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Recent Publications

  • Darling E.S, McClanahan T.R, Maina J., Gurney G.G, Graham N.AJ, Januchowski-Hartley F., Cinner J.E, Mora C., Hicks C.C, Maire E. et al..  2019.  Social-environmental drivers inform strategic management of coral reefs in the Anthropocene. 3:1341-1350.
    Abstract Summary:

    Without drastic efforts to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate globalized stressors, tropical coral reefs are in jeopardy. Strategic conservation and management requires identification of the environmental and socioeconomic factors driving the persistence of scleractinian coral assemblages-the foundation species of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we compiled coral abundance data from 2,584 Indo-Pacific reefs to evaluate the influence of 21...

  • Chi J., Li X.L, Wang H.Z, Gao D.Z, Gerstoft P.  2019.  Sound source ranging using a feed-forward neural network trained with fitting-based early stopping. 146:EL258-EL264.
    Abstract Summary:

    When a feed-forward neural network (FNN) is trained for acoustic source ranging in an ocean waveguide, it is difficult evaluating the FNN ranging accuracy of unlabeled test data. The label is the distance between source and receiver array. A fitting-based early stopping (FEAST) method is introduced to evaluate the FNN ranging error on test data where the distance to the source is unknown. Based on FEAST, when the evaluated ranging error is...

  • Li T., Wang N., Zhang T., Zhang B., Sajeevan T.P, Joseph V., Armstrong L., He S., Yan X.J, Naman C.B.  2019.  A systematic review of recently reported marine derived natural product kinase inhibitors. 17
    Abstract Summary:

    Protein kinases are validated drug targets for a number of therapeutic areas, as kinase deregulation is known to play an essential role in many disease states. Many investigated protein kinase inhibitors are natural product small molecules or their derivatives. Many marine-derived natural products from various marine sources, such as bacteria and cyanobacteria, fungi, animals, algae, soft corals, sponges, etc. have been found to have potent...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Species delimitation in sternaspid polychaetes is currently based on the morphology of a limited suite of characters, namely characters of the ventro-caudal shield—a unique feature of the family. Sternaspid species description has increased rapidly in recent years; however, the validity of the shield as a diagnostic character has not been assessed through molecular means. This study performs the largest molecular taxonomy of Sternaspidae to...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The primary goal of NASA's Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission was to detect centimeter-level changes in global ice sheet elevations at the spatial scale of individual ice streams. Confidence in detecting these small signals requires careful validation over time to characterize the uncertainty and stability of measured elevations. A common validation approach compares altimeter elevations to an independently...

  • Stephen R.A, Bolmer S.T, Worcester P.F, Dzieciuch M.A, Udovydchenkov I.A.  2019.  Three-dimensional bottom diffraction in the North Pacific. 146:1913-1922.
    Abstract Summary:

    A significant aspect of bottom-interaction in deep water acoustic propagation, from point sources to point receivers, is the diffraction (or scattering) of energy from discrete seafloor locations along repeatable, deterministic paths in three-dimensions. These bottom-diffracted surface-reflected (BDSR) paths were first identified on the North Pacific acoustic laboratory experiment in 2004 (NPAL04) for a diffractor located on the side of a...

  • Gaidarenko O., Sathoff C., Staub K., Huesemann M.H, Vernet M, Hildebrand M.  2019.  Timing is everything: Diel metabolic and physiological changes in the diatom Cyclotella cryptica grown in simulated outdoor conditions. 42
    Abstract Summary:

    Microalgal cultures grown on a light-dark cycle experience diel patterns in metabolic and physiological processes, including cell cycle synchronization, but the implications for productivity in terms of biomass and commercially-appealing molecules are not commonly appreciated. Despite a long history of diel response studies, only recently have photobioreactor technology advances enabled the use of sinusoidal light and temperature to more...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We introduce an ordinate method for noisy data analysis, based solely on rank information and thus insensitive to outliers. The method is nonparametric and objective, and the required data processing is parsimonious. The main ingredients include a rank-order data matrix and its transform to a stable form, which provide linear trends in excellent agreement with least squares regression, despite the loss of magnitude information. A group...

