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Recent Publications

  • Abstract Summary:

    Passive acoustics is a tool to monitor behavior, distributions, and biomass of marine invertebrates, fish, and mammals. Typically, fixed passive acoustic monitoring platforms are deployed, using a priori knowledge of the location of the target vocal species. Here, we demonstrate the ability to conduct coastal surveys of fish choruses, spatially mapping their distributions with an autonomous surface vehicle. For this study, we used an...

  • Meyssignac B., Boyer T., Zhao Z.X, Hakuba M.Z, Landerer F.W, Stammer D., Kohl A., Kato S., L'Ecuyer T., Ablain M. et al..  2019.  Measuring global ocean heat content to estimate the earth energy imbalance. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The energy radiated by the Earth toward space does not compensate the incoming radiation from the Sun leading to a small positive energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere (0.4-1 Wm(-2)). This imbalance is coined Earth's Energy Imbalance (EEI). It is mostly caused by anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and is driving the current warming of the planet. Precise monitoring of EEI is critical to assess the current status of climate change...

  • Ryu M.J, Hwang S., Kim S, Yang I., Oh D.C, Nam SJ, Fenical W.  2019.  Meroindenon and merochlorins E and F, antibacterial meroterpenoids from a marine-derived sediment bacterium of the genus Streptomyces. 21:5779-5783.
    Abstract Summary:

    Meroterpenoids, meroindenon (1) and merochlorins E (2) and F (3), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Their chemical structures were established using extensive analysis of MS, UV, ECD, and NMR spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 possess a tetrahydroxynaphthalene core and a C-15-isoprene unit. Compounds 2 and 3 exhibited strong antibacterial activities against B. subtilis, K. rhizophila, and S....

  • Abstract Summary:

    During the eastern North Pacific gray whale 2014-2015 southbound migration, acoustic call recordings, infrared blow detections, and visual sightings were combined to estimate cue rates, needed to convert detections into abundance. The gray whale acoustic call rate ranged from 2.3-24 calls/whale/ day during the peak of the southbound migration with an average of 7.5 calls/whale/day over both the southbound and northbound migrations. The...

  • Valiadi M., de Rond T., Amorim A., Gittins J.R, Gubili C., Moore BS, Iglesias-Rodriguez M.D, Latz M.I.  2019.  Molecular and biochemical basis for the loss of bioluminescence in the dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans along the west coast of the USA.
    Abstract Summary:

    The globally distributed heterotrophic dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans (Macartney) Kofoid & Swezy is well known for its dense blooms and prominent displays of bioluminescence. Intriguingly, along the west coast of the U.S.A., its blooms are not bioluminescent. We investigated the basis for this regional loss of bioluminescence using molecular, cellular, and biochemical analyses of isolates from different geographic regions. Several...

  • Cui Y.Y, Vijayan A., Falk M., Hsu Y.K, Yin D.Z, Chen X.M, Zhao Z., Avise J., Chen Y.J, Verhulst K. et al..  2019.  A multiplatform inversion estimation of statewide and regional methane emissions in California during 2014-2016. 53:9636-9645.
    Abstract Summary:

    California methane (CH4) emissions are quantified for three years from two tower networks and one aircraft campaign. We used backward trajectory simulations and a mesoscale Bayesian inverse model, Mbring ratios (VI ' initialized by three inventories, to achieve the emission quantification. Results show total statewide CH4 emissions of 2.05 +/- 0.26 (at 95% confidence) Tg/yr, which is 1.14 to 1.47 times greater than the anthropogenic emission...

  • Highlighted Publication Distribution of putative homologs of T. oceanica GR in representative phytoplankton genomes and the global ocean.
    Diaz JM, Plummer S, Hansel CM, Andeer PF, Saito MA, McIlvin MR.  2019.  NADPH-dependent extracellular superoxide production is vital to photophysiology in the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. 116:16448-16453.
    Abstract Summary:

    Superoxide and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are commonly regarded as harmful progenitors of biological stress and death, but this view has been changing. Indeed, many phytoplankton actively generate extracellular superoxide under ideal growth conditions for reasons that are mysterious. Results from this study suggest that extracellular superoxide production by the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica may promote photosynthetic health...

