Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

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  • Say D., Ganesan A.L, Lunt M.F, Rigby M, O'Doherty S, Harth C, Manning A.J, Krummel PB, Bauguitte S..  2019.  Emissions of halocarbons from India inferred through atmospheric measurements. 19:9865-9885.
    Abstract Summary:

    As the second most populous country and third fastest growing economy, India has emerged as a global economic power. As such, its emissions of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases are of global significance. However, unlike neighbouring China, the Indian sub-continent is very poorly monitored by atmospheric measurement networks. India's halocarbon emissions, here defined as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs),...

  • Slater D.A, Straneo F, Felikson D., Little C.M, Goelzer H., Fettweis X., Holte J..  2019.  Estimating Greenland tidewater glacier retreat driven by submarine melting. 13:2489-2509.
    Abstract Summary:

    The effect of the North Atlantic Ocean on the Greenland Ice Sheet through submarine melting of Greenland's tidewater glacier calving fronts is thought to be a key driver of widespread glacier retreat, dynamic mass loss and sea level contribution from the ice sheet. Despite its critical importance, problems of process complexity and scale hinder efforts to represent the influence of submarine melting in ice-sheet-scale models. Here we propose...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We present multi-seasonal simulations representative of present-day and future environments using the global Model for Prediction Across Scales - Atmosphere (MPAS-A) version 5.1 with high resolution (15 km) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We select 10 simulation years with varying phases of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and integrate each for 14.5 months. We use analyzed sea surface temperature (SST) patterns for present-day...

  • Zhou X.F, Liang Z., Li K.L, Fang W., Tian Y.X, Luo X.W, Chen Y.L, Zhan Z.K, Zhang T., Liao S.R et al..  2019.  Exploring the natural piericidins as anti-renal cell carcinoma agents targeting peroxiredoxin 1. 62:7058-7069.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anti-renal cell carcinoma (RCC) agents with new mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Twenty-seven natural products of the piericidin class, including 17 new ones, are obtained from a marine-derived Streptomyces strain, and several of them show strong inhibitory activities against ACHN renal carcinoma cells. By exploring the mechanisms of two representative natural piericidin compounds, piericidin A (PA) and glucopiericidin A (GPA),...

  • Cloud K.A, Reich B.J, Rozoff C.M, Alessandrini S., Lewis W.E, L. Monache D.  2019.  A feed forward neural network based on model output statistics for short-term hurricane intensity prediction. 34:985-997.
    Abstract Summary:

    A feed forward neural network (FFNN) is developed for tropical cyclone (TC) intensity prediction, where intensity is defined as the maximum 1-min average 10-m wind speed. This deep learning model incorporates a real-time operational estimate of the current intensity and predictors derived from Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF; 2017 version) Model forecasts. The FFNN model is developed with the operational constraint of being...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Geometric, kinematic and dynamic properties of focusing deep-water surface gravity wave packets are examined in a simplified model with the intent of deriving a wave breaking threshold parameter. The model is based on the spatial modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation of Dysthe (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 369 (1736), 1979, pp. 105-114). The evolution of initially narrow-banded and weakly nonlinear chirped Gaussian wave packets are examined...

  • Lee CM, Starkweather S., Eicken H., Timmermans M.L, Wilkinson J., Sandven S., Dukhovskoy D., Gerland S., Grebmeier J., Intrieri J.M et al..  2019.  A framework for the development, design and implementation of a sustained Arctic Ocean observing system. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Rapid Arctic warming drives profound change in the marine environment that have significant socio-economic impacts within the Arctic and beyond, including climate and weather hazards, food security, transportation, infrastructure planning and resource extraction. These concerns drive efforts to understand and predict Arctic environmental change and motivate development of an Arctic Region Component of the Global Ocean Observing System (...

  • Roemmich D., Alford MH, Claustre H., Johnson K., King B., Moum J., Oke P., Owens W.B, Pouliquen S., Purkey S. et al..  2019.  On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through...

  • Schlosser TL, Jones NL, Bluteau CE, Alford MH, Ivey GN, Lucas AJ.  2019.  Generation and propagation of near-inertial waves in a baroclinic current on the Tasmanian Shelf.
    Abstract Summary:

    Near-inertial waves (NIWs) are often an energetic component of the internal wave field on windy continental shelves. The effect of baroclinic geostrophic currents, which introduce both relative vorticity and baroclinicity, on NIWs is not well understood. Relative vorticity affects the resonant frequency, feff, while both relative vorticity and baroclinicity modify the minimum wave frequency of freely-propagating waves, ωmin. On a windy and...

