Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Martian magmatism from plume metasomatized mantle

Impact:
The distinctive nature of martian meteorites to remotely sensed martian surface samples, in particular the higher alkali contents of some Gusev and Gale crater samples, possibly implies that alkali volcanism on Mars is driven by low-degree partial melting from metasomatism of martian lithosphere in response to mantle plume impingement, offering a mechanism for explaining the apparent differences observed between meteorites and mission data for Mars.

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  • Le Quere C, Andrew R.M, Friedlingstein P., Sitch S., Hauck J., Pongratz J., Pickers P.A, Korsbakken J.I, Peters G.P, Canadell J.G et al..  2018.  Global Carbon Budget 2018. Earth System Science Data. 10:2141-2194.
    Abstract Summary:

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere - the "global carbon budget" - is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their...

  • Bowman J.S.  2018.  Identification of microbial dark matter in Antarctic environments. Frontiers in Microbiology. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Numerous studies have applied molecular techniques to understand the diversity, evolution, and ecological function of Antarctic bacteria and archaea. One common technique is sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, which produces a nearly quantitative profile of community membership. However, the utility of this and similar approaches is limited by what is known about the evolution, physiology, and ecology of surveyed taxa. When representative...

  • Wang Q., Benmarhnia T., Zhang H.H, Knibbs L.D, Sheridan P., Li C.C, Bao J.Z, Ren M., Wang S.H, He Y.L et al..  2018.  Identifying windows of susceptibility for maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and preterm birth. Environment International. 121:317-324.
    Abstract Summary:

    Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), however, entire pregnancy or trimester-specific associations were generally reported, which may not sufficiently identify windows of susceptibility. Using birth registry data from Guangzhou, a megacity of southern China (population -14.5 million), including 469,975 singleton live births between January 2015 and July 2017, we assessed the association...

  • Abstract Summary:

    El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) peaks in boreal winter but its impact on Indo-western Pacific climate persists for another two seasons. Key ocean-atmosphere interaction processes for the ENSO effect are investigated using the Pacific Ocean-Global Atmosphere (POGA) experiment with a coupled general circulation model, where tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are restored to follow observations while the atmosphere and...

  • Xu W., Zheng G.D, Ma X.X, Fortin D., Hilton DR, Liang S.Y, Chen Z., Hu G.Y.  2018.  Iron speciation of mud breccia from the Dushanzi mud volcano in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, NW China. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition. 92:2201-2213.
    Abstract Summary:

    Organic-inorganic interactions occurring in petroleum-related mud volcanoes can help predict the chemical processes that are responsible for methane emissions to the atmosphere. Seven samples of mud breccia directly ejected from one crater were collected in the Dushanzi mud volcano, along with one argillite sample of the original reddish host rocks distal from the crater, for comparison purposes. The mineral and chemical compositions as well...

  • Moss N.A, Leao T., Rankin M.R, McCullough T.M, Qu P.P, Korobeynikov A., Smith J.L, Gerwick L, Gerwick WH.  2018.  Ketoreductase domain dysfunction expands chemodiversity: Malyngamide biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium Okeania hirsuta. Acs Chemical Biology. 13:3385-3395.
    Abstract Summary:

    Dozens of type A malyngamides, principally identified by a decorated six-membered cyclohexanone head group and methoxylated lyngbic acid tail, have been isolated over several decades. Their environmental sources include macro- and microbiotic organisms, including sea hares, red alga, and cyanobacterial assemblages, but the true producing organism has remained enigmatic. Many type A analogues display potent bioactivity in human-health related...

  • Dayton PK, Robilliard G.A, Oliver JS, Kim S, Hammerstrom K, O'Connor K, Fisher J., Barber J., Jarrell S..  2018.  Long-term persistence of wood on the sea floor at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Antarctic Science. 30:355-356.
    Abstract Summary:
  • Harmon N., Rychert C., Agius M., Tharimena S., Le Bas T., Kendall J.M, Constable S.  2018.  Marine geophysical investigation of the chain fracture zone in the equatorial Atlantic from the PI-LAB experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:11016-11030.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Chain Fracture Zone is a 300-km-long transform fault that offsets the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. We analyzed new multibeam bathymetry, backscatter, gravity, and magnetic data with 100% multibeam bathymetric data over the active transform valley and adjacent spreading segments as part of the Passive Imaging of the Lithosphere Asthenosphere Boundary (PI-LAB) Experiment. Analyses of these data sets allow us to determine the history and mode of...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The light scattering properties of seawater play important roles in radiative transfer in the ocean and optically-based methods for characterizing marine suspended particles from in situ and remote sensing measurements. The recently commercialized LISST-VSF instrument is capable of providing in situ or laboratory measurements of the volume scattering function, βp(ψ) , and the degree of linear polarization, DoLPp(ψ) , associated with particle...

