    Abstract Summary:

    Gallinamide A, originally isolated with a modest antimalarial activity, was subsequently reisolated and characterized as a potent, selective, and irreversible inhibitor of the human cysteine protease cathepsin L. Molecular docking identified potential modifications to improve binding, which were synthesized as a suite of analogs. Resultingly, this current study produced the most potent gallinamide analog yet tested against cathepsin L (10, K-...

  • Cornwell G.C, McCluskey C.S, Levin E.JT, Suski KJ, DeMott PJ, Kreidenweis S.M, Prather KA.  2019.  Direct online mass spectrometry measurements of ice nucleating particles at a California coastal site.
    Abstract Summary:

    The formation of ice in clouds can strongly impact cloud properties and precipitation processes during storms, including atmospheric rivers. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles are relatively inefficient as ice nucleating particles (INPs) compared to mineral dust. However, due to the vast coverage of the Earth's surface by the oceans, a number of recent studies have focused on identifying sources of marine INPs, particularly in regions lacking...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Southern Ocean and coastal Antarctica provide a variety of ecosystem services with benefits for humankind that are of regional and global importance. Despite being nearly uninhabited, increasing exploitation of natural resources, a growing human presence, and environmental change threaten the sustained provisioning of these services. Ecosystem service assessments have proven as a suitable tool to understand the relevance of ecosystems for...

  • Lu R., Stern L.A, Frane W.LDu, Pinkston J.C, Roberts J.J, Constable S.  2019.  The effect of brine on the electrical properties of methane hydrate.
    Abstract Summary:

    Gas hydrates possess lower electrical conductivity (inverse of resistivity) than either seawater or ice, but higher than clastic silts and sands, such that electromagnetic methods can be employed to help identify their natural formation in marine and permafrost environments. Controlled laboratory studies offer a means to isolate and quantify the effects of changing individual components within gas-hydrate-bearing systems, in turn yielding...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The North Pacific subtropical mode water (STMW) often displays a "multicore structure" with more than one minimum in the vertical potential vorticity profile. Anticyclonic eddies (AEs) play an important role in STMW formation and transport, but their effect on the multicore structure of the STMW has not been fully studied. Here, we investigated the formation and evolution of STMW multicore structures in AEs using Argo profiles, which followed...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Objectively determining the level of ecosystem model complexity necessary to achieve meaningful representations of biogeochemical cycles at different spatial and temporal scales is an outstanding issue in marine ecosystem modeling. As part of the development of a three-dimensional (3D) Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) application for the northwest North Atlantic Ocean, we compare model results from three alternative ecosystem model...