  • Centurioni LR, Turton J., Lumpkin R, Braasch L., Brassington G., Chao Y., Charpentier E., Chen Z.H, Corlett G., Dohan K. et al..  2019.  Global in situ observations of essential climate and ocean variables at the air-sea interface. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The air-sea interface is a key gateway in the Earth system. It is where the atmosphere sets the ocean in motion, climate/weather-relevant air-sea processes occur, and pollutants (i.e., plastic, anthropogenic carbon dioxide, radioactive/chemical waste) enter the sea. Hence, accurate estimates and forecasts of physical and biogeochemical processes at this interface are critical for sustainable blue economy planning, growth, and disaster...

  • Sloyan BM, Wanninkhof R, Kramp M., Johnson G.C, Talley LD, Tanhua T., McDonagh E., Cusack C., O'Rourke E., McGovern E. et al..  2019.  The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A platform for integrated multidisciplinary ocean science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) provides a globally coordinated network and oversight of 55 sustained decadal repeat hydrographic reference lines. GO-SHIP is part of the global ocean/climate observing systems (GOOS/GCOS) for study of physical oceanography, the ocean carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycles, and marine biogeochemistry. GO-SHIP enables assessment of the ocean sequestration of heat and carbon...

  • Todd R.E, Chavez F.P, Clayton S., Cravatte S., Goes M., Greco M., Ling X.P, Sprintall J, Zilberman N.V, Archer M. et al..  2019.  Global perspectives on observing ocean boundary current systems. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean boundary current systems are key components of the climate system, are home to highly productive ecosystems, and have numerous societal impacts. Establishment of a global network of boundary current observing systems is a critical part of ongoing development of the Global Ocean Observing System. The characteristics of boundary current systems are reviewed, focusing on scientific and societal motivations for sustained observing....

  • Guazzo R.A, Schulman-Janiger A., Smith M.H, Barlow J, D’Spain G.L, Rimington D.B, Hildebrand JA.  2019.  Gray whale migration patterns through the Southern California Bight from multi-year visual and acoustic monitoring. 625:181-203.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sightings and acoustic recordings from eastern North Pacific gray whales in the Southern California Bight were analyzed for interannual changes and compared with concurrent environmental measurements during 7 migration seasons (2008-2009 to 2014-2015). Acoustic call counts recorded on an offshore hydrophone were highly variable from year to year. Assuming an average calling rate of 7.5 calls whale-1 d-1, the estimated...

  • Pernet-Fisher JF, Barry PH, Day JMD, D. Pearson G, Woodland S, Agashev AM, Pokhilenko LN, Pokhilenko NP.  2019.  Heterogeneous kimberlite metasomatism revealed from a combined He-Os isotope study of Siberian megacrystalline dunite xenoliths.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Siberian sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is regionally heterogeneous due to the complex modification of ancient cratonic material by various metasomatic fluids and interaction with the Siberian plume at ∼250 Ma. Here, we assess the extent and origin of this heterogeneity by analysis of helium isotopes, rhenium-osmium isotopes, trace-element, and highly siderophile element [HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re] abundances in a suite of...

  • Xie S.C, Wang Y.C, Lin W.Y, Ma H.Y, Tang Q., Tang S.Q, Zheng X., Golaz J.C, Zhang GJ, Zhang M.H.  2019.  Improved diurnal cycle of precipitation in E3SM with a revised convective triggering function. 11:2290-2310.
    Abstract Summary:

    We revise the convective triggering function in Department of Energy's Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1) by introducing a dynamic constraint on the initiation of convection that emulates the collective dynamical effects to prevent convection from being triggered too frequently and allowing air parcels to launch above the boundary layer to capture nocturnal elevated convection. The former is referred...

  • Ellen J.S, Graff C.A, Ohman MD.  2019.  Improving plankton image classification using context metadata. 17:439-461.
    Abstract Summary:

    Advances in both hardware and software are enabling rapid proliferation of in situ plankton imaging methods, requiring more effective machine learning approaches to image classification. Deep Learning methods, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), show marked improvement over traditional feature-based supervised machine learning algorithms, but require careful optimization of hyperparameters and adequate training sets. Here, we...