  • Hernandez-Guerra A., Talley LD, Pelegri J.L, Velez-Belchi P., Baringer M.O, Macdonald A.M, McDonagh E.L.  2019.  The upper, deep, abyssal and overturning circulation in the Atlantic Ocean at 30 degrees S in 2003 and 2011. 176
    Abstract Summary:

    Mass transports for the thermocline, intermediate, deep and abyssal layers in the Atlantic Ocean, at 30 degrees S and for 2003 and 2011, have been estimated using data from GO-SHIP hydrographic transoceanic sections and applying three inverse models with different constraints. The uppermost layers comprise South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW), with a net northward transport in the range of 12.1-14.7 Sv...

  • Vernet M, Geibert W., Hoppema M., Brown P.J, Haas C., Hellmer H.H, Jokat W., Jullion L., Mazloff M., Bakker D.CE et al..  2019.  The Weddell Gyre, Southern Ocean: Present knowledge and future challenges. 57:623-708.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Weddell Gyre (WG) is one of the main oceanographic features of the Southern Ocean south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which plays an influential role in global ocean circulation as well as gas exchange with the atmosphere. We review the state-of-the art knowledge concerning the WG from an interdisciplinary perspective, uncovering critical aspects needed to understand this system's role in shaping the future evolution of oceanic...

  • Cordeira JM, Stock J., Dettinger MD, Young A.M, Kalansky J.F, Ralph FM.  2019.  A 142-year climatology of Northern California landslides and atmospheric rivers. 100:1499-1509.
    Abstract Summary:

    We compare a novel dataset of San Francisco Bay Area landslides from 1871 to 2012 to corresponding atmospheric conditions commonly associated with Pacific winter storms and landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs). Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Area occur primarily during winter months, coinciding with enhanced integrated water vapor transport (IVT) magnitudes >= 250 kg m(-1) s(-1) at the coast 76% of the time and with landfalling ARs...

  • Palmer M.D, Durack P.J, Chidichimo M.P, Church J.A, Cravatte S., Hill K., Johannessen J.A, Karstensen J, Lee T., Legler D. et al..  2019.  Adequacy of the ocean observation system for quantifying regional heat and freshwater storage and change. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Considerable advances in the global ocean observing system over the last two decades offers an opportunity to provide more quantitative information on changes in heat and freshwater storage. Variations in these storage terms can arise through internal variability and also the response of the ocean to anthropogenic climate change. Disentangling these competing influences on the regional patterns of change and elucidating their governing...

  • Sorooshian A, Anderson B., Bauer S.E, Braun R.A, Cairns B., Crosbie E., Dadashazar H., Diskin G., Ferrare R., Flagan RC et al..  2019.  Aerosol-cloud-meteorology interaction airborne field investigations: Using lessons learned from the US West Coast in the design of ACTIVATE off the US East Coast. 100:1511-1528.
    Abstract Summary:

