Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Multiple meltwater discharge and ice rafting events recorded in the deglacial sediments along the Beaufort Margin, Arctic Ocean

Impact:
Thick, acoustically transparent Holocene sediment imaged from Barrow Canyon to the Mackenzie Trough indicates that discharge down Barrow Canyon and sediment from the Alaskan continent were important sources during this time period, possibly due to rivers reworking glacial sediment exposed by the retreat of glacier ice on the Brooks Range. Acoustically laminated sediments with coarser grain size and higher magnetic susceptibility underlie the Holocene unit. The acoustic reflectivity and thickness of this unit increases towards the Mackenzie Trough, suggesting that it is the main source of the acoustically laminated sediment, in addition to ice-rafted debris (IRD) from the Amundsen and M'Clure ice streams.

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  • Edmunds P.J, McIlroy S.E, Adjeroud M., Ang P., Bergman J.L, Carpenter R.C, Coffroth M.A, Fujimura A.G, Hench J.L, Holbrook S.J et al..  2018.  Critical information gaps impeding understanding of the role of larval connectivity among coral reef islands in an era of global change. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Populations of marine organisms on coral reef islands (CRI) are connected in space and time by seawater that transports propagules of plants, animals, and algae. Yet, despite this reality, it is often assumed that routine replenishment of populations of marine organisms on CRI is supported by locally-sourced propagules (hereafter, larvae). Following large disturbances, however, distantly-sourced larvae from less disturbed CRI within a...

  • Or V.W, Alves M.R, Wade M., Schwab S., Corsi R.L, Grassian VH.  2018.  Crystal clear? Microspectroscopic imaging and physicochemical characterization of indoor depositions on window glass Environmental Science & Technology Letters. 5:514-519.
    Abstract Summary:

    Deposition and surface-mediated reactions of adsorbed species can play a role in the level of exposure of occupants to indoor pollutants, which include gases and particles. Detailed molecular-level descriptions of these processes occurring on indoor surfaces are difficult to obtain because of the ever-increasing types of surfaces and their proximity to a variety of different indoor emission sources. The results of an investigation of...

  • Sahakian V, Baltay A, Hanks T, Buehler J, Vernon F, Kilb D, Abrahamson N.  2018.  Decomposing leftovers: Event, path, and site residuals for a small‐magnitude Anza region GMPE. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) are critical elements of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), as well as for other applications of ground motions. To isolate the path component for the purpose of building nonergodic GMPEs, we compute a regional GMPE using a large dataset of peak ground accelerations (PGAs) from small‐magnitude earthquakes ( 0.5≤M≤4.5 with >10,000 events, yielding ∼120,000 recordings) that occurred in...

  • Blake W.H, Boeckx P., Stock B.C, Smith H.G, Bode S., Upadhayay H.R, Gaspar L., Goddard R., Lennard A.T, Lizaga I. et al..  2018.  A deconvolutional Bayesian mixing model approach for river basin sediment source apportionment. Scientific Reports. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    Increasing complexity in human-environment interactions at multiple watershed scales presents major challenges to sediment source apportionment data acquisition and analysis. Herein, we present a step-change in the application of Bayesian mixing models: Deconvolutional-MixSIAR (D-MIXSIAR) to underpin sustainable management of soil and sediment. This new mixing model approach allows users to directly account for the 'structural hierarchy' of a...

  • Rudnick D.L, Sherman J.T, Wu A.P.  2018.  Depth-average velocity from Spray underwater gliders. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 35:1665-1673.
    Abstract Summary:

    The depth-average velocity is routinely calculated using data from underwater gliders. The calculation is a dead reckoning, where the difference between the glider's velocity over ground and its velocity through water yields the water velocity averaged over the glider's dive path. Given the accuracy of global positioning system navigation and the typical 3-6-h dive cycle, the accuracy of the depth-average velocity is overwhelmingly dependent...

  • Dupouy C., Frouin R., Tedetti M., Maillard M., Rodier M., Lombard F., Guidi L., Picheral M., Neveux J., Duhamel S. et al..  2018.  Diazotrophic Trichodesmium impact on UV-Vis radiance and pigment composition in the western tropical South Pacific. Biogeosciences. 15:5249-5269.
    Abstract Summary:

    We assessed the influence of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium on the bio-optical properties of western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) waters (18-22 degrees S, 160 degrees E-160 degrees W) during the February-March 2015 OUTPACE cruise. We performed measurements of backscattering and absorption coefficients, irradiance, and radiance in the euphotic zone with a Satlantic MicroPro free-fall profiler and took Underwater Vision...