  • Baumann J.H, Ries J.B, Rippe J.P, Courtney T.A, Aichelman H.E, Westfield I., Castillo K.D.  2019.  Nearshore coral growth declining on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic global change and local stressors are impacting coral growth and survival worldwide, altering the structure and function of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we show that skeletal extension rates of nearshore colonies of two abundant and widespread Caribbean corals (Siderastrea siderea, Pseudodiploria strigosa) declined across the Belize Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) over the past century, while offshore coral conspecifics...

  • Wang S.G, Constable S, Reyes-Ortega V., Rychert C.A.  2019.  A newly distinguished marine magnetotelluric coast effect sensitive to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. 218:978-987.
    Abstract Summary:

    The marine magnetotelluric (MT) method is a useful tool for offshore studies aimed at, for example, hydrocarbon exploration and the understanding of Earth's tectonics. Marine MT data are often distorted by coastlines because of the strong resistivity contrast between the conductive ocean and the resistive land. At mid ocean ridges, the resistivity of Earth's structure can be assumed to be two-dimensional, which allows MT data to be decomposed...

  • Miller S.D, Zgliczynski B.J, Fox M.D, Kaufman L.S, Michener R.H, Sandin SA, Hamilton S.L.  2019.  Niche width expansion of coral reef fishes along a primary production gradient in the remote central Pacific. 625:127-143.
    Abstract Summary:

    The trophic niche of species can vary spatially due to numerous natural and anthropogenic factors, yet separating these distinct drivers can be difficult. We examined the role of natural oceanographic variation in the trophic ecology and dietary niche breadth of 8 common coral reef fishes spanning multiple trophic guilds. These fishes were collected from the Southern Line Islands of Kiribati, a chain of 5 uninhabited islands spanning a strong...

  • Amaya DJ, Kosaka Y, Zhou W, Zhang Y, Xie S-P, Miller AJ.  2019.  The North Pacific pacemaker effect on historical ENSO and its mechanisms.
    Abstract Summary:

    Studies have indicated that North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability can significantly modulate the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but there has been little effort to put extratropical-tropical interactions into the context of historical events. To quantify the role of the North Pacific in pacing the timing and magnitude of observed ENSO, we use a fully-coupled climate model to produce an ensemble of North Pacific Ocean-...

  • Williams A.P, Abatzoglou J.T, Gershunov A, Guzman-Morales J., Bishop D.A, Balch J.K, Lettenmaier DP.  2019.  Observed impacts of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire in california. 7:892-910.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent fire seasons have fueled intense speculation regarding the effect of anthropogenic climate change on wildfire in western North America and especially in California. During 1972-2018, California experienced a fivefold increase in annual burned area, mainly due to more than an eightfold increase in summer forest-fire extent. Increased summer forest-fire area very likely occurred due to increased atmospheric aridity caused by warming....

  • Tanhua T., Pouliquen S., Hausman J., O'Brien K., Bricher P., de Bruin T., Buck J.JH, Burger E.F, Carval T., Casey K.S et al..  2019.  Ocean FAIR data services. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Well-founded data management systems are of vital importance for ocean observing systems as they ensure that essential data are not only collected but also retained and made accessible for analysis and application by current and future users. Effective data management requires collaboration across activities including observations, metadata and data assembly, quality assurance and control (QA\QC), and data publication that enables local and...