  • Kuhn A.M, Fennel K., Berman-Frank I..  2018.  Modelling the biogeochemical effects of heterotrophic and autotrophic N-2 fixation in the Gulf of Aqaba (Israel), Red Sea. Biogeosciences. 15:7379-7401.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent studies demonstrate that marine N-2 fixation can be carried out without light by heterotrophic N-2 fixers (diazotrophs). However, direct measurements of N-2 fixation in aphotic environments are relatively scarce. Heterotrophic as well as unicellular and colonial photoautotrophic diazotrophs are present in the oligotrophic Gulf of Aqaba (northern Red Sea). This study evaluates the relative importance of these different diazotrophs by...

  • Ding C.YG, Pang L.M, Liang Z.X, Goh K.KK, Glukhov E., Gerwick WH, Tan L.T.  2018.  MS/MS-based molecular networking approach for the detection of aplysiatoxin-related compounds in environmental marine cyanobacteria. Marine Drugs. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Certain strains of cyanobacteria produce a wide array of cyanotoxins, such as microcystins, lyngbyatoxins and aplysiatoxins, that are associated with public health issues. In this pilot study, an approach combining LC-MS/MS and molecular networking was employed as a rapid analytical method to detect aplysiatoxins present in four environmental marine cyanobacterial samples collected from intertidal areas in Singapore. Based on 16S-ITS rRNA...

  • Tian J.W, Fan L., Liu H.D, Liu J.W, Li Y., Qin Q.L, Gong Z., Chen H.T, Sun Z.B, Zou L. et al..  2018.  A nearly uniform distributional pattern of heterotrophic bacteria in the Mariana Trench interior. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 142:116-126.
    Abstract Summary:

    The uniqueness of hadal trench environment and its potential role in global carbon sequestration allows for a detailed study of microbially driven carbon cycle of the trench system. Limited studies on microbiology by far have suggested that the hadal-sphere generally hosts a heterotrophic microbial community that is mostly fed by surface-sinking organic matter or re-suspended and laterally transported organic matter from sediments. However,...

  • Castro-Falcon G., Seiler G.S, Demir O., Rathinaswamy M.K, Hamelin D., Hoffmann R.M, Makowski S.L, Letzel A.C, Field S.J, Burke J.E et al..  2018.  Neolymphostin A Is a covalent phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) dual inhibitor that employs an unusual electrophilic vinylogous ester. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 61:10463-10472.
    Abstract Summary:

    Using a novel chemistry-based assay for identifying electrophilic natural products in unprocessed extracts, we identified the PI3-kinase/mTOR dual inhibitor neolymphostin A from Salinispora arenicola CNY-486. The method further showed that the vinylogous ester substituent on the neolymphostin core was the exact site for enzyme conjugation. Tandem MS/MS experiments on PI3K alpha treated with the inhibitor revealed that neolymphostin covalently...

  • Stukel M.R, Decima M, Landry MR, Selph K.E.  2018.  Nitrogen and Isotope Flows Through the Costa Rica Dome Upwelling Ecosystem: The Crucial Mesozooplankton Role in Export Flux. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 32:1815-1832.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Costa Rica Dome (CRD) is an open-ocean upwelling ecosystem, with high biomasses of picophytoplankton (especially Synechococcus), mesozooplankton, and higher trophic levels. To elucidate the food web pathways supporting the trophic structure and carbon export in this unique ecosystem, we used Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques to assimilate data from four independent realizations of N-15 and planktonic rate measurements from the CRD into...