    We report on a multiyear set of airborne field campaigns (2005-16) off the California coast to examine aerosols, clouds, and meteorology, and how lessons learned tie into the upcoming NASA Earth Venture Suborbital (EVS-3) campaign: Aerosol Cloud meTeorology Interactions oVer the western ATlantic Experiment (ACTIVATE; 2019-23). The largest uncertainty in estimating global anthropogenic radiative forcing is associated with the interactions of...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The origin of variations in Os-186/Os-188 ratios amongst mantle-derived basaltic and komatiitic lavas remains controversial, with opposing models arguing for deep core-mantle versus shallow mantle sources. Crustal contamination has generally not been favored due to the low Os contents of such sources, meaning that variations in Os-186/Os-188 would require involvement of extremely high proportions of crustal material. Here we re-examine...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Measurements of the particulate volume scattering function, beta(p)(psi), at light wavelength of 532 nm, particle size distribution, PSD, and several metrics of particulate concentration and composition were made on eight contrasting seawater samples from nearshore and coastal oceanic environments including river estuary and offshore locations. Both beta(p)(psi) and PSDs were measured on original (unfiltered) samples and particle size-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Hurricanes are increasingly being recognized as important episodic drivers in ocean biogeochemical cycling; however, spatiotemporal response of their impacts on coastal and estuarine ecosystems are limited. Hurricane Michael, which made landfall just west of Apalachicola Bay (ApB) on October 10, 2018 as a Category 5 hurricane with sustained winds of 250 km h(-1), caused widespread damage to the northwest Florida coast, and adverse effects on...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Boat-towed radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) measurements using signals between 14 and 250 kHz have attracted increasing attention in the near-surface applications for shallow water and archipelago areas. A few large-scale underground infrastructure projects, such as the Stockholm bypass in Sweden, are planned to pass underneath such water zones. However, in cases with high water salinity, RMT signals have a penetration depth of a few metres and do...

  • Highlighted Publication Stability of carbon phases in the upper mantle.
    Abstract Summary:

    To better understand the role of sulfide in C storage in the upper mantle, we construct a thermodynamic model for Fe-Ni-S-C sulfide melts and consider equilibrium between sulfide melts, mantle silicates, Fe-Ni alloy, and diamond. The sulfide melt model is based upon previous parameterization of Fe-Ni-S melts calibrated at 100 kPa, which we have extended to high pressure based on volumetric properties of end-member components. We calculate the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Analysis of continuous seismic waveforms from a temporary deployment at Sage Brush Flats on the San Jacinto fault reveals earthquake- and tremor-like signals generated by the interaction of wind with obstacles above the surface. Tremor-like waveforms are present at the site during wind velocities above 2 m/s, which occur for 70% of the deployment duration. The response to the wind has significant spatial variability with highest ground...

  • Kenitz K.M, Visser A.W, Ohman MD, Landry MR, Andersen K.H.  2019.  Community trait distribution across environmental gradients. 22:968-980.
    Abstract Summary:

    Variability in community composition is often attributed to underlying differences in physical environments. However, predator-prey interactions can play an equally important role in structuring communities. Although environmental differences select for different species assemblages, less is known about their impacts on trait compositions. We develop a trait-based analysis of plankton communities of the southern California Current System...

  • Zhang Z.H, Pierce DW, Cayan DR.  2019.  A deficit of seasonal temperature forecast skill over west coast regions in NMME. 34:833-848.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study investigates the forecast skill of seasonal-mean near-surface (2 m) air temperature in the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) Phase 2, with a focus on the West Coast of the United States. Overall, 1-month lead time NMME forecasts exhibit skill superior or similar to persistence forecasts over many continental regions, and skill is generally higher over the ocean than the continent. However, forecast skill along most West...

  • Newman L., Heil P., Trebilco R., Katsumata K., Constable A., van Wijk E., Assmann K., Beja J., Bricher P., Colemans R. et al..  2019.  Delivering sustained, coordinated, and integrated observations of the Southern Ocean for global impact. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Southern Ocean is disproportionately important in its effect on the Earth system, impacting climatic, biogeochemical, and ecological systems, which makes recent observed changes to this system cause for global concern. The enhanced understanding and improvements in predictive skill needed for understanding and projecting future states of the Southern Ocean require sustained observations. Over the last decade, the Southern Ocean Observing...

  • Golaz J.C, Caldwell P.M, Van Roekel L.P, Petersen M.R, Tang Q., Wolfe J.D, Abeshu G., Anantharaj V., Asay-Davis X.S, Bader D.C et al..  2019.  The DOE E3SM Coupled Model Version 1: Overview and Evaluation at Standard Resolution. 11:2089-2129.
    Abstract Summary:

    This work documents the first version of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) new Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SMv1). We focus on the standard resolution of the fully coupled physical model designed to address DOE mission-relevant water cycle questions. Its components include atmosphere and land (110-km grid spacing), ocean and sea ice (60 km in the midlatitudes and 30 km at the equator and poles), and river transport (55 km) models....

