Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

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  • Moyer A.N, Nienow P.W, Gourmelen N., Sole A.J, Slater D.A, Truffer M., Fahnestock M..  2019.  Spatio-temporal variations in seasonal ice tongue submarine melt rate at a tidewater glacier in southwest Greenland. 65:523-530.
    Abstract Summary:

    Submarine melting of tidewater glaciers is proposed as a trigger for their recent thinning, acceleration and retreat. We estimate spring submarine melt rates (SMRs) of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia in southwest Greenland, from 2012 to 2014, by examining changes in along-fjord freeboard and velocity of the seasonal floating ice tongue. Estimated SMRs vary spatially and temporally near the grounding line, with mean rates of 1.3 +/- 0.6, 0.8 +/- 0.3...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The spindown of a geostrophically balanced density front in an upper-ocean mixed layer is simulated with a large eddy simulation (LES) model that resolves O(1000) m down to O(1) m scale. Our goal is to examine the interaction between the submesoscale and the turbulent finescale, and another related goal is to use the turbulence-resolving simulation to better characterize vertical transport, frontogenesis and dissipative processes. The flow...

  • Minich J, Petrus S, Michael JD, Michael TP, Knight R, Allen E.  2019.  Temporal, environmental, and biological drivers of the mucosal microbiome in a wild marine fish, Scomber japonicus.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changing ocean conditions driven by anthropogenic activity may have a negative impact on fisheries by increasing stress and disease with the mucosal microbiome as a potentially important intermediate role. To understand how environment and host biology drives mucosal microbiomes in a marine fish, we surveyed five body sites (gill, skin, digesta, GI, and pyloric caeca) from 229 Pacific chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus, collected across 38 time...

  • Maximenko N., Corradi P., Law K.L, van Sebille E., Garaba S.P, Lampitt R.S, Galgani F., Martinez-Vicente V., Goddijn-Murphy L., Veiga J.M et al..  2019.  Toward the integrated marine debris observing system. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to the health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways, and distributions in the ocean are very sparse and inaccurate. Total amounts of plastics and other man-made debris in the ocean and on the shore, temporal trends in these amounts under exponentially...

  • Ramos A.M, Wilson A.M, DeFlorio M.J, Warner M.D, Barnes E., Garreaud R., Gorodetskaya I.V, Lavers D.A, Moore B., Payne A. et al..  2019.  2018 International Atmospheric Rivers Conference: Multi-disciplinary studies and high-impact applications of atmospheric rivers.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a vital role in shaping the hydroclimate of many regions globally, and can substantially impact water resource management, emergency response planning, and other socioeconomic entities. The second International Atmospheric Rivers Conference took place at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, during 25-28 June, 2018, in La Jolla, California, USA. It was sponsored by the...

  • Cronin MF, Gentemann C.L, Edson J., Ueki I., Bourassa M., Brown S., Clayson CA, Fairall CW, Farrar J.T, Gille ST et al..  2019.  Air-sea fluxes with a focus on heat and momentum. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Turbulent and radiative exchanges of heat between the ocean and atmosphere (hereafter heat fluxes), ocean surface wind stress, and state variables used to estimate them, are Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) and Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) influencing weather and climate. This paper describes an observational strategy for producing 3-hourly, 25-km (and an aspirational goal of hourly at 10-km) heat flux and wind stress fields over the...

  • Frouin R.J, Franz B.A, Ibrahim A., Knobelspiesse K., Ahmad Z., Cairns B., Chowdhary J., Dierssen H.M, Tan J., Dubovik O. et al..  2019.  Atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery during the PACE era. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission will carry into space the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI), a spectrometer measuring at 5 nm spectral resolution in the ultraviolet (UV) to near infrared (NIR) with additional spectral bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), and two multi-angle polarimeters that will overlap the OCI spectral range and spatial coverage, i. e., the Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration (SPEXone) and the...

  • Johnson C.W, Vernon F, Nakata N., Ben-Zion Y..  2019.  Atmospheric processes modulating noise in Fairfield nodal 5 Hz geophones. 90:1612-1618.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric processes are documented to modulate seismic noise in Fairfield Nodal three-component geophones. Spectral analysis has shown high-amplitude signals between 40 and 50 Hz in all waveforms inspected. The changes in spectral amplitudes and frequency are found to be modified by daily variations in wind velocity and temperature, which are temporally correlated for much of the study. The wind velocity is shown to affect a wide spectral...