  • Lee A.KY, Rivellini L.H, Chen C.L, Liu J., Price D.J, Betha R., Russell LM, Zhang X.L, Cappa CD.  2019.  Influences of primary emission and secondary coating formation on the particle diversity and mixing state of black carbon particles. 53:9429-9438.
    Abstract Summary:

    The mixing state of black carbon (BC) affects its environmental fate and impacts. This work investigates particle diversity and mixing state for refractory BC (rBC) containing particles in an urban environment. The chemical compositions of individual rBC-containing particles were measured, from which a mixing state index and particle diversity were determined. The mixing state index (X) varied between 26% and 69% with the average of 48% in...

  • Fox M.D, Carter A.L, Edwards C.B, Takeshita Y, Johnson M.D, Petrovic V., Amir C.G, Sala E, Sandin SA, Smith JE.  2019.  Limited coral mortality following acute thermal stress and widespread bleaching on Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific. 38:701-712.
    Abstract Summary:

    During 2015-2016, an El Nino and associated warm water event caused widespread coral bleaching across the equatorial Pacific. Here, we combine 8 yr of benthic monitoring data from permanent photoquadrats with remotely sensed and in situ temperature measurements to assess the impact of the warming event on benthic communities at Palmyra Atoll. We quantified bleaching prevalence across two distinct reef habitats using the best available data....

  • Haustein K., Otto F.EL, Venema V., Jacobs P., Cowtan K., Hausfather Z., Way R.G, White B., Subramanian A., Schurer A.P.  2019.  A limited role for unforced internal variability in twentieth-century warming. 32:4893-4917.
    Abstract Summary:

    The early twentieth-century warming (EW; 1910-45) and the mid-twentieth-century cooling (MC; 1950-80) have been linked to both internal variability of the climate system and changes in external radiative forcing. The degree to which either of the two factors contributed to EW and MC, or both, is still debated. Using a two-box impulse response model, we demonstrate that multidecadal ocean variability was unlikely to be the driver of observed...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Passive acoustics is a tool to monitor behavior, distributions, and biomass of marine invertebrates, fish, and mammals. Typically, fixed passive acoustic monitoring platforms are deployed, using a priori knowledge of the location of the target vocal species. Here, we demonstrate the ability to conduct coastal surveys of fish choruses, spatially mapping their distributions with an autonomous surface vehicle. For this study, we used an...

  • Meyssignac B., Boyer T., Zhao Z.X, Hakuba M.Z, Landerer F.W, Stammer D., Kohl A., Kato S., L'Ecuyer T., Ablain M. et al..  2019.  Measuring global ocean heat content to estimate the earth energy imbalance. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The energy radiated by the Earth toward space does not compensate the incoming radiation from the Sun leading to a small positive energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere (0.4-1 Wm(-2)). This imbalance is coined Earth's Energy Imbalance (EEI). It is mostly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and is driving the current warming of the planet. Precise monitoring of EEI is critical to assess the current status of climate change...

  • Ryu M.J, Hwang S., Kim S, Yang I., Oh D.C, Nam SJ, Fenical W.  2019.  Meroindenon and merochlorins E and F, antibacterial meroterpenoids from a marine-derived sediment bacterium of the genus Streptomyces. 21:5779-5783.
    Abstract Summary:

    Meroterpenoids, meroindenon (1) and merochlorins E (2) and F (3), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Their chemical structures were established using extensive analysis of MS, UV, ECD, and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 possess a tetrahydroxynaphthalene core and a C-15-isoprene unit. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited strong antibacterial activities against B. subtilis, K. rhizophila, and S....

  • Abstract Summary:

    During the eastern North Pacific gray whale 2014-2015 southbound migration, acoustic call recordings, infrared blow detections, and visual sightings were combined to estimate cue rates, needed to convert detections into abundance. The gray whale acoustic call rate ranged from 2.3-24 calls/whale/ day during the peak of the southbound migration with an average of 7.5 calls/whale/day over both the southbound and northbound migrations. The...

  • Valiadi M., de Rond T., Amorim A., Gittins J.R, Gubili C., Moore BS, Iglesias-Rodriguez M.D, Latz M.I.  2019.  Molecular and biochemical basis for the loss of bioluminescence in the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans along the west coast of the USA.
    Abstract Summary:

    The globally distributed heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid & Swezy is well known for its dense blooms and prominent displays of bioluminescence. Intriguingly, along the west coast of the U.S.A., its blooms are not bioluminescent. We investigated the basis for this regional loss of bioluminescence using molecular, cellular, and biochemical analyses of isolates from different geographic regions. Several...

