Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

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  • Smith SR, Dupont CL, McCarthy JK, Broddrick JT, Oborník M, Horák A, Füssy Z, Cihlář J, Kleessen S, Zheng H et al..  2019.  Evolution and regulation of nitrogen flux through compartmentalized metabolic networks in a marine diatom. 10:4552.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms outcompete other phytoplankton for nitrate, yet little is known about the mechanisms underpinning this ability. Genomes and genome-enabled studies have shown that diatoms possess unique features of nitrogen metabolism however, the implications for nutrient utilization and growth are poorly understood. Using a combination of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, fluxomics, and flux balance analysis to examine short-term shifts in...

  • Prenni A.J, Hand J.L, Malm W.C, Copeland S., Luo G, Yu F, Taylor N., Russell LM, Schichtel B.A.  2019.  An examination of the algorithm for estimating light extinction from IMPROVE particle speciation data. 214
    Abstract Summary:

    The Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network is the basis for monitoring visibility in Class I Areas throughout the United States. Monitoring is conducted by collecting PM2.5 and PM10 samples every third day at over 150 remote and rural sites nationwide, with PM2.5 samples being analyzed for chemical composition. Light extinction is reconstructed using an algorithm that relates speciated mass to light...

  • Wang J.A, Sulla-Menashe D., Woodcock C.E, Sonnentag O., Keeling RF, Friedl M.A.  2019.  Extensive land cover change across Arctic-Boreal Northwestern North America from disturbance and climate forcing.
    Abstract Summary:

    A multitude of disturbance agents, such as wildfires, land use, and climate-driven expansion of woody shrubs, is transforming the distribution of plant functional types across Arctic-Boreal ecosystems, which has significant implications for interactions and feedbacks between terrestrial ecosystems and climate in the northern high-latitude. However, because the spatial resolution of existing land cover datasets is too coarse, large-scale land...

  • Saliba G., Chen C.L, Lewis S., Russell LM, Rivellini L.H, Lee A.KY, Quinn P.K, Bates T.S, Haentjens N., Boss E.S et al..  2019.  Factors driving the seasonal and hourly variability of sea-spray aerosol number in the North Atlantic. 116:20309-20314.
    Abstract Summary:

    Four North Atlantic Aerosol and Marine Ecosystems Study (NAAMES) field campaigns from winter 2015 through spring 2018 sampled an extensive set of oceanographic and atmospheric parameters during the annual phytoplankton bloom cycle. This unique dataset provides four seasons of open-ocean observations of wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), seawater particle attenuation at 660 nm (c(p,660), a measure of ocean particulate organic carbon),...

  • Zgliczynski B.J, Williams GJ, Hamilton S.L, Cordner E.G, Fox M.D, Eynaud Y., Michener R.H, Kaufman L.S, Sandin SA.  2019.  Foraging consistency of coral reef fishes across environmental gradients in the central Pacific. 191:433-445.
    Abstract Summary:

    We take advantage of a natural gradient of human exploitation and oceanic primary production across five central Pacific coral reefs to examine foraging patterns in common coral reef fishes. Using stomach content and stable isotope (delta N-15 and delta C-13) analyses, we examined consistency across islands in estimated foraging patterns. Surprisingly, species within the piscivore-invertivore group exhibited the clearest pattern of foraging...

  • Hormann V., Centurioni LR, Gordon A.L.  2019.  Freshwater export pathways from the Bay of Bengal. 168
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations from surface drifters and Argo floats elucidate details of two upper-ocean pathways through which freshwater from the Bay of Bengal (BoB) is advected into the tropical Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea (AS). The western route is located along the east coast of India and feeds into the westward Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) south of Sri Lanka during the winter monsoon, whereas the eastern path is located along the western margin of...

  • Hennon T.D, Alford MH, Zhao Z.X.  2019.  Global assessment of semidiurnal internal tide aliasing in Argo profiles. 49:2523-2533.
    Abstract Summary:

    Though unresolved by Argo floats, internal waves still impart an aliased signal onto their profile measurements. Recent studies have yielded nearly global characterization of several constituents of the stationary internal tides. Using this new information in conjunction with thousands of floats, we quantify the influence of the stationary, mode-1 M-2 and S-2 internal tides on Argo-observed temperature. We calculate the in situ temperature...