  • Buckingham MJ.  2018.  The dispersion formula and the Green's function associated with an attenuation obeying a frequency power law. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:755-765.
    Abstract Summary:

    An attenuation obeying a frequency power law scales as vertical bar omega vertical bar(beta), where omega is angular frequency and beta is a real constant. A recently developed dispersion formula predicts that the exponent beta can take only certain values in well defined, disjoint intervals. It is shown here that these admissible values of beta are consistent with the physical requirement, stemming from the second law of thermodynamics, that...

  • Plominsky A.M, Henriquez-Castillo C., Delherbe N., Podell S, Ramirez-Flandes S., Ugalde JA, Santibanez J.F, van den Engh G., Hanselmann K., Ulloa O. et al..  2018.  Distinctive archaeal composition of an artisanal crystallizer pond and functional insights into salt-saturated hypersaline environment adaptation. Frontiers in Microbiology. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Hypersaline environments represent some of the most challenging settings for life on Earth. Extremely halophilic microorganisms have been selected to colonize and thrive in these extreme environments by virtue of a broad spectrum of adaptations to counter high salinity and osmotic stress. Although there is substantial data on microbial taxonomic diversity in these challenging ecosystems and their primary osmoadaptation mechanisms, less is...

  • Pommier A., Leinenweber K.D.  2018.  Electrical cell assembly for reproducible conductivity experiments in the multi-anvil. American Mineralogist. 103:1298-1305.
    Abstract Summary:

    Electrical conductivity experiments under pressure and temperature conditions relevant to planetary interiors are a powerful tool to probe the transport properties of Earth and planetary materials as well as to interpret field-based electrical data. To promote repeatability and reproducibility of electrical experiments among multi-anvil facilities that use this technique, we designed and developed an electrical conductivity cell for multi-...

  • Dettinger MD, Ralph FM, Rutz J.J.  2018.  Empirical return periods of the most intense vapor transports during historical atmospheric river landfalls on the US West Coast. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 19:1363-1377.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) come in all intensities, and clear communication of risks posed by individual storms in observations and forecasts can be a challenge. Modest ARs can be characterized by the percentile rank of their integrated water vapor transport (IVT) rates compared to past ARs. Stronger ARs can be categorized more clearly in terms of return periods or, equivalently, historical probabilities that at least one AR will exceed a given...

  • Navarro M.O, Parnell P.E, Levin L.A.  2018.  Essential market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) embryo habitat: A baseline for anticipated ocean climate change. Journal of Shellfish Research. 37:601-614.
    Abstract Summary:

    The market squid Doryteuthis opalescens deposits embryo capsules onto the continental shelf from Baja California to southern Alaska, yet little is known about the environment of embryo habitat. This study provides a baseline of environmental data and insights on factors underlying site selection for embryo deposition off southern California, and defines current essential embryo habitat using (1) remotely operated vehicle-supported surveys of...

  • Yu H.B, Wang X.L, Xu W.H, Zhang Y.X, Qian Y.S, Zhang J.P, Lu X.L, Liu X.Y.  2018.  Eutypellenoids A-C, new pimarane diterpenes from the Arctic fungus Eutypella sp D-1. Marine Drugs. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Three new pimarane diterpenes, eutypellenoids A-C (1-3), together with a known compound, eutypenoid C (4), were isolated from the culture extract of Eutypella sp. D-1 derived from the Arctic region. Compounds 1-3 possessed an uncommon tetrahydrofuran-fused pimarane diterpene skeleton. The structures of all compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analysis, as well as a comparison with...

  • Sathasivam R., Guo R., Wang H, Lim W.A, Ki J.S.  2018.  Expressed sequence tag library of the marine green alga Tetraselmis suecica: a focus on stress-related genes for marine pollution. Journal of Applied Phycology. 30:2387-2402.
    Abstract Summary:

    The marine green microalga, Tetraselmis suecica, is an important food source for aquaculture, lipid source for biofuel production, and a potential model organism for toxicity assays because of its rapid growth and ability to produce useful chemicals. In order to gain molecular toxicogenomic insights, we determined expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of T. suecica by pyrosequencing, and attained 741 K reads, including 290 Mb of cDNA information....