  • Subramanian AC, Balmaseda M.A, Centurioni L, Chattopadhyay R., Cornuelle BD, DeMott C., Flatau M., Fujii Y., Giglio D., Gille ST et al..  2019.  Ocean observations to improve our understanding, modeling, and forecasting of subseasonal-to-seasonal variability. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) forecasts have the potential to provide advance information about weather and climate events. The high heat capacity of water means that the subsurface ocean stores and re-releases heat (and other properties) and is an important source of information for S2S forecasts. However, the subsurface ocean is challenging to observe, because it cannot be measured by satellite. Subsurface ocean observing systems relevant...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The internal light field and thus light exposure of the photosymbiotic microalgae (Symbiodinium sp.) in corals is strongly modulated by the optical properties of coral tissue and skeleton. While there are numerous studies documenting the light microenvironment in corals, there are only few measurements of the inherent optical properties of corals in the literature, and this has hampered a more quantitative understanding of coral optics. Here...

  • Mühle J, Trudinger C.M, Western L.M, Rigby M, Vollmer M.K, Park S., Manning A.J, Say D., Ganesan A., Steele LP et al..  2019.  Perfluorocyclobutane (PFC-318, c-C4F8) in the global atmosphere. 19:10335-10359.
    Abstract Summary:

    We reconstruct atmospheric abundances of the potent greenhouse gas c-C4F8 (perfluorocyclobutane, perfluorocarbon PFC-318) from measurements of in situ, archived, firn, and aircraft air samples with precisions of ∼1 %–2 % reported on the SIO-14 gravimetric calibration scale. Combined with inverse methods, we found near-zero atmospheric abundances from the early 1900s to the early 1960s, after which they rose sharply, reaching 1.66 ppt (parts...

  • Sharma A., Buschmann M.M, Gilbert J.A.  2019.  Pharmacomicrobiomics: The holy grail to variability in drug response? 106:317-328.
    Abstract Summary:

    The human body, with 3.0 x 10(13) cells and more than 3.8 x 10(13) microorganisms, has nearly a one-to-one ratio of resident microbes to human cells. Initiatives like the Human Microbiome Project, American Gut, and Flemish Gut have identified associations between microbial taxa and human health. The study of interactions between microbiome and pharmaceutical agents, i.e., pharmacomicrobiomics, has revealed an instrumental role of the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Photopiperazines A-D (1-4), unsaturated diketopiperazine derivatives, were isolated from the culture broth of a rare, marine-derived actinomycete bacterium, strain AJS-327. This strain shows very poor 16S rRNA sequence similarity to other members of the actinomycete family Streptomycetaceae, indicating it is likely a new lineage within this group. The structures of the photopiperazines were defined by analysis of HR-ESI-TOF-MS spectra in...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The four named species of Branchipolynoe all live symbiotically in mytilid mussels (Bathymodiolus) that occur at hydrothermal vents or methane seeps. Analyses using mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (ITS) genes, as well as morphology, were conducted on a collection of Branchipolynoe from Pacific Costa Rican methane seeps and West Pacific hydrothermal vents. This revealed five new species of Branchipolynoe, and these are formally...

  • Prend C.J, Gille ST, Talley LD, Mitchell B.G, Rosso I., Mazloff MR.  2019.  Physical drivers of phytoplankton bloom initiation in the Southern Ocean's Scotia Sea. 124:5811-5826.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Scotia Sea is the site of one of the largest spring phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. Past studies suggest that shelf-iron inputs are responsible for the high productivity in this region, but the physical mechanisms that initiate and sustain the bloom are not well understood. Analysis of profiling float data from 2002 to 2017 shows that the Scotia Sea has an unusually shallow mixed-layer depth during the transition from winter...

  • Smith G.C, Allard R., Babin M., Bertino L., Chevallier M., Corlett G., Crout J., Davidson F., Delille B., Gille ST et al..  2019.  Polar ocean observations: A critical gap in the observing system and its effect on environmental predictions from hours to a season. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    There is a growing need for operational oceanographic predictions in both the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. In the former, this is driven by a declining ice cover accompanied by an increase in maritime traffic and exploitation of marine resources. Oceanographic predictions in the Antarctic are also important, both to support Antarctic operations and also to help elucidate processes governing sea ice and ice shelf stability. However, a...