  • Lu C.S, Sun C., Liu Y.G, Zhang GJ, Lin Y.L, Gao W.H, Niu S.J, Yin Y., Qiu Y.J, Jin L.J.  2018.  Observational relationship between entrainment rate and environmental relative humidity and implications for convection parameterization. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:13495-13504.
    Abstract Summary:

    Entrainment rate is a critical but highly uncertain quantity in convective parameterizations; especially, the effects of environmental relative humidity on entrainment rate are controversial, or even opposite, in different studies. Analysis of aircraft observations of cumuli from the Routine AAF (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) and...

  • Byun G, Song HC, Kim J.S.  2018.  Performance comparisons of array invariant and matched field processing using broadband ship noise and a tilted vertical array. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:3067-3074.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper compares the localization performance of array invariant (AI) and matched field processing (MFP) using a ship of opportunity radiating random noise (200–900 Hz) and a tilted vertical array. AI is a deterministic approach to source-range estimation (i.e., depth-blind), exploiting the dispersion characteristics of broadband signals with minimal/no knowledge of the environment in shallow water. It involves time-domain plane-wave...

  • Hogle S.L, Dupont C.L, Hopkinson B.M, King A.L, Buck K.N, Roe K.L, Stuart RK, Allen A.E, Mann E.L, Johnson Z.I et al..  2018.  Pervasive iron limitation at subsurface chlorophyll maxima of the California Current. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115:13300-13305.
    Abstract Summary:

    Subsurface chlorophyll maximum layers (SCMLs) are nearly ubiquitous in stratified water columns and exist at horizontal scales ranging from the submesoscale to the extent of oligotrophic gyres. These layers of heightened chlorophyll and/or phytoplankton concentrations are generally thought to be a consequence of a balance between light energy from above and a limiting nutrient flux from below, typically nitrate (NO3). Here we present multiple...

  • Koch N.M, Coppard S.E, Lessios H.A, Briggs D.EG, Mooi R., Rouse GW.  2018.  A phylogenomic resolution of the sea urchin tree of life. Bmc Evolutionary Biology. 18
    Abstract Summary:

    BackgroundEchinoidea is a clade of marine animals including sea urchins, heart urchins, sand dollars and sea biscuits. Found in benthic habitats across all latitudes, echinoids are key components of marine communities such as coral reefs and kelp forests. A little over 1000 species inhabit the oceans today, a diversity that traces its roots back at least to the Permian. Although much effort has been devoted to elucidating the echinoid tree of...

  • Stuecker M.F, Bitz C.M, Armour K.C, Proistosescu C., Kang S.M, Xie SP, Kim D., McGregor S., Zhang W.J, Zhao S. et al..  2018.  Polar amplification dominated by local forcing and feedbacks. Nature Climate Change. 8:1076-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The surface temperature response to greenhouse gas forcing displays a characteristic pattern of polar-amplified warming(1-5), particularly in the Northern Hemisphere. However, the causes of this polar amplification are still debated. Some studies highlight the importance of surface-albedo feedback(6-8), while others find larger contributions from longwave feedbacks(4,9,10), with changes in atmospheric and oceanic heat transport also thought...

  • Byun S.H, Byun G., Sabra KG.  2018.  Ray-based blind deconvolution of shipping sources using multiple beams separated by alternating projection. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:3525-3532.
    Abstract Summary:

    This article presents a method for improving the performance of the ray-based blind deconvolution (RBD) algorithm, which was first proposed by Sabra, Song, and Dowling [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127(2), EL42-EL47 (2010)]. In order to retrieve the channel impulse response (CIR), the original RBD algorithm uses the source signal phase from a selected single beam output. However, when the impinging multipath signals have low coherence, the channel...

  • Ruetenik G.A, Hoke G.D, Moucha R., Val P..  2018.  Regional landscape response to thrust belt dynamics: The Iglesia basin, Argentina. Basin Research. 30:1141-1154.
    Abstract Summary:

    Intermontane basins are often the result of regionally variable uplift in tectonic settings. Wedge-top basins, a type of intermontane basin, form along thrust faults within a fold and thrust belt, and provide an ideal environment to study the regional fluvial and surface response to local variations in rock uplift. This study simulates the formation and evolution of an intermontane basin using a landscape evolution model. The modelling...