  • Parnell-Turner R.E, Mittelstaedt E., Kurz M.D, Jones M.R, Soule S.A, Klein F., Wanless V.D, Fornari D.J.  2018.  The final stages of slip and volcanism on an oceanic detachment fault at 13°48′N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.
    Abstract Summary:

    While processes associated with initiation and maintenance of oceanic detachment faults are becoming better constrained, much less is known about the tectonic and magmatic conditions that lead to fault abandonment. Here we present results from near-bottom investigations using the submersible Alvin and autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry at a recently extinct detachment fault near 13°48′N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, that allow documentation of the...

  • Quinlan Z.A, Remple K., Fox M.D, Silbiger N.J, Oliver T.A, Putnam H.M, Kelly LW, Carlson CA, Donahue M.J, Nelson CE.  2018.  Fluorescent organic exudates of corals and algae in tropical reefs are compositionally distinct and increase with nutrient enrichment. Limnology and Oceanography Letters. 3:331-340.
    Abstract Summary:

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition influences microbial community metabolism and benthic primary producers are a source of DOM in coral reefs. As reef benthic communities change, in part due to nutrient pollution, understanding impacts on reef microbial processes requires knowledge of DOM sources and composition. We conducted a multi-week mesocosm experiment dosing four coral reef benthic constituents with three levels of nitrate and...

  • Lavers D.A, Rodwell M.J, Richardson D.S, Ralph FM, Doyle J.D, Reynolds C.A, Tallapragada V., Pappenberger F..  2018.  The gauging and modeling of rivers in the sky. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:7828-7834.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are responsible for most of the horizontal water vapor flux outside of the tropics and can cause extreme precipitation and affect the atmospheric dynamics and predictability. For their impacts to be skillfully predicted, it is essential for weather forecasting systems to accurately represent AR characteristics. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecasting System and dropsonde...

  • Barreto F.S, Watson E.T, Lima T.G, Willett C.S, Edmands S., Li W.Z, Burton RS.  2018.  Genomic signatures of mitonuclear coevolution across populations of Tigriopus californicus. 2:1250-1257.
    Abstract Summary:

    The copepod Tigriopus californicus shows extensive population divergence and is becoming a model for understanding allopatric differentiation and the early stages of speciation. Here, we report a high-quality reference genome for one population (similar to 190 megabases across 12 scaffolds, and similar to 15,500 protein-coding genes). Comparison with other arthropods reveals 2,526 genes presumed to be specific to T. californicus, with an...

  • Schlitzer R., Anderson R.F, Dodas E.M, Lohan M., Geibere W., Tagliabue A., Bowie A., Jeandel C., Maldonado M.T, Landing W.M et al..  2018.  The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017. Chemical Geology. 493:210-223.
    Abstract Summary:

    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical...

  • Cazenave A., Meyssignac B., Ablain M., Balmaseda M., Bamber J., Barletta V., Beckley B., Benveniste J., Berthier E, Blazquez A. et al..  2018.  Global sea-level budget 1993-present. Earth System Science Data. 10:1551-1590.
    Abstract Summary:

    Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g.,acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly known contributions, such as the unsurveyed deep ocean or the still uncertain land water...

  • McGregor G.R, Vanos J.K.  2018.  Heat: a primer for public health researchers. 161:138-146.
    Abstract Summary:

    Objectives: To provide a primer on the physical characteristics of heat from a biometeorological perspective for those interested in the epidemiology of extreme heat. Study design: A literature search design was used. Methods: A review of the concepts of heat, heat stress and human heat balance was conducted using Web of Sciences, Scopus and PubMed. Results: Heat, as recognised in the field of human biometeorology, is a complex phenomenon...

  • Lukowiak M., Cramer K.L, Madzia D., Hynes M.G, Norris RD, O'Dea A..  2018.  Historical change in a Caribbean reef sponge community and long-term loss of sponge predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:127-137.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sponges are an ecologically important component of modern Caribbean coral reefs. However, little is known about the structure of sponge communities prior to the large-scale degradation of Caribbean reef ecosystems. Here we explore changes in the sponge community over the past millennium by analyzing the composition of sponge spicules from a sediment core collected from a lagoonal reef within the archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama...