  • Polonik P., Chan W.S, Billesbach D.P, Burba G., Li J., Nottrott A., Bogoev I., Conrad B., Biraud S.C.  2019.  Comparison of gas analyzers for eddy covariance: Effects of analyzer type and spectral corrections on fluxes. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 272:128-142.
    Abstract Summary:

    The eddy covariance technique (EC) is used at hundreds of field sites worldwide to measure trace gas exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. Data quality and correction methods for EC have been studied empirically and theoretically for many years. The recent development of new gas analyzers has led to an increase in technological options for users. Open-path (no inlet tube) and closed-path (long inlet tube) sensors have been used for...

  • Valente A., Sathyendranath S., Brotas V., Groom S., Grant M., Taberner M., Antoine D., Arnone R., Balch W.M, Barker K. et al..  2019.  A compilation of global bio-optical in situ data for ocean-colour satellite applications - version two. 11:1037-1068.
    Abstract Summary:

    A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate the quality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the data compiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired from several sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD, MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT and GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2018...

  • Swart S., Gille ST, Delille B., Josey S., Mazloff M., Newman L., Thompson A.F, Thomson J., Ward B., Plessis M.D du et al..  2019.  Constraining Southern Ocean air-sea-ice fluxes through enhanced observations. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Air-sea and air-sea-ice fluxes in the Southern Ocean play a critical role in global climate through their impact on the overturning circulation and oceanic heat and carbon uptake. The challenging conditions in the Southern Ocean have led to sparse spatial and temporal coverage of observations. This has led to a "knowledge gap" that increases uncertainty in atmosphere and ocean dynamics and boundary-layer thermodynamic processes, impeding...

  • Kolody B.C, McCrow J.P, L. Allen Z, Aylward F.O, Fontanez K.M, Moustafa A., Moniruzzaman M., Chavez F.P, Scholin C.A, Allen EE et al..  2019.  Diel transcriptional response of a California Current plankton microbiome to light, low iron, and enduring viral infection.
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton and associated microbial communities provide organic carbon to oceanic food webs and drive ecosystem dynamics. However, capturing those dynamics is challenging. Here, an in situ, semi-Lagrangian, robotic sampler profiled pelagic microbes at 4 h intervals over ~2.6 days in North Pacific high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll waters. We report on the community structure and transcriptional dynamics of microbes in an operationally large...

  • Romero-Romero S., Choy C.A, Hannides C.CS, Popp BN, Drazen J.C.  2019.  Differences in the trophic ecology of micronekton driven by diel vertical migration. 64:1473-1483.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many species of micronekton perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs), which ultimately contributes to carbon export to the deep sea. However, not all micronekton species perform DVM, and the nonmigrators, which are often understudied, have different energetic requirements that might be reflected in their trophic ecology. We analyze bulk tissue and whole animal stable nitrogen isotopic compositions (delta N-15 values) of micronekton species...

  • Evan AT.  2019.  Downslope winds and dust storms in the Salton Basin. 147:2387-2402.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Salton basin is a closed, subsea level basin located in extreme southeastern California. At the center of the basin lies the Salton Sea, the state's largest inland lake, which is surrounded by a desert landscape characterized by paleo lakebed surfaces, dry washes, alluvial fans, and interdunes. Dust storms are common occurrence in this region. However, despite the regularity of dust outbreaks here, little is known about the meteorological...

  • Baggenstos D, Haberli M., Schmitt J., Shackleton S.A, Birner B., Severinghaus JP, Kellerhals T., Fischer H..  2019.  Earth's radiative imbalance from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. 116:14881-14886.
    Abstract Summary:

    The energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere determines the temporal evolution of the global climate, and vice versa changes in the climate system can alter the planetary energy fluxes. This interplay is fundamental to our understanding of Earth's heat budget and the climate system. However, even today, the direct measurement of global radiative fluxes is difficult, such that most assessments are based on changes in the total energy...

  • Corringham T.W, Cayan DR.  2019.  The effect of El Nino on flood damages in the western United States. 11:489-504.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper quantifies insured flood losses across the western United States from 1978 to 2017, presenting a spatiotemporal analysis of National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) daily claims and losses over this period. While considerably lower (only 3.3%) than broader measures of direct damages measured by a National Weather Service (NWS) dataset, NFIP insured losses are highly correlated to the annual damages in the NWS dataset, and the NFIP...

