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Recent Publications

  • Goto R., Monnington J., Sciberras M., Hirabayashi I., Rouse GW.  2020.  Phylogeny of Echiura updated, with a revised taxonomy to reflect their placement in Annelida as sister group to Capitellidae. 34:101-111.
    Abstract Summary:

    Echiura (commonly called spoon worms) are derived annelids that have an unsegmented sausage-shaped body with a highly extensible anterior end (i.e. a proboscis). Echiura currently contains two superfamilies: Echiurioidea (with Echiuridae, Urechidae and Thalassematidae) and Bonellioidea (with Bonelliidae, and Ikedidae). Ikedidae contains only Ikeda, which is distinctive in having a huge trunk, a highly elongate proboscis with stripes or dots,...

  • Kumagai J.A, Costa M.T, Ezcurra E., Aburto-Oropeza O.  2020.  Prioritizing mangrove conservation across Mexico to facilitate 2020 NDC ambition.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is a scale mismatch between mangrove conservation and carbon emission mitigation policies despite mangroves contributing disproportionally to global carbon sequestration. Using Mexico as a case study in the integration of these scales, we estimate mangrove carbon value and deforestation rates at the municipio (local government) scale and develop a prioritization model that indicates where to focus conservation efforts. By using...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The designing of drugs that can simultaneously affect different protein targets is one novel and promising way to treat complex diseases. Multitarget drugs act on multiple protein receptors each implicated in the same disease state, and may be considered to be more beneficial than conventional drug therapies. For example, these drugs can have improved therapeutic potency due to synergistic effects on multiple targets, as well as improved...

  • Kodera S.M, Edwards C.B, Petrovic V., Pedersen N.E, Eynaud Y., Sandin SA.  2020.  Quantifying life history demographics of the scleractinian coral genus Pocillopora at Palmyra Atoll.
    Abstract Summary:

    Characterizations of colony-specific fate are necessary to predict trajectories of coral population change accurately, and a research challenge exists to collect more robust data describing coral demographic rates and the factors that influence them. Colonial, reef-building corals present challenges to the study of demography, given that the size of individual colonies can be decoupled from age, and rates of colony growth and shrinkage can be...

  • Munoz R.C, Armi L., Rutllant J.A, Falvey M., Whiteman C.D, Garreaud R., Arriagada A., Flores F., Donoso N..  2020.  Raco wind at the exit of the Maipo Canyon in Central Chile: Climatology, special observations, and possible mechanisms. 59:725-749.
    Abstract Summary:

    Raco is the local name given to a strong (gusts up to 17 m s(-1)), warm, and dry down-valley wind observed at the exit of the Maipo River Canyon in central Chile. Its climatology is documented based on eight years of surface measurements near the canyon exit together with a more complete characterization of its structure during an intensive observational period (IOP) carried out in July 2018. Raco winds occur in the cold season under well-...

  • Sathyendranath S., Platt T., Kovac Z., Dingle J., Jackson T., Brewin R.JW, Franks P., Maranon E., Kulk G., Bouman H.A.  2020.  Reconciling models of primary production and photoacclimation Invited. 59:C100-C114.
    Abstract Summary:

    Primary production and photoacclimation models are two important classes of physiological models that find applications in remote sensing of pools and fluxes of carbon associated with phytoplankton in the ocean. They are also key components of ecosystem models designed to study biogeochemical cycles in the ocean. So far, these two classes of models have evolved in parallel, somewhat independently of each other. Here we examine how they are...

  • Hernandez E.S, Smith SGL, Cros A..  2020.  Resonance of a flexible plate immersed in a von Karman vortex street. 34:1459-1465.
    Abstract Summary:

    This work presents a theoretical and experimental study of a flexible plate immersed in a von Karman vortex street. The wake is generated in a water flow using a cylindrical obstacle with a Reynolds number lower than 200. The vortices provoke oscillations of a flexible plate whose leading edge is clamped a few cylinder diameters downstream of the obstacle. The oscillation amplitude of the free edge is examined experimentally as the plate...

  • Gibson P.B, Waliser D.E, Guan B., DeFlorio M.J, Ralph FM, Swain D.L.  2020.  Ridging associated with drought across the Western and Southwestern United States: Characteristics, trends, and predictability sources. 33:2485-2508.
    Abstract Summary:

    Persistent winter ridging events are a consistent feature of meteorological drought across the western and southwestern United States. In this study, a ridge detection algorithm is developed and applied on daily geopotential height anomalies to track and quantify the diversity of individual ridge characteristics (e.g., position, frequency, magnitude, extent, and persistence). Three dominant ridge types are shown to play important, but...