  • Cui Y.Y, Vijayan A., Falk M., Hsu Y.K, Yin D.Z, Chen X.M, Zhao Z., Avise J., Chen Y.J, Verhulst K. et al..  2019.  A multiplatform inversion estimation of statewide and regional methane emissions in California during 2014-2016. 53:9636-9645.
    Abstract Summary:

    California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, Mbring ratios (VI ' initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 +/- 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission...

  • Highlighted Publication Distribution of putative homologs of T. oceanica GR in representative phytoplankton genomes and the global ocean.
    Diaz JM, Plummer S, Hansel CM, Andeer PF, Saito MA, McIlvin MR.  2019.  NADPH-dependent extracellular superoxide production is vital to photophysiology in the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. 116:16448-16453.
    Abstract Summary:

    Superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are commonly regarded as harmful progenitors of biological stress and death, but this view has been changing. Indeed, many phytoplankton actively generate extracellular superoxide under ideal growth conditions for reasons that are mysterious. Results from this study suggest that extracellular superoxide production by the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica may promote photosynthetic health...

  • Baumann J.H, Ries J.B, Rippe J.P, Courtney T.A, Aichelman H.E, Westfield I., Castillo K.D.  2019.  Nearshore coral growth declining on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic global change and local stressors are impacting coral growth and survival worldwide, altering the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we show that skeletal extension rates of nearshore colonies of two abundant and widespread Caribbean corals (Siderastrea siderea, Pseudodiploria strigosa) declined across the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) over the past century, while offshore coral conspecifics...

  • Wang S.G, Constable S, Reyes-Ortega V., Rychert C.A.  2019.  A newly distinguished marine magnetotelluric coast effect sensitive to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. 218:978-987.
    Abstract Summary:

    The marine magnetotelluric (MT) method is a useful tool for offshore studies aimed at, for example, hydrocarbon exploration and the understanding of Earth's tectonics. Marine MT data are often distorted by coastlines because of the strong resistivity contrast between the conductive ocean and the resistive land. At mid ocean ridges, the resistivity of Earth's structure can be assumed to be two-dimensional, which allows MT data to be decomposed...

  • Amaya DJ, Kosaka Y, Zhou W, Zhang Y, Xie S-P, Miller AJ.  2019.  The North Pacific pacemaker effect on historical ENSO and its mechanisms.
    Abstract Summary:

    Studies have indicated that North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability can significantly modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but there has been little effort to put extratropical-tropical interactions into the context of historical events. To quantify the role of the North Pacific in pacing the timing and magnitude of observed ENSO, we use a fully-coupled climate model to produce an ensemble of North Pacific Ocean-...

  • Tanhua T., Pouliquen S., Hausman J., O'Brien K., Bricher P., de Bruin T., Buck J.JH, Burger E.F, Carval T., Casey K.S et al..  2019.  Ocean FAIR data services. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Well-founded data management systems are of vital importance for ocean observing systems as they ensure that essential data are not only collected but also retained and made accessible for analysis and application by current and future users. Effective data management requires collaboration across activities including observations, metadata and data assembly, quality assurance and control (QA\QC), and data publication that enables local and...

  • Subramanian AC, Balmaseda M.A, Centurioni L, Chattopadhyay R., Cornuelle BD, DeMott C., Flatau M., Fujii Y., Giglio D., Gille ST et al..  2019.  Ocean observations to improve our understanding, modeling, and forecasting of subseasonal-to-seasonal variability. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) forecasts have the potential to provide advance information about weather and climate events. The high heat capacity of water means that the subsurface ocean stores and re-releases heat (and other properties) and is an important source of information for S2S forecasts. However, the subsurface ocean is challenging to observe, because it cannot be measured by satellite. Subsurface ocean observing systems relevant...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The internal light field and thus light exposure of the photosymbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium sp.) in corals is strongly modulated by the optical properties of coral tissue and skeleton. While there are numerous studies documenting the light microenvironment in corals, there are only few measurements of the inherent optical properties of corals in the literature, and this has hampered a more quantitative understanding of coral optics. Here...

  • Mühle J, Trudinger C.M, Western L.M, Rigby M, Vollmer M.K, Park S., Manning A.J, Say D., Ganesan A., Steele LP et al..  2019.  Perfluorocyclobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) in the global atmosphere. 19:10335-10359.
    Abstract Summary:

    We reconstruct atmospheric abundances of the potent greenhouse gas c-C4F8 (perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorocarbon PFC-318) from measurements of in situ, archived, firn, and aircraft air samples with precisions of ∼1 %–2 % reported on the SIO-14 gravimetric calibration scale. Combined with inverse methods, we found near-zero atmospheric abundances from the early 1900s to the early 1960s, after which they rose sharply, reaching 1.66 ppt (parts...