  • Bellquist L., Beyer S., Arrington M., Maeding J., Siddall A., Fischer P., Hyde J., Wegner NC.  2019.  Effectiveness of descending devices to mitigate the effects of barotrauma among rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) in California recreational fisheries. 215:44-52.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fishes caught from depth often suffer from barotrauma, which can result in high mortality rates (close to 100% for some species) when released at the surface. To mitigate for this, the recreational fishing community proactively developed several different types of descending devices designed to assist unwanted or prohibited fish back toward the bottom for release. Post-release survival using recompression techniques has been documented for...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Since the publication of the compilation of biomass burning emission factors by Andreae and Merlet (2001), a large number of studies have greatly expanded the amount of available data on emissions from various types of biomass burning. Using essentially the same methodology as Andreae and Merlet (2001), this paper presents an updated compilation of emission factors. The data from over 370 published studies were critically evaluated and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Solomon Sea carries the equatorward western boundary current of the South Pacific, a principal element of subtropical-equatorial communication. Eighty-seven glider transects across the mouth of the Sea over nine years describe the velocity structure and variability of this system. The time series spans two El Ninos and two La Ninas, which produced large transport anomalies, up to 50% of the mean. While transport increased during El Ninos...

  • Heinze C, Eyring V., Friedlingstein P., Jones C., Balkanski Y, Collins W., Fichefet T., Gao S., Hall A., Ivanova D. et al..  2019.  ESD Reviews: Climate feedbacks in the Earth system and prospects for their evaluation. 10:379-452.
    Abstract Summary:

    Earth system models (ESMs) are key tools for providing climate projections under different scenarios of human-induced forcing. ESMs include a large number of additional processes and feedbacks such as biogeochemical cycles that traditional physical climate models do not consider. Yet, some processes such as cloud dynamics and ecosystem functional response still have fairly high uncertainties. In this article, we present an overview of climate...

  • Pattanayak S.K, Jeuland M., Lewis J.J, Usmani F., Brooks N., Bhojvaid V., Kar A., Lipinski L., Morrison L., Patange O. et al..  2019.  Experimental evidence on promotion of electric and improved biomass cookstoves. 116:13282-13287.
    Abstract Summary:

    Improved cookstoves (ICS) can deliver "triple wins" by improving household health, local environments, and global climate. Yet their potential is in doubt because of low and slow diffusion, likely because of constraints imposed by differences in culture, geography, institutions, and missing markets. We offer insights about this challenge based on a multiyear, multiphase study with nearly 1,000 households in the Indian Himalayas. In phase I,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The deep biosphere is often characterized by multiple extreme physical-chemical conditions, of which pressure is an important parameter that influences life but remains less studied. This geomicrobiology study was designed to understand the response of a subterranean microbial community of the Deccan traps to high-pressure conditions and to elucidate their genomic properties. Groundwater from a deep basaltic aquifer of the Deccan traps was...

  • Shields J.E, Karr M.E.  2019.  Extinction imagers for measurements of atmospheric beam transmittance. 58:5486-5495.
    Abstract Summary:

    Optical beam transmittance for a horizontal path of sight through the atmosphere may be measured with transmissometers, which typically are double-ended, with source and a receiver at opposite ends of the path. Determination of the beam transmittance for longer paths is more challenging in some applications, such as monitoring the surround of a ship at sea or an urban environment. Extinction imaging is a new, to the best of our knowledge,...

  • Drushka K., Asher W.E, Sprintall J, Gille ST, Hoang C..  2019.  Global patterns of submesoscale surface salinity variability. 49:1669-1685.
    Abstract Summary:

    Surface salinity variability on O(1-10) km lateral scales (the submesoscale) generates density variability and thus has implications for submesoscale dynamics. Satellite salinity measurements represent a spatial average over horizontal scales of approximately 40-100 km but are compared to point measurements for validation, so submesoscale salinity variability also complicates validation of satellite salinities. Here, we combine several...

  • de Rond T., Gao J., Zargar A., de Raad M., Cunha J., Northen T.R, Keasling J.D.  2019.  A high-throughput mass spectrometric enzyme activity assay enabling the discovery of cytochrome P450 biocatalysts. 58:10114-10119.
    Abstract Summary:

    Assaying for enzymatic activity is a persistent bottleneck in biocatalyst and drug development. Existing high-throughput assays for enzyme activity tend to be applicable only to a narrow range of biochemical transformations, whereas universal enzyme characterization methods usually require chromatography to determine substrate turnover, greatly diminishing throughput. We present an enzyme activity assay that allows the high-throughput mass-...