  • Say D., Ganesan A.L, Lunt M.F, Rigby M, O'Doherty S, Harth C, Manning A.J, Krummel PB, Bauguitte S..  2019.  Emissions of halocarbons from India inferred through atmospheric measurements. 19:9865-9885.
    Abstract Summary:

    As the second most populous country and third fastest growing economy, India has emerged as a global economic power. As such, its emissions of greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases are of global significance. However, unlike neighbouring China, the Indian sub-continent is very poorly monitored by atmospheric measurement networks. India's halocarbon emissions, here defined as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs),...

  • Winters KB, Ulloa H.N, Wuest A., Bouffard D..  2019.  Energetics of radiatively heated ice-covered lakes. 46:8913-8925.
    Abstract Summary:

    We derive the mechanical energy budget for shallow, ice-covered lakes energized by penetrative solar radiation. Radiation increases the available and background components of the potential energy at different rates. Available potential energy drives under-ice motion, including diurnally active turbulence in a near-surface convective mixing layer. Heat loss at the ice-water interface depletes background potential energy at a rate that depends...

  • Lezama-Ochoa N., Hall M.A, Pennino M.G, Stewart J.D, Lopez J., Murua H..  2019.  Environmental characteristics associated with the presence of the Spinetail devil ray (Mobula mobular) in the eastern tropical Pacific. 14
    Abstract Summary:

    In the eastern Pacific Ocean, the tropical tuna purse-seine fishery incidentally captures high numbers of five mobulid bycatch species; all of which are classified as mortalities by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission due to uncertainties in post-release mortality rates. To date, the factors (operational or environmental) leading to the capture of these species by the fishery have not been well studied. Here, we developed Generalized...

  • Slater D.A, Straneo F, Felikson D., Little C.M, Goelzer H., Fettweis X., Holte J..  2019.  Estimating Greenland tidewater glacier retreat driven by submarine melting. 13:2489-2509.
    Abstract Summary:

    The effect of the North Atlantic Ocean on the Greenland Ice Sheet through submarine melting of Greenland's tidewater glacier calving fronts is thought to be a key driver of widespread glacier retreat, dynamic mass loss and sea level contribution from the ice sheet. Despite its critical importance, problems of process complexity and scale hinder efforts to represent the influence of submarine melting in ice-sheet-scale models. Here we propose...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We present multi-seasonal simulations representative of present-day and future environments using the global Model for Prediction Across Scales - Atmosphere (MPAS-A) version 5.1 with high resolution (15 km) throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We select 10 simulation years with varying phases of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and integrate each for 14.5 months. We use analyzed sea surface temperature (SST) patterns for present-day...

  • Zhou X.F, Liang Z., Li K.L, Fang W., Tian Y.X, Luo X.W, Chen Y.L, Zhan Z.K, Zhang T., Liao S.R et al..  2019.  Exploring the natural piericidins as anti-renal cell carcinoma agents targeting peroxiredoxin 1. 62:7058-7069.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anti-renal cell carcinoma (RCC) agents with new mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Twenty-seven natural products of the piericidin class, including 17 new ones, are obtained from a marine-derived Streptomyces strain, and several of them show strong inhibitory activities against ACHN renal carcinoma cells. By exploring the mechanisms of two representative natural piericidin compounds, piericidin A (PA) and glucopiericidin A (GPA),...

  • Jiang M., Measures C.I, Barbeau K.A, Charette MA, Gille ST, Hatta M., Kahru M, Mitchell B.G, Garabato A.CN, Reiss C et al..  2019.  Fe sources and transport from the Antarctic Peninsula shelf to the southern Scotia Sea. 150
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) shelf is an important source of dissolved iron (Fe) to the upper ocean in the southern Scotia Sea, one of the most productive regions of the Southern Ocean. Here we present results from a four-year (2003-2006) numerical simulation using a regional coupled physical-biogeochemical model to assess the Fe sources and transport on the AP shelf and toward the southern Scotia Sea. The model was validated with a suite of...