  • Pan H.L, Gao P.L, Zhou H.C, Ma R.X, Yang J.S, Zhang X..  2020.  Roughness analysis of sea surface from visible images by texture. 8:46448-46458.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper presents a roughness analysis of sea surface from visible images by feature measurements of texture for the first time. The algorithms presented in this paper include six texture feature measurements of sea surface use gray level co-occurrence matrix, gray level-gradient co-occurrence matrix, Tamura texture feature, autocorrelation function, edge frequency and fractional Brownian motion autocorrelation. The empirical relationship...

  • Jacox M.G, Alexander M.A, Siedlecki S., Chen K., Kwon Y.O, Brodie S., Ortiz I., Tommasi D., Widlansky M.J, Barrie D. et al..  2020.  Seasonal-to-interannual prediction of North American coastal marine ecosystems: Forecast methods, mechanisms of predictability, and priority developments. 183
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine ecosystem forecasting is an area of active research and rapid development. Promise has been shown for skillful prediction of physical, biogeochemical, and ecological variables on a range of timescales, suggesting potential for forecasts to aid in the management of living marine resources and coastal communities. However, the mechanisms underlying forecast skill in marine ecosystems are often poorly understood, and many forecasts,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Serial blockface scanning electron microscopy (SBSEM) is used to describe the sensory peripheral nervous system (PNS) in the tail of a cephalochordate, Asymmetron lucayanum. The reconstructed region extends from the tail tip to the origin of the most posterior peripheral nerves from the dorsal nerve cord. As peripheral nerves ramify within the dermis, all the nuclei along their course belong to glial cells. Invaginations in the glial cell...

  • Tunnicliffe V., Metaxas A., Le J., Ramirez-Llodra E., Levin L.A.  2020.  Strategic environmental goals and objectives: Setting the basis for environmental regulation of deep seabed mining. 114
    Abstract Summary:

    Deep seabed mining is a major new intersection of human enterprise and deep-ocean ecosystems. This paper reviews the concept and process for a holistic approach to planning environmental management in the deep sea based on Strategic Environmental Goals and Objectives. Strategic planning around the environment can establish a vision for the future condition of the ocean floor for which the International Seabed Authority (ISA) can draw on a...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Paleoclimate proxy evidence suggests that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) was about 1000 m shallower at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) compared to the present. Yet it remains unresolved what caused this glacial shoaling of the AMOC, and many climate models instead simulate a deeper AMOC under LGM forcing. While some studies suggest that Southern Ocean surface buoyancy forcing controls the AMOC depth, others have...

  • Yang J.C, Lin X.P, Xie SP, Zhang Y., Kosaka Y, Li Z.G.  2020.  Synchronized tropical Pacific and extratropical variability during the past three decades.
    Abstract Summary:

    Internally generated decadal variability influences global mean surface temperature (GMST), inducing acceleration and slowdown of the warming rate under anthropogenic radiative forcing(1-4). While tropical eastern Pacific variability is important for annual-mean GMST(2,5-8), the cold ocean-warm land (COWL) pattern(9,10) also contributes to continental temperature variability(11-13) in the boreal cold season. Although the two contributors are...

  • Wu Y., Smith SGL, Rottman J.W, Broutman D., Minster J.BH.  2020.  Time-dependent propagation of tsunami-generated acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere. 77:1233-1244.
    Abstract Summary:

    Tsunami-generated linear acoustic-gravity waves in the atmosphere with altitude-dependent vertical stratification and horizontal background winds are studied with the long-term goal of real-time tsunami warning. The initial-value problem is examined using Fourier-Laplace transforms to investigate the time dependence and to compare the cases of anelastic and compressible atmospheres. The approach includes formulating the linear propagation of...

  • Hindell M.A, Reisinger R.R, Ropert-Coudert Y., Huckstadt L.A, Trathan P.N, Bornemann H., Charrassin J.B, Chown S.L, Costa D.P, Danis B. et al..  2020.  Tracking of marine predators to protect Southern Ocean ecosystems.
    Abstract Summary:

    Tracking data from 17 marine predator species in the Southern Ocean are used to identify Areas of Ecological Significance, the protection of which could help to mitigate increasing pressures on Southern Ocean ecosystems. Southern Ocean ecosystems are under pressure from resource exploitation and climate change(1,2). Mitigation requires the identification and protection of Areas of Ecological Significance (AESs), which have so far not been...