  • Wan B., Huang R.X, Diaz J.M, Tang Y.Z.  2019.  Polyphosphate adsorption and hydrolysis on aluminum oxides. 53:9542-9552.
    Abstract Summary:

    The geochemical behaviors of phosphate-containing species at mineral-water interfaces are of fundamental importance for controlling phosphorus mobility, fate, and bioavailability. This study investigates the sorption and hydrolysis of polyphosphate (a group of important long-chained phosphate molecules) on aluminum oxides in the presence of divalent metal cations (Ca2+, Cu-,(2+) Mg2+, Mn2+, and Zn2+) at pH 6-8. gamma-Al2O3 with three particle...

  • Deeter M.N, Edwards D.P, Francis G.L, Gille J.C, Mao D., Martinez-Alonso S., Worden H.M, Ziskin D., Andreae M.O.  2019.  Radiance-based retrieval bias mitigation for the MOPITT instrument: the version 8 product. 12:4561-4580.
    Abstract Summary:

    The MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) satellite instrument has been making nearly continuous observations of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) since 2000. Satellite observations of CO are routinely used to analyze emissions from fossil fuels and biomass burning, as well as the atmospheric transport of those emissions. Recent enhancements to the MOPITT retrieval algorithm have resulted in the release of the version 8 (V8)...

  • Johnson H.L, Cessi P, Marshall D.P, Schloesser F., Spall M.A.  2019.  Recent contributions of theory to our understanding of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. 124:5376-5399.
    Abstract Summary:

    Revolutionary observational arrays, together with a new generation of ocean and climate models, have provided new and intriguing insights into the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) over the last two decades. Theoretical models have also changed our view of the AMOC, providing a dynamical framework for understanding the new observations and the results of complex models. In this paper we review recent advances in conceptual...

  • Sanz-Martin M., Vernet M, Cape M.R, Mesa E., Delgado-Huertas A., Reigstad M., Wassmann P., Duarte C.M.  2019.  Relationship between carbon- and oxygen-based primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean, Svalbard Archipelago. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton contribute half of the primary production (PP) in the biosphere and are the major source of energy for the Arctic Ocean ecosystem. While PP measurements are therefore fundamental to our understanding of marine biogeochemical cycling, the extent to which current methods provide a definitive estimate of this process remains uncertain given differences in their underlying approaches, and assumptions. This is especially the case in...

  • Bourassa MA, Meissner T., Cerovecki I, Chang P.S, Dong X.L, De Chiara G., Donlon C., Dukhovskoy D.S, Elya J., Fore A. et al..  2019.  Remotely sensed winds and wind stresses for marine forecasting and ocean modeling. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Strengths and weakness of remotely sensed winds are discussed, along with the current capabilities for remotely sensing winds and stress. Future missions are briefly mentioned. The observational needs for a wide range of wind and stress applications are provided. These needs strongly support a short list of desired capabilities of future missions and constellations.


  • Ruddick K.G, Voss K., Banks A.C, Boss E., Castagna A., Frouin R., Hieronymi M., Jamet C., Johnson B.C, Kuusk J. et al..  2019.  A review of protocols for fiducial reference measurements of downwelling irradiance for the validation of satellite remote sensing data over water. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper reviews the state of the art of protocols for the measurement of downwelling irradiance in the context of Fiducial Reference Measurements (FRM) of water reflectance for satellite validation. The measurement of water reflectance requires the measurement of water-leaving radiance and downwelling irradiance just above water. For the latter, there are four generic families of method, using: (1) an above-water upward-pointing irradiance...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In 2012, California completed its marine protected area (MPA) planning and designation process, yielding a network of 124 MPAs from the Mexican border to Oregon. The management effort that has followed is comprehensive and strategic, with a focus on scientific monitoring, interagency coordination, public education and outreach, and enforcement. Initial monitoring results show more and bigger fish, especially in older MPAs where the benefits...