  • Cloud K.A, Reich B.J, Rozoff C.M, Alessandrini S., Lewis W.E, L. Monache D.  2019.  A feed forward neural network based on model output statistics for short-term hurricane intensity prediction. 34:985-997.
    Abstract Summary:

    A feed forward neural network (FFNN) is developed for tropical cyclone (TC) intensity prediction, where intensity is defined as the maximum 1-min average 10-m wind speed. This deep learning model incorporates a real-time operational estimate of the current intensity and predictors derived from Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting (HWRF; 2017 version) Model forecasts. The FFNN model is developed with the operational constraint of being...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Geometric, kinematic and dynamic properties of focusing deep-water surface gravity wave packets are examined in a simplified model with the intent of deriving a wave breaking threshold parameter. The model is based on the spatial modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation of Dysthe (Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 369 (1736), 1979, pp. 105-114). The evolution of initially narrow-banded and weakly nonlinear chirped Gaussian wave packets are examined...

  • Lee CM, Starkweather S., Eicken H., Timmermans M.L, Wilkinson J., Sandven S., Dukhovskoy D., Gerland S., Grebmeier J., Intrieri J.M et al..  2019.  A framework for the development, design and implementation of a sustained Arctic Ocean observing system. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Rapid Arctic warming drives profound change in the marine environment that have significant socio-economic impacts within the Arctic and beyond, including climate and weather hazards, food security, transportation, infrastructure planning and resource extraction. These concerns drive efforts to understand and predict Arctic environmental change and motivate development of an Arctic Region Component of the Global Ocean Observing System (...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Herbivores influence the structure and function of ecosystems, especially in the marine environment where ecosystems can be rapidly transformed due to the presence or absence of a single important grazer or grazing community. Intra-guild variation in the ecological functions of herbivores, however, likely determines their ultimate effects on benthic dynamics. For example, echinoids (sea urchins) can facilitate the growth of stony corals by...

  • Roemmich D., Alford MH, Claustre H., Johnson K., King B., Moum J., Oke P., Owens W.B, Pouliquen S., Purkey S. et al..  2019.  On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through...

  • Schlosser TL, Jones NL, Bluteau CE, Alford MH, Ivey GN, Lucas AJ.  2019.  Generation and propagation of near-inertial waves in a baroclinic current on the Tasmanian Shelf.
    Abstract Summary:

    Near-inertial waves (NIWs) are often an energetic component of the internal wave field on windy continental shelves. The effect of baroclinic geostrophic currents, which introduce both relative vorticity and baroclinicity, on NIWs is not well understood. Relative vorticity affects the resonant frequency, feff, while both relative vorticity and baroclinicity modify the minimum wave frequency of freely-propagating waves, ωmin. On a windy and...

  • Centurioni LR, Turton J., Lumpkin R, Braasch L., Brassington G., Chao Y., Charpentier E., Chen Z.H, Corlett G., Dohan K. et al..  2019.  Global in situ observations of essential climate and ocean variables at the air-sea interface. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The air-sea interface is a key gateway in the Earth system. It is where the atmosphere sets the ocean in motion, climate/weather-relevant air-sea processes occur, and pollutants (i.e., plastic, anthropogenic carbon dioxide, radioactive/chemical waste) enter the sea. Hence, accurate estimates and forecasts of physical and biogeochemical processes at this interface are critical for sustainable blue economy planning, growth, and disaster...