  • Tozer B., Sandwell DT, Smith W.HF, Olson C., Beale J.R, Wessel P..  2019.  Global bathymetry and topography at 15 arc sec: SRTM15+. 6:1847-1864.
    Abstract Summary:

    An updated global bathymetry and topography grid is presented using a spatial sampling interval of 15 arc sec. The bathymetry is produced using a combination of shipboard soundings and depths predicted using satellite altimetry. New data consists of >33.6 million multibeam and singlebeam measurements collated by several institutions, namely, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology,...

  • Asselin O., Young W.R.  2019.  An improved model of near-inertial wave dynamics. 876:428-448.
    Abstract Summary:

    The YBJ equation (Young & Ben Jelloul, J. Marine Res., vol. 55, 1997, pp. 735-766) provides a phase-averaged description of the propagation of near-inertial waves (NIWs) through a geostrophic flow. YBJ is obtained via an asymptotic expansion based on the limit , where is the Burger number of the NIWs. Here we develop an improved version, the YBJ(+) equation. In common with an earlier improvement proposed by Thomas, Smith & Buhler (J....

  • Chapman W.E, Subramanian AC, L. Monache D, Xie SP, Ralph FM.  2019.  Improving atmospheric river forecasts with machine learning.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study tests the utility of convolutional neural networks as a postprocessing framework for improving the National Center for Environmental Prediction's Global Forecast System's integrated vapor transport forecast field in the Eastern Pacific and western United States. Integrated vapor transport is the characteristic field of atmospheric rivers, which provide over 65% of yearly precipitation at some western U.S. locations. The method...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The slowdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC)(1-3) and the accelerated warming of the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO)(4-6) are two robust features projected for anthropogenic greenhouse warming, affecting both regional and global climates(7,8). Here we use coupled climate simulations to investigate a previously overlooked link between the two phenomena. We demonstrate that TIO warming reduces rainfall over the tropical...

  • Pedersen N.E, Edwards C.B, Eynaud Y., Gleason A.CR, Smith JE, Sandin SA.  2019.  The influence of habitat and adults on the spatial distribution of juvenile corals.
    Abstract Summary:

    Population distributions are affected by a variety of spatial processes, including dispersal, intraspecific dynamics and habitat selection. Within reef-building coral communities, these processes are especially important during the earliest life stages when reproduction provides mobility among sessile organisms and populations experience the greatest mortality bottlenecks both before and immediately after settlement. Here, we used large-area...

  • Culver C.S, Johnson L.T, Page H.M, Dugan J.E, Santschi C.A.  2019.  Integrated pest management for fouling organisms on boat hulls.
    Abstract Summary:

    Boating is a major vector for aquatic invasive species that cause significant economic and ecological impacts, necessitating biofouling control that goes beyond simply maintaining boat operations. However, new regulations restricting the use of antifouling paints-a common control tactic along with hull cleaning-have not considered the consequences to invasive species management. As a result, there is a critical need for a biofouling control...

  • Hu S.J, Zhang Y., Feng M, Du Y., Sprintall J, Wang F., Hu D.X, Xie Q., Chai F..  2019.  Interannual to decadal variability of upper-ocean salinity in the southern Indian Ocean and the role of the Indonesian Throughflow. 32:6403-6421.
    Abstract Summary:

    Variability of oceanic salinity, an indicator of the global hydrological cycle, plays an important role in the basin-scale ocean circulation. In this study, interannual to decadal variability of salinity in the upper layer of the Indian Ocean is investigated using Argo observations since 2004 and data assimilating model outputs (1992-2015). The southeastern Indian Ocean shows the strongest interannual to decadal variability of upper-ocean...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Sinking particles transport organic carbon produced in the surface ocean to the ocean interior, leading to net storage of atmospheric CO2 in the deep ocean. The rapid growth of in situ imaging technology has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of particle flux attenuation in the ocean; however, estimating particle flux from particle size and abundance (measured directly by in situ cameras) is challenging. Sinking rates are...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The deep-sea benthos covers over 90% of seafloor area and hosts a great diversity of species which contribute toward essential ecosystem services. Evidence suggests that deep-seafloor assemblages are structured predominantly by their physical environment, yet knowledge of assemblage/environment relationships is limited. Here, we utilized a very large dataset of Northwest Atlantic Ocean continental slope peracarid crustacean assemblages as a...