  • Wood C.L, Zgliczynski B.J, Haupt A.J, Guerra A.S, Micheli F., Sandin SA.  2018.  Human impacts decouple a fundamental ecological relationship-The positive association between host diversity and parasite diversity. Global Change Biology. 24:3666-3679.
    Abstract Summary:

    Human impacts on ecosystems can decouple the fundamental ecological relationships that create patterns of diversity in free-living species. Despite the abundance, ubiquity, and ecological importance of parasites, it is unknown whether the same decoupling effects occur for parasitic species. We investigated the influence of fishing on the relationship between host diversity and parasite diversity for parasites of coral reef fishes on three...

  • Lickliter-Mundon M., Cantelas F., Coble W., Kinney J., McKinnon J., Meyer J., Pietruszka A., Pilgrim B., Pruitt J.R, Van Tilburg H..  2018.  Identification of a deep-water B-29 WWII aircraft via ROV telepresence survey. 13:167-189.
    Abstract Summary:

    American-produced B-29 Superfortress bomber aircraft flew missions against Imperial Japan in the Pacific Theater from air bases in the Mariana Islands from November 1944 until the end of WWII. Mechanical failures forced many B-29s into the ocean surrounding Saipan and Tinian. Terrestrial wreckage of these aircraft has been located in the Pacific region, but no losses in deep water were located until 2016, when a NOAA exploration cruise...

  • Rodriguez A.R, Giddings S.N, Kumar N..  2018.  Impacts of nearshore wave-current interaction on transport and mixing of small-scale buoyant plumes. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:8379-8389.
    Abstract Summary:

    Small-scale buoyant outflows have the potential to impact beach contamination, nutrient exchange, productivity, larval recruitment, and carbon chemistry in the nearshore region where surface gravity waves influence momentum and energy transport. This study aims to understand the dynamics leading to the fate and structure of an idealized small-scale outflow in the presence of surface waves using a fully coupled 3-D hydrodynamic and spectral...

  • Pommier A..  2018.  Influence of sulfur on the electrical resistivity of a crystallizing core in small terrestrial bodies. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 496:37-46.
    Abstract Summary:

    Electrical experiments were performed on core analogues in the Fe-S system and on FeSi2 up to 8 GPa and 1850 degrees C in the multi-anvil apparatus. Electrical resistivity was measured using the four electrode method. For all samples, resistivity increases with increasing temperature. The higher the S content, the higher the resistivity and the resistivity increase upon melting. At 4.5 GPa, liquid FeS is up to >10 times more resistive than...

  • Kim M.C, Machado H., Jang K.H, Trzoss L., Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2018.  Integration of genomic data with NMR analysis enables assignment of the full stereostructure of Neaumycin B, a potent inhibitor of glioblastoma from a marine-derived micromonospora. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140:10775-10784.
    Abstract Summary:

    The microbial metabolites known as the macrolides are some of the most successful natural products used to treat infectious and immune diseases. Describing the structures of these complex metabolites, however, is often extremely difficult due to the presence of multiple stereogenic centers inherent in this class of polyketide-derived metabolites. With the availability of genome sequence data and a better understanding of the molecular...

  • Jackson A., Parker R.L, Sambridge M., Constable C., Wolf A.S.  2018.  The inverse problem of unpolarized infrared spectroscopy of geological materials: Estimation from noisy random sampling of a quadratic form. American Mineralogist. 103:1176-1184.
    Abstract Summary:

    We address the problem of unpolarized light spectroscopy of geological materials. Using infrared radiation, the aim of this technique is to learn about the absorbing species, such as hydroxyl. The use of unoriented samples leads to the need to perform a rigorous statistical analysis, so that the three principal absorbances of the crystal can be retrieved. We present here such an analysis based on a derivation of the probability density...

  • Abarbanel H.DI, Rozdeba P.J, Shirman S..  2018.  Machine learning: Deepest learning as statistical data assimilation problems. Neural Computation. 30:2025-2055.
    Abstract Summary:

    We formulate an equivalence between machine learning and the formulation of statistical data assimilation as used widely in physical and biological sciences. The correspondence is that layer number in a feedforward artificial network setting is the analog of time in the data assimilation setting. This connection has been noted in the machine learning literature. We add a perspective that expands on how methods from statistical physics and...