  • Sharma A., Buschmann M.M, Gilbert J.A.  2019.  Pharmacomicrobiomics: The holy grail to variability in drug response? 106:317-328.
    Abstract Summary:

    The human body, with 3.0 x 10(13) cells and more than 3.8 x 10(13) microorganisms, has nearly a one-to-one ratio of resident microbes to human cells. Initiatives like the Human Microbiome Project, American Gut, and Flemish Gut have identified associations between microbial taxa and human health. The study of interactions between microbiome and pharmaceutical agents, i.e., pharmacomicrobiomics, has revealed an instrumental role of the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Photopiperazines A-D (1-4), unsaturated diketopiperazine derivatives, were isolated from the culture broth of a rare, marine-derived actinomycete bacterium, strain AJS-327. This strain shows very poor 16S rRNA sequence similarity to other members of the actinomycete family Streptomycetaceae, indicating it is likely a new lineage within this group. The structures of the photopiperazines were defined by analysis of HR-ESI-TOF-MS spectra in...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The four named species of Branchipolynoe all live symbiotically in mytilid mussels (Bathymodiolus) that occur at hydrothermal vents or methane seeps. Analyses using mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) genes, as well as morphology, were conducted on a collection of Branchipolynoe from Pacific Costa Rican methane seeps and West Pacific hydrothermal vents. This revealed five new species of Branchipolynoe, and these are formally...

  • Smith G.C, Allard R., Babin M., Bertino L., Chevallier M., Corlett G., Crout J., Davidson F., Delille B., Gille ST et al..  2019.  Polar ocean observations: A critical gap in the observing system and its effect on environmental predictions from hours to a season. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    There is a growing need for operational oceanographic predictions in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. In the former, this is driven by a declining ice cover accompanied by an increase in maritime traffic and exploitation of marine resources. Oceanographic predictions in the Antarctic are also important, both to support Antarctic operations and also to help elucidate processes governing sea ice and ice shelf stability. However, a...

  • Wan B., Huang R.X, Diaz J.M, Tang Y.Z.  2019.  Polyphosphate adsorption and hydrolysis on aluminum oxides. 53:9542-9552.
    Abstract Summary:

    The geochemical behaviors of phosphate-containing species at mineral-water interfaces are of fundamental importance for controlling phosphorus mobility, fate, and bioavailability. This study investigates the sorption and hydrolysis of polyphosphate (a group of important long-chained phosphate molecules) on aluminum oxides in the presence of divalent metal cations (Ca2+, Cu-,(2+) Mg2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+) at pH 6-8. gamma-Al2O3 with three particle...

  • Deeter M.N, Edwards D.P, Francis G.L, Gille J.C, Mao D., Martinez-Alonso S., Worden H.M, Ziskin D., Andreae M.O.  2019.  Radiance-based retrieval bias mitigation for the MOPITT instrument: the version 8 product. 12:4561-4580.
    Abstract Summary:

    The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument has been making nearly continuous observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) since 2000. Satellite observations of CO are routinely used to analyze emissions from fossil fuels and biomass burning, as well as the atmospheric transport of those emissions. Recent enhancements to the MOPITT retrieval algorithm have resulted in the release of the version 8 (V8)...

  • Sanz-Martin M., Vernet M, Cape M.R, Mesa E., Delgado-Huertas A., Reigstad M., Wassmann P., Duarte C.M.  2019.  Relationship between carbon- and oxygen-based primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean, Svalbard Archipelago. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton contribute half of the primary production (PP) in the biosphere and are the major source of energy for the Arctic Ocean ecosystem. While PP measurements are therefore fundamental to our understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling, the extent to which current methods provide a definitive estimate of this process remains uncertain given differences in their underlying approaches, and assumptions. This is especially the case in...

  • Bourassa MA, Meissner T., Cerovecki I, Chang P.S, Dong X.L, De Chiara G., Donlon C., Dukhovskoy D.S, Elya J., Fore A. et al..  2019.  Remotely sensed winds and wind stresses for marine forecasting and ocean modeling. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Strengths and weakness of remotely sensed winds are discussed, along with the current capabilities for remotely sensing winds and stress. Future missions are briefly mentioned. The observational needs for a wide range of wind and stress applications are provided. These needs strongly support a short list of desired capabilities of future missions and constellations.