  • Lenain L., Pizzo N., Melville W.K.  2019.  Laboratory studies of Lagrangian transport by breaking surface waves. 876
    Abstract Summary:

    While it has long been recognized that Lagrangian drift at the ocean surface plays a critical role in the kinematics and dynamics of upper ocean processes, only recently has the contribution of wave breaking to this drift begun to be investigated through direct numerical simulations (Deike et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 829, 2017, pp. 364-391; Pizzo et al., J. Phys. Oceanogr., vol. 49(4), 2019, pp. 983-992). In this work, laboratory...

  • Kline DI, Teneva L., Okamoto D.K, Schneider K., Caldeira K., Miard T., Chai A., Marker M., Dunbar R.B, Mitchell B.G et al..  2019.  Living coral tissue slows skeletal dissolution related to ocean acidification. 3:1438-1444.
    Abstract Summary:

    Climate change is causing major changes to marine ecosystems globally, with ocean acidification of particular concern for coral reefs. Using a 200 d in situ carbon dioxide enrichment study on Heron Island, Australia, we simulated future ocean acidification conditions, and found reduced pH led to a drastic decline in net calcification of living corals to no net growth, and accelerated disintegration of dead corals. Net calcification declined...

  • Ty A.JA, Fang Z., Gonzalez R.A, Rozdeba P.J, Abarbanel H.DI.  2019.  Machine learning of time series using time-delay embedding and precision annealing. 31:2004-2024.
    Abstract Summary:

    Tasking machine learning to predict segments of a time series requires estimating the parameters of a ML model with input/output pairs from the time series. We borrow two techniques used in statistical data assimilation in order to accomplish this task: time-delay embedding to prepare our input data and precision annealing as a training method. The precision annealing approach identifies the global minimum of the action (-log[P]). In this way...

  • Li Z.R, Li J., Cai W.L, Lai J.YH, McKinnie S.MK, Zhang W.P, Moore BS, Zhang W.J, Qian PY.  2019.  Macrocyclic colibactin induces DNA double-strand breaks via copper-mediated oxidative cleavage. 11:880-889.
    Abstract Summary:

    Colibactin is an assumed human gut bacterial genotoxin, whose biosynthesis is linked to the clb genomic island that has a widespread distribution in pathogenic and commensal human enterobacteria. Colibactin-producing gut microbes promote colon tumour formation and enhance the progression of colorectal cancer via cellular senescence and death induced by DNA doublestrand breaks (DSBs); however, the chemical basis that contributes to the...

  • Abstract Summary:
  • Cordoba-Ramirez F., Flores C., Gonzalez-Fernandez A., Constable S, Pena-Dominguez G., Gomez-Trevino E..  2019.  Marine controlled-source electromagnetics with geothermal purposes; central Gulf of California, Mexico. 384:206-220.
    Abstract Summary:

    We acquired and interpreted data from two controlled-source electromagnetic profiles, in the Gulf of California off the coast of Santa Rosalia, Baja California Sur, Mexico. This area is interesting from the geothermal point of view due to its proximity to the Guaymas Basin, the La Reforma Caldera, and the Las Tres Virgenes volcano, the first with intense submarine hydrothermal manifestations and the final one with a geothermal field in...

  • Spicer G.LC, Eid A., Wangpraseurt D., Swain T.D, Winkelmann J.A, Yi J., Kuhl M., Marcelino L.A, Backman V..  2019.  Measuring light scattering and absorption in corals with Inverse Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography (ISOCT): a new tool for non-invasive monitoring. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The success of reef-building corals for >200 million years has been dependent on the mutualistic interaction between the coral host and its photosynthetic endosymbiont dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae) that supply the coral host with nutrients and energy for growth and calcification. While multiple light scattering in coral tissue and skeleton significantly enhance the light microenvironment for Symbiodiniaceae, the mechanisms of...

  • Gracia A., Levin L.A, Zea S..  2019.  Meio-epifaunal wood colonization in the vicinity of methane seeps.
    Abstract Summary:

    In deep-sea environments, plant remains of several origins are found, including branches, twigs, leaves, and wood pieces, among others. As most of the deep-sea bottoms are oligotrophic and nutrient-limited, plant remains provide an oasis of localized organic enrichment and a substrate for colonization. Sunken wood was suggested to play an important evolutionary role in the diversification of chemosynthetic ecosystems, possibly representing...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The mesopelagic (200-1000 m) separates the productive upper ocean from the deep ocean, yet little is known of its long-term dynamics despite recent research that suggests fishes of this zone likely dominate global fish biomass and contribute to the downward flux of carbon. Here we show that mesopelagic fishes dominate the otolith (ear bone) record in anoxic sediment layers of the Santa Barbara Basin over the past two millennia. Among these...