  • Sloyan BM, Wanninkhof R, Kramp M., Johnson G.C, Talley LD, Tanhua T., McDonagh E., Cusack C., O'Rourke E., McGovern E. et al..  2019.  The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP): A platform for integrated multidisciplinary ocean science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Global Ocean Ship-Based Hydrographic Investigations Program (GO-SHIP) provides a globally coordinated network and oversight of 55 sustained decadal repeat hydrographic reference lines. GO-SHIP is part of the global ocean/climate observing systems (GOOS/GCOS) for study of physical oceanography, the ocean carbon, oxygen and nutrient cycles, and marine biogeochemistry. GO-SHIP enables assessment of the ocean sequestration of heat and carbon...

  • Todd R.E, Chavez F.P, Clayton S., Cravatte S., Goes M., Greco M., Ling X.P, Sprintall J, Zilberman N.V, Archer M. et al..  2019.  Global perspectives on observing ocean boundary current systems. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean boundary current systems are key components of the climate system, are home to highly productive ecosystems, and have numerous societal impacts. Establishment of a global network of boundary current observing systems is a critical part of ongoing development of the Global Ocean Observing System. The characteristics of boundary current systems are reviewed, focusing on scientific and societal motivations for sustained observing....

  • Guazzo R.A, Schulman-Janiger A., Smith M.H, Barlow J, D’Spain G.L, Rimington D.B, Hildebrand JA.  2019.  Gray whale migration patterns through the Southern California Bight from multi-year visual and acoustic monitoring. 625:181-203.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sightings and acoustic recordings from eastern North Pacific gray whales in the Southern California Bight were analyzed for interannual changes and compared with concurrent environmental measurements during 7 migration seasons (2008-2009 to 2014-2015). Acoustic call counts recorded on an offshore hydrophone were highly variable from year to year. Assuming an average calling rate of 7.5 calls whale-1 d-1, the estimated...

  • Seltzer A.M, Pavia F.J, Ng J., Severinghaus JP.  2019.  Heavy noble gas isotopes as new constraints on the ventilation of the deep ocean. 46:8926-8932.
    Abstract Summary:

    Past studies of noble gas concentrations in the deep ocean have revealed widespread, several percent undersaturation of Ar, Kr, and Xe. However, the physical explanation for these disequilibria remains unclear. To gain insight into undersaturation set by deep-water formation, we measured heavy noble gas isotope and elemental ratios from the deep North Pacific using a new analytical technique. To our knowledge, these are the first high-...

  • Pernet-Fisher JF, Barry PH, Day JMD, D. Pearson G, Woodland S, Agashev AM, Pokhilenko LN, Pokhilenko NP.  2019.  Heterogeneous kimberlite metasomatism revealed from a combined He-Os isotope study of Siberian megacrystalline dunite xenoliths.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Siberian sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is regionally heterogeneous due to the complex modification of ancient cratonic material by various metasomatic fluids and interaction with the Siberian plume at ∼250 Ma. Here, we assess the extent and origin of this heterogeneity by analysis of helium isotopes, rhenium-osmium isotopes, trace-element, and highly siderophile element [HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re] abundances in a suite of...

  • Abulaitijiang A., Andersen O.B, Sandwell D..  2019.  Improved Arctic Ocean bathymetry derived from DTU17 gravity model. 6:1336-1347.
    Abstract Summary:

    The existing bathymetry map of the Arctic is a compilation of ship soundings and digitized contours. Due to the presence of all-year sea ice, costly operations and political restrictions, dense and full coverage of the Arctic is not possible, leaving huge gaps between the existing surveys. In this paper, we make use of the existing Arctic bathymetry IBCAOv3 and invert Arctic bathymetry from the recent altimetric gravity model DTU17, whose...

  • Xie S.C, Wang Y.C, Lin W.Y, Ma H.Y, Tang Q., Tang S.Q, Zheng X., Golaz J.C, Zhang GJ, Zhang M.H.  2019.  Improved diurnal cycle of precipitation in E3SM with a revised convective triggering function. 11:2290-2310.
    Abstract Summary:

    We revise the convective triggering function in Department of Energy's Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) Atmosphere Model version 1 (EAMv1) by introducing a dynamic constraint on the initiation of convection that emulates the collective dynamical effects to prevent convection from being triggered too frequently and allowing air parcels to launch above the boundary layer to capture nocturnal elevated convection. The former is referred...