  • Schiffer J.M, Mael L.E, Prather KA, Amaro R.E, Grassian VH.  2018.  Sea spray aerosol: Where marine biology meets atmospheric chemistry. 4:1617-1623.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric aerosols have long been known to alter climate by scattering incoming solar radiation and acting as seeds for cloud formation. These processes have vast implications for controlling the chemistry of our environment and the Earth's climate. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) is emitted over nearly three-quarters of our planet, yet precisely how SSA impacts Earth's radiation budget remains highly uncertain. Over the past several decades,...

  • Davies CJ, Constable C.G.  2018.  Searching for geomagnetic spikes in numerical dynamo simulations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 504:72-83.
    Abstract Summary:

    We use numerical dynamo simulations to investigate rapid changes in geomagnetic field intensity. The work is motivated by paleomagnetic observations of 'geomagnetic spikes', events where the field intensity rose and then fell by a factor of 2-3 over decadal timescales and a confined spatial region. No comparable events have been found in the historical record and so geomagnetic spikes may contain new and important information regarding the...

  • Le Bras I.AA, Straneo F, Holte J., Holliday N.P.  2018.  Seasonality of freshwater in the East Greenland Current system from 2014 to 2016. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:8828-8848.
    Abstract Summary:

    The initial 2years of Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program mooring data (2014-2016) provide the first glimpse into the seasonality of freshwater in the complete East Greenland Current system. Using a set of eight moorings southeast of Greenland at 60 degrees N, we find two distinct, persistent velocity cores on the shelf and slope. These are the East Greenland Coastal Current, which carries cold, fresh water from the Arctic and...

  • Van Cise A.M, Mahaffy S.D, Baird R.W, Mooney T.A, Barlow J.  2018.  Song of my people: dialect differences among sympatric social groups of short-finned pilot whales in Hawai'i. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 72
    Abstract Summary:

    In many social species, acoustic dialects are used to differentiate among social groups within a local population. These acoustic dialects and their corresponding social groups are often related to distinct foraging behaviors or spatial movement patterns, and it is possible that vocal repertoire variability is one of the proximate mechanisms driving or maintaining genetic and ecological diversity at a subspecies level in social species. Short...

  • Inbal A., Cristea-Platon T., Ampuero J.P, Hillers G., Agnew D., Hough S.E.  2018.  Sources of long-range anthropogenic noise in Southern California and implications for tectonic tremor detection. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 108:3511-3527.
    Abstract Summary:

    We study anthropogenic noise sources seen on seismic recordings along the central section of the San Jacinto fault near Anza, southern California. The strongest signals are caused by freight trains passing through the Coachella Valley north of Anza. Train-induced transients are observed at distances of up to 50 km from the railway, with durations of up to 20 min, and spectra that are peaked between 3 and 5 Hz. Additionally, truck traffic...

  • Ditas J., Ma N., Zhang Y., Assmann D., Neumaier M., Riede H., Karu E., Williams J., Scharffe D., Wang Q.Q et al..  2018.  Strong impact of wildfires on the abundance and aging of black carbon in the lowermost stratosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115:E11595-E11603.
    Abstract Summary:

    Wildfires inject large amounts of black carbon (BC) particles into the atmosphere, which can reach the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) and cause strong radiative forcing. During a 14-month period of observations on board a passenger aircraft flying between Europe and North America, we found frequent and widespread biomass burning (BB) plumes, influencing 16 of 160 flight hours in the LMS. The average BC mass concentrations in these plumes (...

  • Skiba M.A, Bivins M.M, Schultz J.R, Bernard S.M, Fiers W.D, Dan Q.Y, Kulkarni S., Wipf P., Gerwick WH, Sherman D.H et al..  2018.  Structural basis of polyketide synthase o-methylation. Acs Chemical Biology. 13:3221-3228.
    Abstract Summary:

    Modular type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce some of the most chemically complex metabolites in nature through a series of multienzyme modules. Each module contains a variety of catalytic domains to selectively tailor the growing molecule. PKS O-methyltransferases (O-MTs) are predicted to methylate beta-hydroxyl or beta-keto groups, but their activity and structure have not been reported. We determined the domain boundaries and...

  • Cannon F., Hecht C.W, Cordeira JM, Ralph FM.  2018.  Synoptic and mesoscale forcing of Southern California extreme precipitation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:13714-13730.
    Abstract Summary:

    Southern California water resources are heavily dependent on a small number of extreme precipitation events each winter season, which dictate the region's highly variable interannual accumulations. In the Santa Ana River Watershed, on average, three extreme events per year contribute half of annual precipitation, yet there are relatively few studies of the synoptic to mesoscale processes that drive precipitation during these events. This...