  • Rogowski P, Merrifield S., Ding L., Terrill E, Gesiriech G..  2019.  Robotic mapping of mixing and dispersion of augmented surface water in a drought frequent reservoir.
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatial and temporal evolution of an introduced dye tracer in a small reservoir was observed using a robotic autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), providing quantifiable data of the convective processes which drive transport and mixing. The tracer served as a surrogate for advanced treated water that has been proposed to be introduced into a reservoir as part of an overall system for efficient water reclamation, a critical management tool...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We investigated rock varnish formed on sandstone and petroglyphs in the Hima area, southwestern Saudi Arabia. To characterize the rock varnish, we made in-situ measurements by portable x-ray fluorescence (pXRF) and analyzed samples by femtosecond laser-ablation inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (fs LA-ICP-MS). Detailed chemical analysis of the rock varnish samples and adjacent soil or aeolian dust yielded information about the...

  • Cao Q., Mehran A., Ralph FM, Lettenmaier DP.  2019.  The role of hydrological initial conditions on atmospheric river floods in the Russian River basin. 20:1667-1686.
    Abstract Summary:

    A body of work over the last decade or so has demonstrated that most major floods along the U.S. West Coast are attributable to atmospheric rivers (ARs). Recent studies suggest that observed changes in extreme precipitation associated with a general warming of the western United States have not necessarily led to corresponding changes in floods, and changes in antecedent hydrological conditions could be a primary missing link. Here we examine...

  • Chen Z., Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Lee W.S, Yun S., Olinger S.D, Aster R.C, Wiens D.A, Nyblade A.A.  2019.  Ross Ice shelf Icequakes Associated With Ocean Gravity Wave Activity. 46:8893-8902.
    Abstract Summary:

    Gravity waves impacting ice shelves illicit a suite of responses that can affect ice shelf integrity. Broadband seismometers deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, complemented by a near-icefront seafloor hydrophone, establish the association of strong icequake activity with ocean gravity wave amplitudes (A(G)) below 0.04 Hz. The Ross Ice Shelf-front seismic vertical displacement amplitudes (A(SV)) are well correlated with A(G), allowing estimating...

  • Ray R.D, Merrifield M.A.  2019.  The semiannual and 4.4-year modulations of extreme high tides. 124:5907-5922.
    Abstract Summary:

    In most places extreme high tides undergo a clear seasonal variation. It is well known that semidiurnal tides tend to peak during equinox seasons, and diurnals during solstice seasons. This is a consequence of the solar and lunar declinations, which when large maximize diurnal tides at the expense of semidiurnals. The semiannual range modulation of tidal extremes for a pure semidiurnal tide is determined mainly by the amplitude of the K-2...

  • Arndt K.A, Oechel W.C, Goodrich J.P, Bailey B.A, Kalhori A., Hashemi J., Sweeney C, Zona D..  2019.  Sensitivity of methane emissions to later soil freezing in Arctic tundra ecosystems. 124:2595-2609.
    Abstract Summary:

    The atmospheric methane (CH4) concentration, a potent greenhouse gas, is on the rise once again, making it critical to understand the controls on CH4 emissions. In Arctic tundra ecosystems, a substantial part of the CH4 budget originates from the cold season, particularly during the "zero curtain" (ZC), when soil remains unfrozen around 0 degrees C. Due to the sparse data available at this time, the controls on cold season CH4 emissions are...

  • Trueblood J.V, Alves M.R, Power D., Santander M.V, Cochran R.E, Prather KA, Grassian VH.  2019.  Shedding light on photosensitized reactions within marine-relevant organic thin films. 3:1614-1623.
    Abstract Summary:

    Photochemical processes drive much of the daytime gas-phase chemistry in the atmosphere. Within condensed phases, such as aerosol particles and thin films enriched in organics, much less is understood about these processes. An investigation aimed at better understanding photosensitized reactions that can occur within marine-relevant condensed-phase systems is described herein. In particular, photosensitized reactions have been investigated...