  • England M.R, Polvani L.M, Sun L.T, Deser C..  2020.  Tropical climate responses to projected Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice loss.
    Abstract Summary:

    Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice extent are both projected to dramatically decline over the coming century. The effects of Arctic sea-ice loss are not limited to the northern high latitudes, and reach deep into the tropics. Yet little is known about the effects of future Antarctic sea-ice loss outside of the southern high latitudes. Here, using a fully coupled climate model, we investigate the tropical response to Antarctic sea-ice loss and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study provides an initial demonstration of a combined two-UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) system for measuring the underwater source levels and behavioural context of vocal and non-vocal marine mammal signals, information that is highly ecologically-relevant in terms of understanding how a species interacts and copes with conspecifics and its acoustic environment. Although the calls of a few species are well known, major gaps exist in our...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The absorption spectra of molecular organic chromophores in aqueous media are of considerable importance in environmental chemistry. In this work, the UV-vis spectra of benzoic acid (BA), the simplest aromatic carboxylic acid, in aqueous solutions at varying pH and in the presence of salts are measured experimentally. The solutions of different pH provide insights into the contributions from both the non-dissociated acid molecule and the...

  • Tucker T., Giglio D., Scanderbeg M., Shen S.SP.  2020.  Argovis: A web application for fast delivery, visualization, and analysis of Argo data. 37:401-416.
    Abstract Summary:

    Since the mid-2000s, the Argo oceanographic observational network has provided near-real-time four-dimensional data for the global ocean for the first time in history. Internet (i.e., the "web") applications that handle the more than two million Argo profiles of ocean temperature, salinity, and pressure are an active area of development. This paper introduces a new and efficient interactive Argo data visualization and delivery web application...

  • Briggs E.M, De Carlo E.H, Sabine C.L, Howins N.M, Martz T.R.  2020.  Autonomous ion-sensitive field effect transistor-based total alkalinity and pH measurements on a barrier reef of Kane'ohe Bay. 4:355-362.
    Abstract Summary:

    Here, we present first of its kind high-frequency total alkalinity (A(T)) and pH data from a single solid-state autonomous sensor collected during a six-day deployment at a barrier reef in Kane'ohe Bay on the CRIMP-2 buoy. This dual parameter sensor is capable of rapid (<60 s), near-simultaneous measurement of the preferred seawater carbonate system parameters, pH, and A(T) without requiring any external reagents or moving parts inherent...

  • Chang C., Smith SGL.  2020.  Axisymmetric contour dynamics for buoyant vortex rings. 887
    Abstract Summary:

    The present work uses a reduced-order model to study the motion of a buoyant vortex ring with non-negligible core size. Buoyancy is considered in both non-Boussinesq and Boussinesq situations using an axisymmetric contour dynamics formulation. The density of the vortex ring differs from that of the ambient fluid, and both densities are constant and conserved. The motion of the ring is calculated by following the boundary of the vortex core,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Electromagnetic methods are directly sensitive to electrically resistive gas hydrates and can be used to characterize and quantify hydrate deposits. Using a 1 km long deep-towed marine electromagnetic system, six survey lines were acquired coincident with legacy seismic reflection data in the Santa Cruz Basin in the Outer California Borderlands. While the strongest seismic indicators place hydrate in the central basin, resistors inferred to...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Gulf of Papua inner mid-shelf clinothem and lowstand deposits in Pandora Trough record sediment source and routing through the last sea-level cycle on 20 kyr cycles. Clay mineralogy tracked dispersal of sediment from the two types of rivers (wide versus narrow floodplains) to constrain the contributions of river systems to the Gulf of Papua clinothem and Pandora Trough deposits. Fly River sediment has higher illite:smectite than clays...