  • Constantinou N.C, Parker J.B.  2018.  Magnetic suppression of zonal flows on a beta plane. Astrophysical Journal. 863
    Abstract Summary:

    Zonal flows in rotating systems have been previously shown to be suppressed by the imposition of a background magnetic field aligned with the direction of rotation. Understanding the physics behind the suppression may be important in systems found in astrophysical fluid dynamics, such as stellar interiors. However, the mechanism of suppression has not yet been explained. In the idealized setting of a magnetized beta plane, we provide a...

  • Zumberge M.A, Hatfield W., Wyatt F.K.  2018.  Measuring seafloor strain with an optical fiber interferometer. Earth and Space Science. 5:371-379.
    Abstract Summary:

    We monitored the length of an optical fiber cable stretched between two seafloor anchors separated by 200m at a depth of 1900m, 90km west of Newport, OR, near the toe of the accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. We continuously recorded length changes using an equal arm Michelson interferometer formed by the sensing cable fiber and a mandrel-wound reference fiber. A second, nearly identical fiber interferometer (sharing the same...

  • Minich JJ, Zhu Q, Xu ZZech, Amir A, Ngochera M, Simwaka M, Allen EE, Zidana H, Knight R.  2018.  Microbial effects of livestock manure fertilization on freshwater aquaculture ponds rearing tilapia (Oreochromis shiranus) and North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Microbiologyopen. :e00716.
    Abstract Summary:

    The majority of seafood is farmed, with most finfish coming from freshwater ponds. Ponds are often fertilized to promote microbial productivity as a natural feed source to fish. To understand if pond fertilization with livestock manure induces a probiotic or prebiotic effect, we communally reared tilapia (Oreochromis shiranus), and North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), for 4 weeks under seven manure treatments including layer chicken,...

  • de Groot-Hedlin C.D, Hedlin MAH.  2018.  A new automated approach to detecting and locating seismic events using data from a large network. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 108:2032-2045.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Automated Event Location Using a Mesh of Arrays (AELUMA) method, originally developed for detection of atmospheric sources using infrasonic data, is modified here to detect and locate seismic events. A key feature of AELUMA is that it does not require a detailed velocity model to locate events. The new method was applied to vertical-component seismic data recorded by the USArray Transportable Array to (1) test its efficacy when applied to...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The larval pharynx of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma (amphioxus) is asymmetrical. The mouth is on the left, and endostyle and gill slits are on the right. At the neurula, Nodal and Hedgehog (Hh) expression becomes restricted to the left. To dissect their respective roles in gill slit formation, we inhibited each pathway separately for 20 min at intervals during the neurula stage, before gill slits penetrate, and monitored the effects on...

  • Cimino M., Colin P., Schramek T., Lindfield S., Domeier M., Terrill E.  2018.  Oceanographic, acoustic, and remote approaches reveal the spatio-temporal dynamics of blackfin snapper at an aggregation site in Palau. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:185-201.
    Abstract Summary:

    Forming spawning aggregations is a critical life-history activity for fish, but it is unclear what physical conditions are associated with fish behavior at specific sites. The habitat, movements and distribution of blackfin snapper Lutjanus fulvus at a monthly aggregation site in Palau were studied using a combination of instruments and approaches, including active/passive acoustics, time-lapse cameras, an autonomous underwater vehicle,...

  • Herdt A.J, Brown R.D, Scott-Fleming I., Cao G.F, Macdonald M, Henderson D., Vanos J.K.  2018.  Outdoor thermal comfort during anomalous heat at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Canada. Atmosphere. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Mass sporting events in the summertime are influenced by underlying weather patterns, with high temperatures posing a risk for spectators and athletes alike. To better understand weather variations in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during the Pan American Games in 2015 (PA15 Games), Environment and Climate Change Canada deployed a mesoscale monitoring network system of 53 weather stations. Spatial maps across the GTA demonstrate large...

  • Ashford O.S, Kenny A.J, Frojan C, Bonsall M.B, Horton T., Brandt A., Bird G.J, Gerken S., Rogers A.D.  2018.  Phylogenetic and functional evidence suggests that deep-ocean ecosystems are highly sensitive to environmental change and direct human disturbance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 285
    Abstract Summary:

    An understanding of the balance of interspecific competition and the physical environment in structuring organismal communities is crucial because those communities structured primarily by their physical environment typically exhibit greater sensitivity to environmental change than those structured predominantly by competitive interactions. Here, using detailed phylogenetic and functional information, we investigate this question in...