  • McKinnie S.MK, Miles Z.D, Jordan P.A, Awakawa T., Pepper H.P, Murray L.AM, George J.H, Moore BS.  2018.  Total enzyme syntheses of napyradiomycins A1 and B1. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140:17840-17845.
    Abstract Summary:

    The biosynthetic route to the napyradiomycin family of bacterial meroterpenoids has been fully described 32 years following their original isolation and 11 years after their gene cluster discovery. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic natural products napyradiomycins A1 and B1 are produced using three organic substrates (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene, dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, and geranyl pyrophosphate), and catalysis via five enzymes: two...

  • Bianco M.J, Gerstoft P.  2018.  Travel time tomography with adaptive dictionaries. 4:499-511.
    Abstract Summary:

    We develop a two-dimensional travel time tomography method, which regularizes the inversion by modeling groups of slowness pixels from discrete slowness maps, called patches, as sparse linear combinations of atoms from a dictionary. We propose to use dictionary learning during the inversion to adapt dictionaries to specific slowness maps. This patch regularization, called the local model, is integrated into the overall slowness map, called...

  • Kuo Y.C, Zheng Z.W, Zheng Q.A, Gopalakrishnan G, Lee H.Y.  2018.  Typhoon-Kuroshio interaction in an air-sea coupled system: Case study of typhoon nanmadol (2011). Ocean Modelling. 132:130-138.
    Abstract Summary:

    In this study, a coupled ocean-atmosphere model was used to simulate the evolution of Typhoon Nanmadol (2011), an intense typhoon that drifted over the Kuroshio Current over a 2-day period, encountering land twice, once in the Philippines and once in Taiwan. Sensitivity experiments were performed to elucidate the influence of the three-dimensional ocean structure on predictions of typhoon intensity, with a focus on the interaction between the...

  • Mulmenstadt J, Sourdeval O., Henderson D.S, L'Ecuyer T.S, Unglaub C., Jungandreas L., Bohm C., Russell LM, Quaas J..  2018.  Using CALIOP to estimate cloud-field base height and its uncertainty: the Cloud Base Altitude Spatial Extrapolator (CBASE) algorithm and dataset. Earth System Science Data. 10:2279-2293.
    Abstract Summary:

    A technique is presented that uses attenuated backscatter profiles from the CALIOP satellite lidar to estimate cloud base heights of lower-troposphere liquid clouds (cloud base height below approximately 3 km). Even when clouds are thick enough to attenuate the lidar beam (optical thickness tau greater than or similar to 5), the technique provides cloud base heights by treating the cloud base height of nearby thinner clouds as representative...

  • Grare L, Lenain L., Melville W.K.  2018.  Vertical profiles of the wave-induced airflow above ocean surface waves. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 48:2901-2922.
    Abstract Summary:

    An analysis of coherent measurements of winds and waves from data collected during the ONR Southern California 2013 (SoCal2013) program from R/P FLIP off the coast of Southern California in November 2013 is presented. An array of ultrasonic anemometers mounted on a telescopic mast was deployed to resolve the vertical profile of the modulation of the marine atmospheric boundary layer by the waves. Spectral analysis of the data provides the...

  • Budin I., de Rond T., Chen Y., Chan L.JG, Petzold C.J, Keasling J.D.  2018.  Viscous control of cellular respiration by membrane lipid composition. Science. 362:1186-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Lipid composition determines the physical properties of biological membranes and can vary substantially between and within organisms. We describe a specific role for the viscosity of energy-transducing membranes in cellular respiration. Engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis in Escherichia coil allowed us to titrate inner membrane viscosity across a 10-fold range by controlling the abundance of unsaturated or branched lipids. These fluidizing...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Ohman MD, Davis RE, Sherman JT, Grindley KR, Whitmore BM, Nickels CF, Ellen JS.  2018.  Zooglider: An autonomous vehicle for optical and acoustic sensing of zooplankton.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present the design and preliminary results from ocean deployments of Zooglider, a new autonomous zooplankton-sensing glider. Zooglider is a modified Spray glider that includes a low-power camera (Zoocam) with telecentric lens and a custom dual frequency Zonar (200 and 1000 kHz). The Zoocam quantifies zooplankton and marine snow as they flow through a defined volume inside a sampling tunnel. Images are acquired on average every 5 cm from a...