  • Barthel A., Agosta C., Little C.M, Hattermann T., Jourdain N.C, Goelzer H., Nowicki S., Seroussi H., Straneo F, Bracegirdle T.J.  2020.  CMIP5 model selection for ISMIP6 ice sheet model forcing: Greenland and Antarctica. 14:855-879.
    Abstract Summary:

    The ice sheet model intercomparison project for CMIP6 (ISMIP6) effort brings together the ice sheet and climate modeling communities to gain understanding of the ice sheet contribution to sea level rise. ISMIP6 conducts stand-alone ice sheet experiments that use space- and time-varying forcing derived from atmosphere-ocean coupled global climate models (AOGCMs) to reflect plausible trajectories for climate projections. The goal of this study...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In the present study, we extensively characterized potential toxin-related genes, including polyketide synthase (PKS), saxitoxin (STX) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) from the non-toxin producing marine dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, comparing to those of a toxigenic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pacificum. RNA sequencing revealed 50 and 271 PKS contigs from C. polykrikoides and A. pacificum, respectively. According to domain...

  • Kosovic B., Haupt S.E, Adriaansen D., Alessandrini S., Wiener G., L. Monache D, Liu Y.B, Linden S., Jensen T., Cheng W. et al..  2020.  A comprehensive wind power forecasting system integrating artificial intelligence and numerical weather prediction. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) recently updated the comprehensive wind power forecasting system in collaboration with Xcel Energy addressing users' needs and requirements by enhancing and expanding integration between numerical weather prediction and machine-learning methods. While the original system was designed with the primary focus on day-ahead power prediction in support of power trading, the enhanced system...

  • Reher R., Kim H.W, Zhang C., Mao H.H, Wang M.X, Nothias L.F, Caraballo-Rodriguez A.M, Glukhov E., Teke B., Leao T. et al..  2020.  A convolutional neural network-based approach for the rapid annotation of molecularly diverse natural products. 142:4114-4120.
    Abstract Summary:

    This report describes the first application of the novel NMR-based machine learning tool "Small Molecule Accurate Recognition Technology" (SMART 2.0) for mixture analysis and subsequent accelerated discovery and characterization of new natural products. The concept was applied to the extract of a filamentous marine cyanobacterium known to be a prolific producer of cytotoxic natural products. This environmental Symploca extract was roughly...

  • Cook S.J, Christoffersen P., Todd J., Slater D., Chauche N..  2020.  Coupled modelling of subglacial hydrology and calving-front melting at Store Glacier, West Greenland. 14:905-924.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigate the subglacial hydrology of Store Glacier in West Greenland, using the open-source, full-Stokes model Elmer/Ice in a novel 3D application that includes a distributed water sheet, as well as discrete channelised drainage, and a 1D model to simulate submarine plumes at the calving front. At first, we produce a baseline winter scenario with no surface meltwater. We then investigate the hydrological system during summer, focussing...

  • Maloney K.N, Botts R.T, Davis T.S, Okada B.K, Maloney E.M, Leber C.A, Alvarado O., Brayton C., Caraballo-Rodriguez A.M, Chari J.V et al..  2020.  Cryptic species account for the seemingly idiosyncratic secondary metabolism of Sarcophyton glaucum specimens collected in Palau. 83:693-705.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sarcophyton glaucum is one of the most abundant and chemically studied soft corals with over 100 natural products reported in the literature, primarily cembrane diterpenoids. Yet, wide variation in the chemistry observed from S. glaucum over the past 50 years has led to its reputation as a capricious producer of bioactive metabolites. Recent molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that S. glaucum is not a single species but a complex of at...

  • Dillon E.M, Lafferty K.D, McCauley D.J, Bradley D., Norris RD, Caselle JE, DiRenzo G.V, Gardner J.PA, O'Dea A..  2020.  Dermal denticle assemblages in coral reef sediments correlate with conventional shark surveys. 11:362-375.
    Abstract Summary:

    It is challenging to assess long-term trends in mobile, long-lived and relatively rare species such as sharks. Despite ongoing declines in many coastal shark populations, conventional surveys might be too fleeting and too recent to describe population trends over decades to millennia. Placing recent shark declines into historical context should improve management efforts as well as our understanding of past ecosystem dynamics. A new...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Natural gradient systems can be used to examine the vulnerability of deep-sea communities to climate change. The Gulf of California presents an ideal system for examining relationships between faunal patterns and environmental conditions of deep-sea communities because deep-sea conditions change from warm and oxygen-rich in the north to cold and severely hypoxic in the south. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) remotely...