  • Ellen J.S, Graff C.A, Ohman MD.  2019.  Improving plankton image classification using context metadata. 17:439-461.
    Abstract Summary:

    Advances in both hardware and software are enabling rapid proliferation of in situ plankton imaging methods, requiring more effective machine learning approaches to image classification. Deep Learning methods, such as convolutional neural networks (CNNs), show marked improvement over traditional feature-based supervised machine learning algorithms, but require careful optimization of hyperparameters and adequate training sets. Here, we...

  • Lee A.KY, Rivellini L.H, Chen C.L, Liu J., Price D.J, Betha R., Russell LM, Zhang X.L, Cappa CD.  2019.  Influences of primary emission and secondary coating formation on the particle diversity and mixing state of black carbon particles. 53:9429-9438.
    Abstract Summary:

    The mixing state of black carbon (BC) affects its environmental fate and impacts. This work investigates particle diversity and mixing state for refractory BC (rBC) containing particles in an urban environment. The chemical compositions of individual rBC-containing particles were measured, from which a mixing state index and particle diversity were determined. The mixing state index (X) varied between 26% and 69% with the average of 48% in...

  • Ortiz-Suslow D.G, Wang Q., Kalogiros J., Yamaguchi R., de Paolo T., Terrill E, Shearman R.K, Welch P., Savelyev I..  2019.  Interactions between nonlinear internal ocean waves and the atmosphere. 46:9291-9299.
    Abstract Summary:

    The heterogeneity in surface roughness caused by transient, nonlinear internal ocean waves is readily observed in coastal waters. However, the quantifiable impact this heterogeneity has on the marine atmospheric surface layer has not been documented. A comprehensive data set collected from a unique ocean platform provided a novel opportunity to investigate the interaction between this internal ocean process and the atmosphere. Relative to the...

  • Bower A., Lozier S., Biastoch A., Drouin K., Foukal N., Furey H., Lankhorst M., Ruhs S., Zou S..  2019.  Lagrangian views of the pathways of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. 124:5313-5335.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Lagrangian method-where current location and intensity are determined by tracking the movement of flow along its path-is the oldest technique for measuring the ocean circulation. For centuries, mariners used compilations of ship drift data to map out the location and intensity of surface currents along major shipping routes of the global ocean. In the mid-20th century, technological advances in electronic navigation allowed oceanographers...

  • Fox M.D, Carter A.L, Edwards C.B, Takeshita Y, Johnson M.D, Petrovic V., Amir C.G, Sala E, Sandin SA, Smith JE.  2019.  Limited coral mortality following acute thermal stress and widespread bleaching on Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific. 38:701-712.
    Abstract Summary:

    During 2015-2016, an El Nino and associated warm water event caused widespread coral bleaching across the equatorial Pacific. Here, we combine 8 yr of benthic monitoring data from permanent photoquadrats with remotely sensed and in situ temperature measurements to assess the impact of the warming event on benthic communities at Palmyra Atoll. We quantified bleaching prevalence across two distinct reef habitats using the best available data....

  • Haustein K., Otto F.EL, Venema V., Jacobs P., Cowtan K., Hausfather Z., Way R.G, White B., Subramanian A., Schurer A.P.  2019.  A limited role for unforced internal variability in twentieth-century warming. 32:4893-4917.
    Abstract Summary:

    The early twentieth-century warming (EW; 1910-45) and the mid-twentieth-century cooling (MC; 1950-80) have been linked to both internal variability of the climate system and changes in external radiative forcing. The degree to which either of the two factors contributed to EW and MC, or both, is still debated. Using a two-box impulse response model, we demonstrate that multidecadal ocean variability was unlikely to be the driver of observed...