  • Jarvinen E., Jourdan O., Neubauer D., Yao B., Liu C., Andreae M.O, Lohmann U., Wendisch M., McFarquhar G.M, Leisner T. et al..  2018.  Additional global climate cooling by clouds due to ice crystal complexity. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:15767-15781.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ice crystal submicron structures have a large impact on the optical properties of cirrus clouds and consequently on their radiative effect. Although there is growing evidence that atmospheric ice crystals are rarely pristine, direct in situ observations of the degree of ice crystal complexity are largely missing. Here we show a comprehensive in situ data set of ice crystal complexity coupled with measurements of the cloud angular scattering...

  • Saliba G., Subramanian R., Bilsback K., L'Orange C., Volckens J., Johnson M., Robinson A.L.  2018.  Aerosol optical properties and climate implications of emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves. Environmental Science & Technology. 52:13647-13656.
    Abstract Summary:

    Cookstove emissions are a major global source of black carbon but their impact on climate is uncertain because of limited understanding of their optical properties. We measured optical properties of fresh aerosol emissions from 32 different stove/fuel combinations, ranging from simple open fires to high-performing forced-draft stoves. Stoves were tested in the laboratory using the firepower sweep protocol, which measures emissions across the...

  • Arzeno I.B, Collignon A., Merrifield M., Giddings S.N, Pawlak G..  2018.  An alongshore momentum budget over a fringing tropical fore-reef. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:7839-7855.
    Abstract Summary:

    Existing momentum budgets over coral reefs have predominantly focused on cross-reef dynamics, lacking analysis of alongshore processes. To complement existing cross-reef research and enhance our understanding of forcing variability at the semidiurnal period, this study examines the sigma-coordinate, depth-averaged alongshore momentum budget over a fore-reef as a function of tidal phase. The observations were gathered over a 3-week timespan,...

  • Moore J.M, Carvajal J.I, Rouse GW, Wilson NG.  2018.  The Antarctic Circumpolar Current isolates and connects: Structured circumpolarity in the sea star Glabraster antarctica. Ecology and Evolution. 8:10621-10633.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) connects benthic populations by transporting larvae around the continent, but also isolates faunas north and south of the Antarctic Convergence. We test circumpolar panmixia and dispersal across the Antarctic Convergence barrier in the benthic sea star Glabraster antarctica.


  • Highlighted Publication Crab image by Facundo Nehuén López under CC licensing
    Taylor J.RA.  2018.  Aquatic versus terrestrial crab skeletal support: morphology, mechanics, molting and scaling. Journal of Experimental Biology. 221
    Abstract Summary:

    The transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments places significant mechanical challenges on skeletal support systems. Crabs have made this transition multiple times and are the largest arthropods to inhabit both environments. Furthermore, they alternate between rigid and hydrostatic skeletons, making them an interesting system to examine mechanical adaptations in skeletal support systems. I hypothesized that terrestrial crabs have...

  • Paulsen M.L, Seuthe L., Reigstad M., Larsen A., Cape M.R, Vernet M.  2018.  Asynchronous accumulation of organic carbon and nitrogen in the Atlantic gateway to the Arctic Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrogen (N) is the main limiting nutrient for biological production in the Arctic Ocean. While dissolved inorganic N (DIN) is well studied, the substantial pool of N bound in organic matter (OM) and its bioavailability in the system is rarely considered. Covering a full annual cycle, we here follow N and carbon (C) content in particulate (P) and dissolved (D) OM within the Atlantic water inflow to the Arctic Ocean. While particulate organic...

  • Varga L.M, Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2018.  Behavior of singing fin whales Balaenoptera physalus tracked acoustically offshore of Southern California. Endangered Species Research. 35:113-124.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fin whales Balaenoptera physalus produce stereotyped low-frequency calls (1530 Hz) that can be detected at great ranges and are considered song when produced in a repeated temporal pattern. These calls, referred to as 20 Hz calls, were localized and tracked using a 1 km aperture array of 4 passive acoustic recorders at approximately 800 m depth northwest of San Clemente Island, offshore of Southern California, USA, for 4 continuous weeks...