  • Alessandrini S., Sperati S., L. Monache D.  2019.  Improving the analog ensemble wind speed forecasts for rare events. 147:2677-2692.
    Abstract Summary:

    An analog-based ensemble technique, the analog ensemble (AnEn), has been applied successfully to generate probabilistic predictions of meteorological variables, wind and solar power, energy demand, and the optimal bidding in the day-ahead energy market. The AnEn method uses a historical time series of past forecasts from a meteorological model or other prediction systems and observations of the quantity to be predicted. For each forecast lead...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Vulnerable marine ecosystems (VMEs) are considered hotspots of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in the deep sea, but are also characterised by a high vulnerability to disturbance and a low recovery potential. Since 2006, a series of United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolutions have been developed, attempting to ensure the protection of VMEs in international waters. In the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO) Regulatory...

  • Boas A.BV, Ardhuin F., Ayet A., Bourassa MA, Brandt P., Chapron B., Cornuelle BD, Farrar J.T, Fewings M.R, Fox-Kemper B. et al..  2019.  Integrated observations of global surface winds, currents, and waves: Requirements and challenges for the next decade. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean surface winds, currents, and waves play a crucial role in exchanges of momentum, energy, heat, freshwater, gases, and other tracers between the ocean, atmosphere, and ice. Despite surface waves being strongly coupled to the upper ocean circulation and the overlying atmosphere, efforts to improve ocean, atmospheric, and wave observations and models have evolved somewhat independently. From an observational point of view, community...

  • Alford MH, Simmons HL, Marques OB, Girton JB.  2019.  Internal tide attenuation in the North Pacific. 46:8205-8213.
    Abstract Summary:

    Multisatellite altimetry and an eddy-resolving model with tides are used to quantify the attenuation of the mode-1 M2 internal tide as it propagates from three major sources in the North Pacific. The model is used to correct the altimetric fluxes for the nonstationary signal that altimeters cannot detect. Because internal tides in the North Pacific are highly stationary, these corrections do not materially impact the decay rate estimates....

  • Brizuela N., Filonov A., Alford MH.  2019.  Internal tsunami waves transport sediment released by underwater landslides. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Accelerated by gravity, submarine landslides transfer energy to the marine environment, most notably leading to catastrophic tsunamis. While tsunamis are thought to use less than 15% of the total energy released by landslides, little is known about subsurface processes comprising the rest of their energy budgets. Here, we analyze the first set of observations depicting a lake's interior response to underwater landslides and find that sediment...

  • Pohlker C., Walter D., Paulsen H., Konemann T., Rodriguez-Caballero E., Moran-Zuloaga D., Brito J., Carbone S., Degrendele C., Despres V.R et al..  2019.  Land cover and its transformation in the backward trajectory footprint region of the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. 19:8425-8470.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Amazon rain forest experiences the combined pressures from human-made deforestation and progressing climate change, causing severe and potentially disruptive perturbations of the ecosystem's integrity and stability. To intensify research on critical aspects of Amazonian biosphere-atmosphere exchange, the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been established in the central Amazon Basin. Here we present a multi-year analysis of backward...

  • Martin D., Pititto F., Gil J., Mura M.P, Bahamon N., Romano C., Thorin S., Schvartz T., Dutrieux E., Bocquenet Y..  2019.  Long-distance influence of the Rhone River plume on the marine benthic ecosystem: Integrating descriptive ecology and predictive modelling. 673:790-809.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Gulf of Lions (GoL) is among the most productive areas of the Mediterranean Sea, with the Rhone River contributing with as much as 90% of the liquid and solid materials (including anthropogenic chemicals) reaching the area. In this paper, we assessed whether classical descriptive ecology and MaxEnt predictive species distribution modelling were able to provide complementary information when analysing the long-distance influence of the...

  • Rahib RR, Udry A, Howarth GH, Gross J, Paquet M, Combs LM, Laczniak DL, Day JMD.  2019.  Mantle source to near-surface emplacement of enriched and intermediate poikilitic shergottites in Mars.
    Abstract Summary:

    Poikilitic shergottites make up >20% of the current martian meteorite collection, with a total of 27 samples. These meteorites are intrusive gabbroic to lherzolitic rocks and represent igneous materials recording important processes in the martian crust. To further constrain petrogenetic relationships amongst enriched and intermediate poikilitic shergottites, we studied a comprehensive suite of poikilitic shergottites — including four...

  • Pinardi N., Cessi P, Borile F., Wolfe C.LP.  2019.  The Mediterranean Sea overturning circulation. 49:1699-1721.
    Abstract Summary:

    The time-mean zonal and meridional overturning circulations of the entire Mediterranean Sea are studied in both the Eulerian and residual frameworks. The overturning is characterized by cells in the vertical and either zonal or meridional planes with clockwise circulations in the upper water column and counterclockwise circulations in the deep and abyssal regions. The zonal overturning is composed of an upper clockwise cell in the top 600 m...