  • Thackston K.A, Deheyn DD, Sievenpiper D.F.  2019.  Simulation of electric fields generated from microtubule vibrations. 100
    Abstract Summary:

    Microtubules are tubular proteins that form part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. Because of their unique mechanical properties, many studies have theorized microtubules could show high-frequency mechanical vibrations. Others have further suggested these vibrations of the electrically polar microtubules could be a source of electric fields inside the cell that could serve some biological function, such as a role in organizing mitosis...

  • Ludka B.C, Guza RT, O'Reilly W.C, Merrifield M.A, Flick RE, Bak A.S, Hesser T., Bucciarelli R., Olfe C., Woodward B. et al..  2019.  Sixteen years of bathymetry and waves at San Diego beaches. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Sustained, quantitative observations of nearshore waves and sand levels are essential for testing beach evolution models, but comprehensive datasets are relatively rare. We document beach profiles and concurrent waves monitored at three southern California beaches during 2001-2016. The beaches include offshore reefs, lagoon mouths, hard substrates, and cobble and sandy (medium-grained) sediments. The data span two energetic El Nino winters...

  • Menking J.A, Brook E.J, Shackleton S.A, Severinghaus JP, Dyonisius M.N, Petrenko V., McConnell J.R, Rhodes R.H, Bauska T.K, Baggenstos D et al..  2019.  Spatial pattern of accumulation at Taylor Dome during Marine Isotope Stage 4: stratigraphic constraints from Taylor Glacier. 15:1537-1556.
    Abstract Summary:

    New ice cores retrieved from the Taylor Glacier (Antarctica) blue ice area contain ice and air spanning the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5-4 transition, a period of global cooling and ice sheet expansion. We determine chronologies for the ice and air bubbles in the new ice cores by visually matching variations in gas-and ice-phase tracers to pre-existing ice core records. The chronologies reveal an ice age-gas age difference (1 age) approaching...

  • Moyer A.N, Nienow P.W, Gourmelen N., Sole A.J, Slater D.A, Truffer M., Fahnestock M..  2019.  Spatio-temporal variations in seasonal ice tongue submarine melt rate at a tidewater glacier in southwest Greenland. 65:523-530.
    Abstract Summary:

    Submarine melting of tidewater glaciers is proposed as a trigger for their recent thinning, acceleration and retreat. We estimate spring submarine melt rates (SMRs) of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia in southwest Greenland, from 2012 to 2014, by examining changes in along-fjord freeboard and velocity of the seasonal floating ice tongue. Estimated SMRs vary spatially and temporally near the grounding line, with mean rates of 1.3 +/- 0.6, 0.8 +/- 0.3...

  • Costa M.T, Salinas-de-Leon P., Aburto-Oropeza O.  2019.  Storage of blue carbon in isolated mangrove forests of the Galapagos' rocky coast. 27:455-463.
    Abstract Summary:

    Threatened globally, mangrove forests provide many ecosystem services, including blue carbon storage. These forests, and the services that they provide, are distributed across spatio-temporally variable coastal landscapes and a range of environmental conditions, though this variability is underappreciated in the blue carbon literature. The Galapagos, Ecuador, presents the opportunity to explore spatial variability in carbon storage. This...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The spindown of a geostrophically balanced density front in an upper-ocean mixed layer is simulated with a large eddy simulation (LES) model that resolves O(1000) m down to O(1) m scale. Our goal is to examine the interaction between the submesoscale and the turbulent finescale, and another related goal is to use the turbulence-resolving simulation to better characterize vertical transport, frontogenesis and dissipative processes. The flow...

  • Minich J, Petrus S, Michael JD, Michael TP, Knight R, Allen E.  2019.  Temporal, environmental, and biological drivers of the mucosal microbiome in a wild marine fish, Scomber japonicus.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changing ocean conditions driven by anthropogenic activity may have a negative impact on fisheries by increasing stress and disease with the mucosal microbiome as a potentially important intermediate role. To understand how environment and host biology drives mucosal microbiomes in a marine fish, we surveyed five body sites (gill, skin, digesta, GI, and pyloric caeca) from 229 Pacific chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, collected across 38 time...