  • Liu S, Ahmed S., Zhang C.G, Liu T.X, Shao C.L, Fang Y.W.  2020.  Diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable fungi associated with sea anemone Anthopleura xanthogrammica. 44:41-46.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: The main objective of this study was to isolate fungi associated with Anthopleura xanthogrammica and measure their antimicrobial and enzymatic activities. A total of 93 fungal strains associated with A. xanthogrammica were isolated in this study, of which 32 isolates were identified using both morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The antibacterial activities of 32 fungal isolates...

  • Chyderiotis S., Benrnarhnia T., Beck F., Spilka S., Legleye S..  2020.  Does e-cigarette experimentation increase the transition to daily smoking among young ever-smokers in France? 208
    Abstract Summary:

    Introduction: According to multiple studies, e-cigarette use among adolescents is associated with subsequent smoking initiation. However, little is known about its effect on the transition from smoking initiation to daily smoking. Methods: Using retrospective data from a French national representative survey collected in 2017 (n = 39,115), we analyzed the role of ever using e-cigarettes on daily cigarette smoking status at 17 among ever...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of college attendance on tobacco use among young adults and across subpopulations with disparities in tobacco use. Using a cohort of US youth ( < 18 years) who aged into young adulthood (18-24 years) in the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (2013-14, 2015-16, n = 3619) and propensity score matching we estimated the effect of college attendance on past 30-day use of cigarettes, e-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    There is urgent need for effective and efficient monitoring of marine fish populations. Monitoring eggs and larval fish may be more informative than that traditional fish surveys since ichthyoplankton surveys reveal the reproductive activities of fish populations, which directly impact their population trajectories. Ichthyoplankton surveys have turned to molecular methods (DNA barcoding & metabarcoding) for identification of eggs and...

  • Ozanich E., Gerstoft P, Niu H.Q.  2020.  A feedforward neural network for direction-of-arrival estimation. 147:2035-2048.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper examines the relationship between conventional beamforming and linear supervised learning, then develops a nonlinear deep feed-forward neural network (FNN) for direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation. First, conventional beamforming is reformulated as a real-valued, linear inverse problem in the weight space, which is compared to a support vector machine and a linear FNN model. In the linear formulation, DOA is quickly and accurately...

  • Abstract Summary:
  • Pendergrass A.G, Meehl G.A, Pulwarty R., Hobbins M., Hoell A., AghaKouchak A., Bonfils C.JW, Gallant A.JE, Hoerling M., Hoffmann D. et al..  2020.  Flash droughts present a new challenge for subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction. 10:191-199.
    Abstract Summary:

    Flash droughts, which develop over the course of weeks, are difficult to forecast given the current state of subseasonal-to-seasonal prediction. This Perspective offers operational and research definitions, places them in the broader context of climate and suggests avenues for future research. Flash droughts are a recently recognized type of extreme event distinguished by sudden onset and rapid intensification of drought conditions with...

  • Karion A., Callahan W., Stock M., Prinzivalli S., Verhulst K.R, Kim J., Salameh PK, Lopez-Coto I., Whetstone J..  2020.  Greenhouse gas observations from the Northeast Corridor tower network. 12:699-717.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present the organization, structure, instrumentation, and measurements of the Northeast Corridor greenhouse gas observation network. This network of tower-based in situ carbon dioxide and methane observation stations was established in 2015 with the goal of quantifying emissions of these gases in urban areas in the northeastern United States. A specific focus of the network is the cities of Baltimore, MD, and Washington, DC, USA, with a...

  • Dupouy C., Rottgers R., Tedetti M., Frouin R., Lantoine F., Rodier M., Martias C., Goutx M..  2020.  Impact of contrasted weather conditions on CDOM absorption/fluorescence and biogeochemistry in the Eastern Lagoon of New Caledonia. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    New Caledonia (Southwest Pacific), like all tropical Pacific Island countries, is impacted by weather events, climate change, and local anthropogenic forcing. Strong erosion of particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from ultramafic rocks, associated with trace metals dissemination (i.e., nickel, manganese and cobalt), potentially affects lagoon waters and coral reefs surrounding the main island. The CALIOPE (CALedonian Inherent Optical...

  • Koehnken L., Rintoul M.S, Goichot M., Tickner D., Loftus A.C, Acreman M.C.  2020.  Impacts of riverine sand mining on freshwater ecosystems: A review of the scientific evidence and guidance for future research. 36:362-370.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sand mining (used here as a generic term that includes mining of any riverine aggregates regardless of particle size) is a global activity that is receiving increasing media attention due to perceived negative environmental and social impacts. As calls grow for stronger regulation of mining, there is a need to understand the scientific evidence to support effective management. This paper summarizes the results of a structured literature...