  • Pommier A., Leinenweber K., Tran T..  2019.  Mercury's thermal evolution controlled by an insulating liquid outermost core? 517:125-134.
    Abstract Summary:

    The weak intrinsic magnetic field of Mercury is intimately tied to the structure and cooling history of its metallic core. Recent constraints about the planet's internal structure suggest the presence of a FeS layer overlying a silicon-bearing core. We performed 4-electrode resistivity experiments on core analogues up to 10 GPa and over wide temperature ranges in order to investigate the insulating properties of core materials. Our results...

  • Anutaliya A, Send U, Sprintall J, McClean JL, Lankhorst M, Koelling J.  2019.  Mooring and Seafloor Pressure End Point Measurements at the Southern Entrance of the Solomon Sea: Subseasonal to Interannual Flow Variability. 124:5085-5104.
    Abstract Summary:

    Variability of the flow across the Solomon Sea's southern entrance was examined using end point subsurface moorings and seafloor pressure sensors, reconstructed velocity profiles based on satellite-derived surface velocity and bottom pressure-derived subsurface velocity, and 1993–2017 proxy volume transport based on satellite altimetry. The reconstructed velocity correctly represents the fluctuating surface flow and subsurface core providing...

  • Goni G.J, Sprintall J, Bringas F., Cheng L.J, Cirano M., Dong S.F, Domingues R., Goes M., Lopez H., Morrow R. et al..  2019.  More than 50 years of successful continuous temperature section measurements by the global expendable bathythermograph network, its integrability, societal benefits, and future. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The first eXpendable BathyThermographs (XBTs) were deployed in the 1960s in the North Atlantic Ocean. In 1967 XBTs were deployed in operational mode to provide a continuous record of temperature profile data along repeated transects, now known as the Global XBT Network. The current network is designed to monitor ocean circulation and boundary current variability, basin-wide and trans-basin ocean heat transport, and global and regional heat...

  • Nandy L., Liu S.H, Gunsbury C., Wang X.F, Pendergraft M.A, Prather KA, Dutcher C.S.  2019.  Multistep phase transitions in sea surface microlayer droplets and aerosol mimics using microfluidic wells. 3:1260-1267.
    Abstract Summary:

    Oceanic sea spray is one of the largest contributors of atmospheric aerosol particles worldwide. The phase of aerosol particles is known to impact radiative forcing and cloud nucleation. However, as chemically complex aqueous systems that include mixtures of biological, organic, and salt constituents, it is a challenge to predict the phase of sea spray aerosol especially as they age in the atmosphere. In this study, phase behavior (liquid...

  • Moss N.A, Seiler G., Leao T.F, Castro-Falcon G., Gerwick L, Hughes CC, Gerwick WH.  2019.  Nature's combinatorial biosynthesis produces vatiamides A-F. 58:9027-9031.
    Abstract Summary:

    Hybrid typeI PKS/NRPS biosynthetic pathways typically proceed in a collinear manner wherein one molecular building block is enzymatically incorporated in a sequence that corresponds to gene arrangement. In this work, genome mining combined with the use of a fluorogenic azide-based click probe led to the discovery and characterization of vatiamides A-F, three structurally diverse alkynylated lipopeptides, and their brominated analogues, from...

  • Schlosser T.L, Jones N.L, Musgrave R.C, Bluteau C.E, Ivey G.N, Lucas A.J.  2019.  Observations of diurnal coastal-trapped waves with a thermocline-intensified velocity field. 49:1973-1994.
    Abstract Summary:

    Using 18 days of field observations, we investigate the diurnal (D1) frequency wave dynamics on the Tasmanian eastern continental shelf. At this latitude, the D1 frequency is subinertial and separable from the highly energetic near-inertial motion. We use a linear coastal-trapped wave (CTW) solution with the observed background current, stratification, and shelf bathymetry to determine the modal structure of the first three resonant CTWs. We...

  • Howe B.M, Miksis-Olds J., Rehm E., Sagen H., Worcester P.F, Haralabus G..  2019.  Observing the oceans acoustically. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Acoustics play a central role in humankind's interactions with the ocean and the life within. Passive listening to ocean "soundscapes" informs us about the physical and bio-acoustic environment from earthquakes to communication between fish. Active acoustic probing of the environment informs us about ocean topography, currents and temperature, and abundance and type of marine life vital to fisheries and biodiversity related interests. The two...