  • Zhang Y., Sun J., Rouse GW, Wiklund H., Pleijel F, Watanabe H.K, Chen C., Qian PY, Qiu J.W.  2018.  Phylogeny, evolution and mitochondrial gene order rearrangement in scale worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 125:220-231.
    Abstract Summary:

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become a powerful tool in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Here we applied NGS to recover two ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S) from 16 species and 15 mitochondrial genomes from 16 species of scale worms representing six families in the suborder Aphroditiformia (Phyllodocida, Annelida), a complex group of polychaetes characterized by the presence of dorsal elytra or scales. The phylogenetic...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The scale-worm family Iphionidae consists of four genera. Of these, Thermiphione has two accepted species, both native to hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean; T. fijiensis Miura, 1994 (West Pacific) and T. tufari Hartmann-Schroder, 1992 (East Pacific Rise). Iphionella is also known from the Pacific, and has two recognized species; Iphionella risensis Pettibone, 1986 (East Pacific Rise, hydrothermal vents) and I. philippinensis Pettibone,...

  • Rousset G., De Boissieu F., Menkes C.E, Lefevre J., Frouin R., Rodier M., Ridoux V., Laran S., Bonnet S., Dupouy C..  2018.  Remote sensing of Trichodesmium spp. mats in the western tropical South Pacific. Biogeosciences. 15:5203-5219.
    Abstract Summary:

    Trichodesmium is the major nitrogen-fixing species in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) region, a hot spot of diazotrophy. Due to the paucity of in situ observations, remote-sensing methods for detecting Trichodesmium presence on a large scale have been investigated to assess the regional-to-global impact of this organism on primary production and carbon cycling. A number of algorithms have been developed to identify Trichodesmium...

  • Sato K.N, Andersson AJ, Day JMD, Taylor J.RA, Frank M.B, Jung J.Y, McKittrick J., Levin L.A.  2018.  Response of sea urchin fitness traits to environmental gradients across the Southern California oxygen minimum zone. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine calcifiers are considered to be among the most vulnerable taxa to climate-forced environmental changes occurring on continental margins with effects hypothesized to occur on microstructural, biomechanical, and geochemical properties of carbonate structures. Natural gradients in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and pH on an upwelling margin combined with the broad depth distribution (100-1,100 m) of the pink fragile sea urchin,...

  • Rosencranz J.A, Thorne K.M, Buffington K.J, Takekawa J.Y, Hechinger R.F, Stewart T.E, Ambrose R.F, MacDonald G.M, Holmgren M.A, Crooks J.A et al..  2018.  Sea-level rise, habitat loss, and potential extirpation of a salt marsh specialist bird in urbanized landscapes. Ecology and Evolution. 8:8115-8125.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sea-level rise (SLR) impacts on intertidal habitat depend on coastal topology, accretion, and constraints from surrounding development. Such habitat changes might affect species like Belding's savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi; BSSP), which live in high-elevation salt marsh in the Southern California Bight. To predict how BSSP habitat might change under various SLR scenarios, we first constructed a suitability model by...

  • Spackeen JL, Bronk DA, Sipler RE, Bertrand EM, Hutchins DA, Allen AE.  2018.  Stoichiometric N:P Ratios, Temperature, and Iron Impact Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake by Ross Sea Microbial Communities. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.
    Abstract Summary:

    APhytoplankton growth in the seasonally productive Southern Ocean is typically limited by iron (Fe). In the next century, however, Fe inputs and temperature are predicted to increase. Dissolved concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) may also change due to physical and biological drivers, altering the stoichiometric N:P ratio of the water column. Two separate experiments were conducted to study how these predicted changes will...

  • Kilb D, Yang A, Garrett N, Pankow K, Rubinstein J, Linville L.  2018.  Tilt trivia: A free multiplayer app to learn geoscience concepts and definitions. Seismological Research Letters.
    Abstract Summary:

    Today’s technology is opening up new ways to learn. Here, we introduce Tilt Trivia, a suite of quiz‐style, multiplayer games for use on mobile devices and tablets (Android or Apple) to help students learn simple definitions and facts. This mobile device game was built using the Unity engine and has a multiplayer functionality that runs seamlessly, all day, every day. A single game consists of 6–10 questions that are selected at random from a...