  • Eiben C.B, de Rond T., Bloszies C., Gin J., Chiniquy J., Baidoo E.EK, Petzold C.J, Hillson N.J, Fiehn O., Keasling J.D.  2019.  Mevalonate pathway promiscuity enables noncanonical terpene production. 8:2238-2247.
    Abstract Summary:

    Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) make the six-carbon compounds homoisopentenyl pyrophosphate (HIPP) and homodimethylallyl pyrophosphate (HDMAPP) that are incorporated into 16, 17, and 18 carbon farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) analogues. In this work we heterologously expressed the lepidopteran modified mevalonate pathway, a propionyl-CoA ligase, and terpene cyclases in E. coli to produce several novel terpenes containing 16 carbons. Changing...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) provided a highly detailed set of remote-sensing and surface observations to study Antarctic clouds and surface energy balance, which have received much less attention than for the Arctic due to greater logistical challenges. Limited prior Antarctic cloud observations have slowed the progress of numerical weather prediction in this region. The AWARE...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over the past half-century, but the role of specific anthropogenic drivers is unresolved due to the lack of ecosystem-level data predating human disturbance. To better understand the extent and causes of long-term Caribbean reef declines, we produced a continuous 3000-yr record of the ecosystem state of three reefs in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama. From fossils and...

  • Healy T.M, Brennan R.S, Whitehead A., Schulte P.M.  2019.  Mitochondria, sex and variation in routine metabolic rate.
    Abstract Summary:

    Variation in the metabolic costs associated with organismal maintenance may play a key role in determining fitness, and thus these differences among individuals are likely to be subject to natural selection. Although the evolvability of maintenance metabolism depends on its underlying genetic architecture, relatively little is known about the nature of genetic variation that underlies this trait. To address this, we measured variation in...

  • Alberty M., Sprintall J, MacKinnon J., Germineaud C., Cravatte S., Ganachaud A..  2019.  Moored observations of transport in the Solomon Sea.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Solomon Sea is a marginal sea in the western Pacific warm pool that contains the South Pacific low latitude western boundary currents. These low latitude western boundary currents chiefly exit the Solomon Sea through three channels (Vitiaz Strait, St. George's Channel, and Solomon Strait) and serve as the primary source water for the Equatorial Undercurrent. Simulations have shown that transport partitioning between the straits determines...

  • Adams K., MacKinnon J., Lucas A.J, Nash J., Shroyer E., Farrar J.T.  2019.  Multi-platform observations of small-scale lateral mixed layer variability in the northern Bay of Bengal. 168
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations of the ocean surface boundary layer in the Northern Bay of Bengal were collected simultaneously from multiple platforms during the late summer of 2015. A spatial survey, consisting of a similar to 4 km triangle, was repeated for 2 days by R/V Roger Revelle. The shipboard observations included profiles of temperature, salinity, velocity, and microstructure, and a towed bow-chain. Concurrently, an autonomous surface vessel and a...

  • Ding Y., Murphy K.M, Poretsky E., Mafu S., Yang B, Char S.N, Christensen S.A, Saldivar E., Wu M.X, Wang Q. et al..  2019.  Multiple genes recruited from hormone pathways partition maize diterpenoid defences. 5:1043-1056.
    Abstract Summary:

    Duplication and divergence of primary pathway genes underlie the evolution of plant specialized metabolism; however, mechanisms partitioning parallel hormone and defence pathways are often speculative. For example, the primary pathway intermediate ent-kaurene is essential for gibberellin biosynthesis and is also a proposed precursor for maize antibiotics. By integrating transcriptional coregulation patterns, genome-wide association studies,...