  • Oakley N.S, Cannon F., Munroe R., Lancaster J.T, Gomberg D., Ralph FM.  2018.  Brief communication: Meteorological and climatological conditions associated with the 9 January 2018 post-fire debris flows in Montecito and Carpinteria, California, USA. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 18:3037-3043.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Thomas Fire burned 114078 ha in Santa Barbara and Ventura counties, southern California, during December 2017-January 2018. On 9 January 2018, high-intensity rainfall occurred over the Thomas Fire burn area in the mountains above the communities of Montecito and Carpinteria, initiating multiple devastating debris flows. The highest rainfall intensities occurred with the passage of a narrow rainband along a cold front oriented north to...

  • Guirguis K., Gershunov A, Clemesha R.ES, Shulgina T., Subramanian AC, Ralph FM.  2018.  Circulation drivers of atmospheric rivers at the North American West Coast. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:12576-12584.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are mechanisms of strong moisture transport capable of bringing heavy precipitation to the West Coast of North America, which drives water resources and can lead to large-scale flooding. Understanding links between climate variability and landfalling ARs is critical for improving forecasts on timescales needed for water resource management. We examined 69years of landfalling ARs along western North America using...

  • Politikos D.V, Curchitser E.N, Rose K.A, Checkley DM, Fiechter J..  2018.  Climate variability and sardine recruitment in the California Current: A mechanistic analysis of an ecosystem model. Fisheries Oceanography. 27:602-622.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recruitment varies substantially in small pelagic fish populations. Understanding of the mechanisms linking environment to recruitment is essential for the effective management of fisheries resources. In this study, we used a fully coupled end-to-end ecosystem model to study the effect of climate variability on sardine recruitment in the California Current System during 1965-2006. Ocean variability was represented by ROMS hydrodynamic and...

  • Mayr G.J, Plavcan D., Armi L., Elvidge A., Grisogono B., Horvath K., Jackson P., Neururer A., Seibert P., Steenburgh J.W et al..  2018.  The community foehn classification experiment. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 99:2229-2235.
    Abstract Summary:

    Strong winds crossing elevated terrain and descending to its lee occur over mountainous areas worldwide. Winds fulfilling these two criteria are called foehn in this paper although different names exist depending on the region, the sign of the temperature change at onset, and the depth of the overflowing layer. These winds affect the local weather and climate and impact society. Classification is difficult because other wind systems might be...

  • D'Agostino N., Silverii F., Amoroso O., Convertito V., Fiorillo F., Ventafridda G., Zollo A..  2018.  Crustal deformation and seismicity modulated by groundwater recharge of karst aquifers. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:12253-12262.
    Abstract Summary:

    Triggered seismicity in karst regions has been explained assuming the existence of a hydraulically connected fracture system and downward diffusion of surface pore pressures. Karst systems are, in fact, able to swiftly channel large amount of rainfall through networks of conduits increasing the hydraulic head loading upon the fluid-saturated, poroelastic crust. Here we use Global Positioning System and hydrological and seismicity data to show...

  • Zhao N.Z, Liu Y., Vanos J.K, Cao G.F.  2018.  Day-of-week and seasonal patterns of PM2.5 concentrations over the United States: Time-series analyses using the Prophet procedure. Atmospheric Environment. 192:116-127.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fluctuations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations show clear yearly and weekly patterns, which has been revealed by previous studies. However, reliability of those studies may be affected by their small research areas, short observation periods, and/or the lack of using specialized statistical approaches for time series. The current study applies a recently developed time-series analysis procedure, Prophet, to investigate...

  • Klein E., Duputel Z., Zigone D., Vigny C., Boy J.-P., Doubre C., Meneses G..  2018.  Deep transient slow slip detected by survey GPS in the region of Atacama, Chile. Geophysical Research Letters.
    Abstract Summary:

    We detected a long-term transient deformation signal between 2014 and 2016 in the Atacama region (Chile) using survey Global Positioning System (GPS) observations. Over an ∼150 km along-strike region, survey GPS measurements in 2014 and 2016 deviate significantly from the interseismic trend estimated using previous observations. This deviation from steady state deformation is spatially coherent and reveals a horizontal westward diverging...

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