  • Domingues R., Kuwano-Yoshida A., Chardon-Maldonado P., Todd R.E, Halliwell G., Kim H.S, Lin II, Sato K., Narazaki T., Shay L.K et al..  2019.  Ocean observations in support of studies and forecasts of tropical and extratropical cyclones. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Over the past decade, measurements from the climate-oriented ocean observing system have been key to advancing the understanding of extreme weather events that originate and intensify over the ocean, such as tropical cyclones (TCs) and extratropical bomb cyclones (ECs). In order to foster further advancements to predict and better understand these extreme weather events, a need for a dedicated observing system component specifically to...

  • Benway H.M, Lorenzoni L., White A.E, Fiedler B., Levine N.M, Nicholson D.P, DeGrandpre M.D, Sosik H.M, Church M.J, O'Brien T.D et al..  2019.  Ocean time series observations of changing marine ecosystems: An era of integration, synthesis, and societal applications. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Sustained ocean time series are critical for characterizing marine ecosystem shifts in a time of accelerating, and at times unpredictable, changes. They represent the only means to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic forcings, and are the best tools to explore causal links and implications for human communities that depend on ocean resources. Since the inception of sustained ocean observations, ocean time series have withstood many...

  • Garcia E.SM, Sandwell DT, Bassett D..  2019.  Outer trench slope flexure and faulting at Pacific basin subduction zones. 218:708-728.
    Abstract Summary:

    Flexure and fracturing of the seafloor on the outer trench wall of subduction zones reflect bending of the lithosphere beyond its elastic limit. To investigate these inelastic processes, we have developed a full nonlinear inversion approach for estimating the bending moment, curvature and outer trench wall fracturing using shipboard bathymetry and satellite altimetry-derived gravity data as constraints. Bending moments and downward forces are...

  • Combs LM, Udry A, Howarth GH, Righter M, Lapen TJ, Gross J, Ross DK, Rahib RR, Day JMD.  2019.   Petrology of the enriched poikilitic shergottite Northwest Africa 10169: Insight into the martian interior.
    Abstract Summary:

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 10169 is classified as a member of the geochemically enriched poikilitic shergottites, based on mineral composition, Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics, and rare earth element (REE) concentrations. Similar to other enriched and intermediate poikilitic shergottites, NWA 10169 is a cumulate rock that exhibits a bimodal texture characterized by large pyroxene oikocrysts (poikilitic texture)...

  • Vejar G., Montez R., Morris M., Stassun K.G.  2019.  Planetary nebulae and how to find them: Color identification in big broadband surveys. 879
    Abstract Summary:

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) provide tests of stellar evolution, can serve as tracers of chemical evolution in the Milky Way and other galaxies, and are also used as calibrators of the cosmological distance ladder. Current and upcoming large-scale photometric surveys have the potential to complete the census of PNe in our galaxy and beyond, but it is a challenge to disambiguate partially or fully unresolved PNe from the myriad other sources...

  • Gershunov A, Shulgina T., Clemesha R.ES, Guirguis K., Pierce DW, Dettinger MD, Lavers D.A, Cayan DR, Polade S.D, Kalansky J. et al..  2019.  Precipitation regime change in Western North America: The role of Atmospheric Rivers. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Daily precipitation in California has been projected to become less frequent even as precipitation extremes intensify, leading to uncertainty in the overall response to climate warming. Precipitation extremes are historically associated with Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). Sixteen global climate models are evaluated for realism in modeled historical AR behavior and contribution of the resulting daily precipitation to annual total precipitation over...

  • Capotondi A., Sardeshmukh P.D, Di Lorenzo E, Subramanian AC, Miller AJ.  2019.  Predictability of US West Coast ocean temperatures is not solely due to ENSO. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The causes of the extreme and persistent warming in the Northeast Pacific from the winter of 2013/14 to that of 2014/15 are still not fully understood. While global warming may have contributed, natural influences may also have played a role. El Nino events are often implicated in anomalously warm conditions along the US West Coast (USWC). However, the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies were generally weak during 2014,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Polyphosphates and phosphomonoesters are dominant components of marine dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP). Collectively, DOP represents an important nutritional phosphorus (P) source for phytoplankton growth in the ocean, but the contribution of specific DOP sources to microbial community P demand is not fully understood. In a prior study, it was reported that inorganic polyphosphate was not bioavailable to the model diatoms Thalassiosira...

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