  • Murray L.AM, McKinnie S.MK, Pepper H.P, Erni R., Miles Z.D, Cruickshank M.C, Lopez-Perez B., Moore BS, George J.H.  2018.  Total synthesis establishes the biosynthetic pathway to the naphterpin and marinone natural products. 57:11009-11014.
    Abstract Summary:

    The naphterpins and marinones are naphthoquinone meroterpenoids with an unusual aromatic oxidation pattern that is biosynthesized from 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (THN). We propose that cryptic halogenation of THN derivatives by vanadium-dependent chloroperoxidase (VCPO) enzymes is key to this biosynthetic pathway, despite the absence of chlorine in these natural products. This speculation inspired a total synthesis to mimic the...

  • Park S., Li S., Mühle J, O'Doherty S, Weiss RF, Fang X., Reimann S., Prinn RG.  2018.  Toward resolving the budget discrepancy of ozone-depleting carbon tetrachloride (CCl4): an analysis of top-down emissions from China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:11729-11738.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a first-generation ozone-depleting substance, and its emissive use and production were globally banned by the Montreal Protocol with a 2010 phase-out; however, production and consumption for non-dispersive use as a chemical feedstock and as a process agent are still allowed. This study uses the high frequency and magnitude of CCl4 pollution events from an 8-year real-time atmospheric measurement record obtained...

  • McGinty N., Barton A.D, Record N.R, Finkel Z.V, Irwin A.J.  2018.  Traits structure copepod niches in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:109-126.
    Abstract Summary:

    Realised niches describe the environmental and biotic conditions that a species occupies. Among marine zooplankton, species traits, including body size, dietary mode (herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore), and diapause strategy are expected to influence the realised niche of a species. To date, realised niches are known for only a small number of copepod species. Here we quantify the realised niches of 88 copepod species measured by the...

  • Lopez-Urban A., Thode A, Duran C.B, Urban J., Swartz S..  2018.  Two new grey whale call types detected on bioacoustic tags. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 98:1169-1175.
    Abstract Summary:

    Between 2008 and 2010, 27 acoustic tags were applied to various age and reproductive classes of grey whales in Laguna San Ignacio, Mexico, a part of the Biosphere Reserve 'El Vizcaino'. Besides previously described Si and S3 calls, two additional calls were identified: the impulsive S8 call and the slightly frequency-modulated S9 call. These two additional S8 and S9 calls are by far the most common grey whale sounds detected on tags, even...

  • Hamidi A., Farnham D.J, Khanbilvardi R..  2018.  Uncertainty analysis of urban sewer system using spatial simulation of radar rainfall fields: New York City case study. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. 32:2293-2308.
    Abstract Summary:

    The goal of this study is to investigate the uncertainty of an urban sewer system's response under various rainfall and infrastructure scenarios by applying a recently developed nonparametric copula-based simulation approach to extreme rainfall fields. The approach allows for Monte Carlo simulation of multiple variables with differing marginal distributions and arbitrary dependence structure. The independent and identically distributed daily...

  • Nematollahi N., Doronila A., Mornane P.J, Duan A., Kolev S.D, Steinemann A..  2018.  Volatile chemical emissions from fragranced baby products. Air Quality Atmosphere and Health. 11:785-790.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fragranced consumer products have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Babies are exposed to a variety of fragranced consumer products, which can emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some considered potentially hazardous. However, fragranced baby products are exempt from disclosure of all ingredients. Consequently, parents and the public have little information on product emissions. This study investigates VOCs...

  • Mahan B., Moynier F., Siebert J., Gueguen B., Agranier A., Pringle E.A, Bollard J., Connelly J.N, Bizzarro M..  2018.  Volatile element evolution of chondrules through time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115:8547-8552.
    Abstract Summary:

    Chondrites and their main components, chondrules, are our guides into the evolution of the Solar System. Investigating the history of chondrules, including their volatile element history and the prevailing conditions of their formation, has implications not only for the understanding of chondrule formation and evolution but for that of larger bodies such as the terrestrial planets. Here we have determined the bulk chemical composition-rare...