  • Leibel S., Nguyen M., Brick W., Parker J., Ilango S., Aguilera R., Gershunov A, Benmarhnia T..  2020.  Increase in pediatric respiratory visits associated with Santa Ana wind-driven wildfire smoke and PM2.5 levels in San Diego County. 17:313-320.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rationale: There is significant evidence of increased healthcare utilization from cardiopulmonary causes in adults from exposure to wildfire smoke, but evidence in pediatric age groups is limited. Objectives: To quantify and examine the healthcare utilization effects of the December 2017 Lilac Fire in San Diego County among pediatric patients at the Rady Children's Hospital (RCH) emergency department and urgent care (UC) clinics. Methods:...

  • Li J., Gerstoft P, Siderius M., Fan J..  2020.  Inversion of head waves in ocean acoustic ambient noise. 147:1752-1761.
    Abstract Summary:

    The virtual head wave is produced through cross-correlation processing of signals containing the real, acoustic head wave. The virtual head wave has the same phase speed as the head wave, but the travel time is offset, thus the term virtual. The virtual head wave, like the real head wave, propagates in a direction corresponding to the seabed critical angle. The virtual head wave travel time varies with array depth and water column depth....

  • Abstract Summary:

    Myxosporea (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) are common fish parasites with complex life cycles that involve annelid hosts. Two economically important salmonid-infecting myxosporeans from rivers of the northwestern United States, Ceratonova shasta (Noble, 1950) and Parvicapsula minibicornis Kent et al., 1997, have life cycles that require a freshwater annelid host, identified previously as Manayunkia speciosa Leidy, 1859. This species was described...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We investigated nutrient patterns and their relationship to vertical carbon export using results from 38 Lagrangian experiments in the California Current Ecosystem. The dominant mode of variability reflected onshore-offshore nutrient gradients. A secondary mode of variability was correlated with silica excess and dissolved iron and likely reflects regional patterns of iron limitation. The biological carbon pump was enhanced in high-nutrient...

  • Chen P, De Meulenaere E, Deheyn DD, Bandaru PR.  2020.  Iron redox pathway revealed in ferritin via electron transfer analysis. 10:4033.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ferritin protein is involved in biological tissues in the storage and management of iron - an essential micro-nutrient in the majority of living systems. While there are extensive studies on iron-loaded ferritin, its functionality in iron delivery is not completely clear. Here, for the first time, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been successfully adapted to address the challenge of resolving a cascade of fast and co-occurring redox...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Large aperture towed arrays are widely used underwater to detect weak targets. During maneuvering, the beamformer performance degrades significantly if a wrong array configuration is assumed. Currently, engineering sensors and/or (augmented) acoustic sources are used to estimate the array element positions. The results are often inadequate depending on the number of measurements available. In this paper, an adaptive bow (AB) sparse Bayesian...

  • Qin N., Liang P., Wu C.Y, Wang G.Q, Xu Q., Xiong X., Wang T.T, Zolfo M., Segata N., Qin H.L et al..  2020.  Longitudinal survey of microbiome associated with particulate matter in a megacity. 21
    Abstract Summary:

    Background While the physical and chemical properties of airborne particulate matter (PM) have been extensively studied, their associated microbiome remains largely unexplored. Here, we performed a longitudinal metagenomic survey of 106 samples of airborne PM2.5 and PM10 in Beijing over a period of 6 months in 2012 and 2013, including those from several historically severe smog events. Results We observed that the microbiome composition and...

  • Kadoya S., Catling D.C, Nicklas R.W, Puchtel I.S, Anbar A.D.  2020.  Mantle cooling causes more reducing volcanic gases and gradual reduction of the atmosphere. 13:25-29.
    Abstract Summary:

    The early atmosphere contained negligible O-2 until the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) around 2.4 Ga, but evidence suggests that production of photosynthetic O-2 began hundreds of millions of years earlier. Thus, an ongoing debate concerns the trigger of the GOE. One possibility is that volcanic gases became more oxidising over time. Secular cooling of the mantle affects thermodynamic equilibria and also changes the proportions of reduced and...

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