  • Daniel P, J. MJeremiah, Emily K, Mingxun W, E. WMargot, E. AEric, I. ALihini, C. DPieter.  2019.  Non-targeted metabolomics enables the prioritization and tracking of anthropogenic pollutants in coastal seawater.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic pollutants inundate marine ecosystems as human population growth and urbanization rapidly increase along the coast. Our analytical methods are typically aimed at measuring and monitoring a restricted number of compounds. To prioritize coastal anthropogenic impacts in a comprehensive fashion, we applied large-scale non-targeted liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We integrated an advanced data analysis pipeline that...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study uses observations and atmospheric reanalysis products in order to understand the impacts of smoke aerosols advected from the Southern Hemisphere on the dynamics of the West African monsoon. Seasonal biomass burning and resulting aerosol emissions have been well documented to affect regional weather patterns, especially low-level convection. Out of all monsoon months, precipitation shows the most variability over land during August...

  • Sathyendranath S., Brewin R.JW, Brockmann C., Brotas V., Calton B., Chuprin A., Cipollini P., Couto A.B, Dingle J., Doerffer R. et al..  2019.  An ocean-colour time series for use in climate studies: The experience of the Ocean-Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). 19
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean colour is recognised as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV) by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS); and spectrally-resolved water-leaving radiances (or remote-sensing reflectances) in the visible domain, and chlorophyll-a concentration are identified as required ECV products. Time series of the products at the global scale and at high spatial resolution, derived from ocean-colour data, are key to studying the dynamics of...

  • Testor P, de Young B., Rudnick D.L, Glenn S., Hayes D., Lee CM, Pattiaratchi C., Hill K., Heslop E., Turpin V. et al..  2019.  OceanGliders: A component of the integrated GOOS. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The OceanGliders program started in 2016 to support active coordination and enhancement of global glider activity. OceanGliders contributes to the international efforts of the Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS) for Climate, Ocean Health, and Operational Services. It brings together marine scientists and engineers operating gliders around the world: (1) to observe the long-term physical, biogeochemical, and biological ocean processes and...

  • Trueblood J.V, Wang X.F, Or V.W, Alves M.R, Santander M.V, Prather KA, Grassian VH.  2019.  The old and the new: Aging of sea spray aerosol and formation of secondary marine aerosol through OH oxidation reactions. 3:2307-2314.
    Abstract Summary:

    In this study, we have investigated the effect of hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation reactions on the formation and chemical composition of marine-derived aerosols. Marine aerosols can be classified into two categories: primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) produced upon the breaking of waves, and secondary marine aerosol (SMA) produced upon the oxidation of gas phase species. Here we simultaneously investigated the impact of heterogeneous OH...

  • Sastri A.R, Christian J.R, Achterberg E.P, Atamanchuk D., Buck J.JH, Bresnahan P., Duke P.J, Evans W., Gonski S.F, Johnson B. et al..  2019.  Perspectives on in situ sensors for ocean acidification research. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    As ocean acidification (OA) sensor technology develops and improves, in situ deployment of such sensors is becoming more widespread. However, the scientific value of these data depends on the development and application of best practices for calibration, validation, and quality assurance as well as on further development and optimization of the measurement technologies themselves. Here, we summarize the results of a 2-day workshop on OA...

  • Abstract Summary:

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in different applications, and potential exposure to these NPs raises concerns about their impact on human health. In contact with biological fluids, proteins adsorb onto NPs to create a protein corona. Protein adsorption is highly dependent on the affinity between exterior amino acid residues and the NP surface. Thus, studying amino acids adsorption onto NPs can provide insight into protein corona...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The new phthalideisoquinoline hemiacetal alkaloids (2-7) and the known analogues (1 and 8) were isolated from the bulbs of Corydalis decumbens. The new compounds were characterized by analysis of their NMR spectroscopic data, chemical degradation syntheses, X-ray crystallography, and comparison of experimental and calculated ECD data. All the isolates were screened in vitro for inhibitory activity of spontaneous calcium oscillations in...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Accurate representation of cloud microphysical processes in numerical weather and climate models has proven challenging, in part because of the highly specialized instrumentation required for diagnosing errors in simulated distributions of hydrometeors. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) polarimetric radio occultation (PRO) is a promising new technique that is sensitive to hydrometeors and has the potential to help address these...