  • Maximenko N., Corradi P., Law K.L, van Sebille E., Garaba S.P, Lampitt R.S, Galgani F., Martinez-Vicente V., Goddijn-Murphy L., Veiga J.M et al..  2019.  Toward the integrated marine debris observing system. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to the health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways, and distributions in the ocean are very sparse and inaccurate. Total amounts of plastics and other man-made debris in the ocean and on the shore, temporal trends in these amounts under exponentially...

  • Brenguier F., Baue P., Ben-Zion Y., Vernon F, Johnson C.W, Mordret A., Coutant O., Share P.E, Beauce E., Hollis D. et al..  2019.  Train traffic as a powerful noise source for monitoring active faults with seismic interferometry. 46:9529-9536.
    Abstract Summary:

    Laboratory experiments report that detectable seismic velocity changes should occur in the vicinity of fault zones prior to earthquakes. However, operating permanent active seismic sources to monitor natural faults at seismogenic depth is found to be nearly impossible to achieve. We show that seismic noise generated by vehicle traffic, and especially heavy freight trains, can be turned into a powerful repetitive seismic source to continuously...

  • Ramos A.M, Wilson A.M, DeFlorio M.J, Warner M.D, Barnes E., Garreaud R., Gorodetskaya I.V, Lavers D.A, Moore B., Payne A. et al..  2019.  2018 International Atmospheric Rivers Conference: Multi-disciplinary studies and high-impact applications of atmospheric rivers.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a vital role in shaping the hydroclimate of many regions globally, and can substantially impact water resource management, emergency response planning, and other socioeconomic entities. The second International Atmospheric Rivers Conference took place at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, during 25-28 June, 2018, in La Jolla, California, USA. It was sponsored by the...

  • Cronin MF, Gentemann C.L, Edson J., Ueki I., Bourassa M., Brown S., Clayson CA, Fairall CW, Farrar J.T, Gille ST et al..  2019.  Air-sea fluxes with a focus on heat and momentum. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Turbulent and radiative exchanges of heat between the ocean and atmosphere (hereafter heat fluxes), ocean surface wind stress, and state variables used to estimate them, are Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) influencing weather and climate. This paper describes an observational strategy for producing 3-hourly, 25-km (and an aspirational goal of hourly at 10-km) heat flux and wind stress fields over the...

  • Frouin R.J, Franz B.A, Ibrahim A., Knobelspiesse K., Ahmad Z., Cairns B., Chowdhary J., Dierssen H.M, Tan J., Dubovik O. et al..  2019.  Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery during the PACE era. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission will carry into space the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI), a spectrometer measuring at 5 nm spectral resolution in the ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) with additional spectral bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and two multi-angle polarimeters that will overlap the OCI spectral range and spatial coverage, i. e., the Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration (SPEXone) and the...

  • Johnson C.W, Vernon F, Nakata N., Ben-Zion Y..  2019.  Atmospheric processes modulating noise in Fairfield nodal 5 Hz geophones. 90:1612-1618.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric processes are documented to modulate seismic noise in Fairfield Nodal three-component geophones. Spectral analysis has shown high-amplitude signals between 40 and 50 Hz in all waveforms inspected. The changes in spectral amplitudes and frequency are found to be modified by daily variations in wind velocity and temperature, which are temporally correlated for much of the study. The wind velocity is shown to affect a wide spectral...

  • Whitmore B.M, Nickels C.E, Ohman MD.  2019.  A comparison between Zooglider and shipboard net and acoustic mesozooplankton sensing systems. 41:521-533.
    Abstract Summary:

    Some planktonic patches have markedly higher concentrations of organisms compared to ambient conditions and are <5 m in thickness (i.e. thin layers). Conventional net sampling techniques are unable to resolve this vertical microstructure, while optical imaging systems can measure it for limited durations. Zooglider, an autonomous zooplankton-sensing glider, uses a low-power optical imaging system (Zoocam) to resolve mesozooplankton at a...