  • Abstract Summary:

    In 2012, California completed its marine protected area (MPA) planning and designation process, yielding a network of 124 MPAs from the Mexican border to Oregon. The management effort that has followed is comprehensive and strategic, with a focus on scientific monitoring, interagency coordination, public education and outreach, and enforcement. Initial monitoring results show more and bigger fish, especially in older MPAs where the benefits...

  • Rogowski P, Merrifield S., Ding L., Terrill E, Gesiriech G..  2019.  Robotic mapping of mixing and dispersion of augmented surface water in a drought frequent reservoir.
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatial and temporal evolution of an introduced dye tracer in a small reservoir was observed using a robotic autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), providing quantifiable data of the convective processes which drive transport and mixing. The tracer served as a surrogate for advanced treated water that has been proposed to be introduced into a reservoir as part of an overall system for efficient water reclamation, a critical management tool...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We investigated rock varnish formed on sandstone and petroglyphs in the Hima area, southwestern Saudi Arabia. To characterize the rock varnish, we made in-situ measurements by portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and analyzed samples by femtosecond laser-ablation inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (fs LA-ICP-MS). Detailed chemical analysis of the rock varnish samples and adjacent soil or aeolian dust yielded information about the...

  • Cao Q., Mehran A., Ralph FM, Lettenmaier DP.  2019.  The role of hydrological initial conditions on atmospheric river floods in the Russian River basin. 20:1667-1686.
    Abstract Summary:

    A body of work over the last decade or so has demonstrated that most major floods along the U.S. West Coast are attributable to atmospheric rivers (ARs). Recent studies suggest that observed changes in extreme precipitation associated with a general warming of the western United States have not necessarily led to corresponding changes in floods, and changes in antecedent hydrological conditions could be a primary missing link. Here we examine...

  • Thackston K.A, Deheyn DD, Sievenpiper D.F.  2019.  Simulation of electric fields generated from microtubule vibrations. 100
    Abstract Summary:

    Microtubules are tubular proteins that form part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Because of their unique mechanical properties, many studies have theorized microtubules could show high-frequency mechanical vibrations. Others have further suggested these vibrations of the electrically polar microtubules could be a source of electric fields inside the cell that could serve some biological function, such as a role in organizing mitosis...

  • Ludka B.C, Guza RT, O'Reilly W.C, Merrifield M.A, Flick RE, Bak A.S, Hesser T., Bucciarelli R., Olfe C., Woodward B. et al..  2019.  Sixteen years of bathymetry and waves at San Diego beaches. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Sustained, quantitative observations of nearshore waves and sand levels are essential for testing beach evolution models, but comprehensive datasets are relatively rare. We document beach profiles and concurrent waves monitored at three southern California beaches during 2001-2016. The beaches include offshore reefs, lagoon mouths, hard substrates, and cobble and sandy (medium-grained) sediments. The data span two energetic El Nino winters...

  • Menking J.A, Brook E.J, Shackleton S.A, Severinghaus JP, Dyonisius M.N, Petrenko V., McConnell J.R, Rhodes R.H, Bauska T.K, Baggenstos D et al..  2019.  Spatial pattern of accumulation at Taylor Dome during Marine Isotope Stage 4: stratigraphic constraints from Taylor Glacier. 15:1537-1556.
    Abstract Summary:

    New ice cores retrieved from the Taylor Glacier (Antarctica) blue ice area contain ice and air spanning the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5-4 transition, a period of global cooling and ice sheet expansion. We determine chronologies for the ice and air bubbles in the new ice cores by visually matching variations in gas-and ice-phase tracers to pre-existing ice core records. The chronologies reveal an ice age-gas age difference (1 age) approaching...

  • Moyer A.N, Nienow P.W, Gourmelen N., Sole A.J, Slater D.A, Truffer M., Fahnestock M..  2019.  Spatio-temporal variations in seasonal ice tongue submarine melt rate at a tidewater glacier in southwest Greenland. 65:523-530.
    Abstract Summary:

    Submarine melting of tidewater glaciers is proposed as a trigger for their recent thinning, acceleration and retreat. We estimate spring submarine melt rates (SMRs) of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia in southwest Greenland, from 2012 to 2014, by examining changes in along-fjord freeboard and velocity of the seasonal floating ice tongue. Estimated SMRs vary spatially and temporally near the grounding line, with mean rates of 1.3 +/- 0.6, 0.8 +/- 0.3...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

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