  • Bibo-Verdugo B., Wang S.C, Almaliti J., Ta A.P, Jiang Z.Z, Wong D.A, Lietz C.B, Suzuki B.M, El-Saldary N., Hook V. et al..  2019.  The proteasome as a drug target in the metazoan pathogen, Schistosoma mansoni. 5:1802-1812.
    Abstract Summary:

    Proteases are fundamental to successful parasitism, including that of the schistosome flatworm parasite, which causes the disease schistosomiasis in 200 million people worldwide. The proteasome is receiving attention as a potential drug target for treatment of a variety of infectious parasitic diseases, but it has been understudied in the schistosome. Adult Schistosoma mansoni were incubated with 1 mu M concentrations of the proteasome...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Tropical Cyclone Oma hit the SE Queensland coast of Australia in February 2019. Significant wave heights exceeding 10 m were further amplified by a king tide. Satellite remote sensing of pre- and post-Oma shoreline positions was performed because storms hindered the ability to acquire field-based data. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PlanetScope imagery enabled mapping of the high water line (HWL), which was used as a shoreline...

  • Bushinsky S.M, Landschutzer P, Rodenbeck C, Gray A.R, Baker D., Mazloff MR, Resplandy L., Johnson K.S, Sarmiento J.L.  2019.  Reassessing Southern Ocean air-sea CO2 flux estimates with the addition of biogeochemical float observations.
    Abstract Summary:

    New estimates of pCO(2) from profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling (SOCCOM) project have demonstrated the importance of wintertime outgassing south of the Polar Front, challenging the accepted magnitude of Southern Ocean carbon uptake (Gray et al., 2018, ). Here, we put 3.5 years of SOCCOM observations into broader context with the global surface carbon dioxide database (Surface Ocean CO2...

  • Coale TH, Moosburner M, Horák A, Oborník M, Barbeau KA, Allen AE.  2019.  Reduction-dependent siderophore assimilation in a model pennate diatom.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms can access inorganic iron with remarkable efficiency, but this process is contingent on carbonate ion concentration. As ocean acidification reduces carbonate concentration, inorganic iron uptake may be discouraged in favor of carbonate-independent uptake. We report details of an iron assimilation process that needs no carbonate but requires exogenous compounds produced by cooccurring organisms. We show this process to be critical for...

  • Huang J.P, Chen W., Wen Z.P, Zhang GJ, Li Z.X, Zuo Z.Y, Zhao Q.Y.  2019.  Review of Chinese atmospheric science research over the past 70 years: Climate and climate change. 62:1514-1550.
    Abstract Summary:

    Climate and climate change have always been a research focus of atmospheric sciences. This paper summaries research efforts, achievements and international contributions of the Chinese scientific community on climate and climate change over the past 70 years. The review is based on papers published officially in national or international scientific journals, and is organized to cover six aspects: (1) general climate studies; (2) impact of the...

  • Ruddick K.G, Voss K., Boss E., Castagna A., Frouin R., Gilerson A., Hieronymi M., Johnson B.C, Kuusk J., Lee Z. et al..  2019.  A review of protocols for fiducial reference measurements of water-leaving radiance for validation of satellite remote-sensing data over water. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper reviews the state of the art of protocols for measurement of water-leaving radiance in the context of fiducial reference measurements (FRM) of water reflectance for satellite validation. Measurement of water reflectance requires the measurement of water-leaving radiance and downwelling irradiance just above water. For the former there are four generic families of method, based on: (1) underwater radiometry at fixed depths; or (2)...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This paper focuses on the biology and ecological impacts of Ichthyodinium chabelardi (phylum Dinophyta, class Syndiniophyceae, order Syndiniales), a virulent endobiotic parasite of yolk sacs and young larvae of many species of marine fin fish. Its infections have been observed in warm and temperate open oceanic environments and crowded marine fish tanks. The prevalence of I. chabelardi and the range of its host fishes is not well studied, and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The evolution of turbulence in a shallow submesoscale front is investigated using high-resolution large-eddy simulations (LES). The model front has uniquely large cross-front temperature and salinity differences motivated by recent observations in the Bay of Bengal. The temperature and salinity differences are increased in a parametric study to examine their effects on the evolution of turbulence. Shear turbulence induced by the initially...

  • Li Y.M, Shrestha M., Luo M., Sit I., Song M.S, Grassian VH, Xiong W..  2019.  Salting up of proteins at the air/water interface. 35:13815-13820.
    Abstract Summary:

    Vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy and surface pressure measurements are used to investigate the adsorption of a globular protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), at the air/water interface with and without the presence of salts. We find at low (2 to 5 ppm) protein concentrations, which is relevant to environmental conditions, both VSFG and surface pressure measurements of BSA behave drastically different from at higher...