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Recent Publications

  • Lee S.W, Yon D.K, James C.C, Lee S., Koh H.Y, Sheen Y.H, Oh J.W, Han M.Y, Sugihara G.  2019.  Short-term effects of multiple outdoor environmental factors on risk of asthma exacerbations: Age-stratified time-series analysis. 144:1542-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Although the different age groups had differences in sensitivity of asthma exacerbations (AEs) to environmental factors, no comprehensive study has examined the age-stratified effects of environmental factors on AEs. Objective: We sought to examine the short-term effects in age-stratified groups (infants, preschool children, school-aged children, adults, and the elderly) of outdoor environmental factors (air pollutants, weather...

  • Ren M., Zhang H.H, Benmarhnia T., Jalaludin B., Dong H.T, Wu K.P, Wang Q., Huang C.R.  2019.  Short-term effects of real-time personal PM2.5 exposure on ambulatory blood pressure: A panel study in young adults. 697
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Short-term exposure to PM2.5 has been shown to be associated with changes in blood pressure. However, most of the evidence is based on PM2.5 measurements from fixed stations and resting blood pressure measured at a regular time. Objectives: To evaluate the short-term daily and hourly effects of real-time personal PM2.5 exposure on ambulatory blood pressure, and to compare the effects with those of PM2.5 exposure from fixed...

  • Carter G.S, Voet G., Alford MH, Girton J.B, Mickett J.B, Klymak J.M, Pratt L.J, Pearson-Potts K.A, Cusack J.M, Tan S.W.  2019.  A spatial geography of abyssal turbulent mixing in the Samoan Passage. 32:194-203.
    Abstract Summary:

    High levels of turbulent mixing have long been suspected in the Samoan Passage, an important topographic constriction in the deep limb of the Pacific Meridional Overturning Circulation. Along the length of the passage, observations undertaken in 2012 and 2014 showed the bottom water warmed by similar to 55 millidegrees Celsius and decreased in density by 0.01 kg m(-3). Spatial analysis of this first-ever microstructure survey conducted in the...

  • Franks PJS, Garwood J.C, Ouimet M., Cortes J., Musgrave R.C, Lucas A.J.  2019.  Stokes drift of plankton in linear internal waves: Cross-shore transport of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms.
    Abstract Summary:

    The meroplanktonic larvae of many invertebrate and vertebrate species rely on physical transport to move them across the shelf to their adult habitats. One potential mechanism for cross-shore larval transport is Stokes drift in internal waves. Here, we develop theory to quantify the Stokes velocities of neutrally buoyant and depth-keeping organisms in linear internal waves in shallow water. We apply the analyses to theoretical and measured...

  • Lampe R.H, Wang S., Cassar N., Marchetti A..  2019.  Strategies among phytoplankton in response to alleviation of nutrient stress in a subtropical gyre. 13:2984-2997.
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite generally low primary productivity and diatom abundances in oligotrophic subtropical gyres, the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NASG) exhibits significant diatom-driven carbon export on an annual basis. Subsurface pulses of nutrients likely fuel brief episodes of diatom growth, but the exact mechanisms utilized by diatoms in response to these nutrient injections remain understudied within near-natural settings. Here we simulated...

  • Levy Y., Rockwell T.K, Shaw J.H, Plesch A., Driscoll NW, Perea H..  2019.  Structural modeling of the Western Transverse Ranges: An imbricated thrust ramp architecture. 11:868-883.
    Abstract Summary:

    Active fold-and-thrust belts can potentially accommodate large-magnitude earthquakes, so understanding the structure in such regions has both societal and scientific importance. Recent studies have provided evidence for large earthquakes in the Western Transverse Ranges of California, USA. However, the diverse set of conflicting structural models for this region highlights the lack of understanding of the subsurface geometry of faults. A more...

  • Gallimore E., Anderson M., Freitag L., Terrill E.  2019.  Synthetic baseline navigation using phase-coherent acoustic communication signals. 146:4831-4841.
    Abstract Summary:

    The development of a synthetic baseline navigation technique that self-localizes an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) using intermittent acoustic communications signals received by a single transducer is described, along with field results from in-ocean tests. The method uses the phase measurement at the output of a second-order phase-locked loop to create fine-scale pseudorange estimates in addition to, or in the absence of, a one-way...

  • Kuhn A.M, Dutkicwicz S., Jahn O., Clayton S., Ryncarson T.A, Mazloff MR, Barton A.D.  2019.  Temporal and spatial scales of correlation in marine phytoplankton communities.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean circulation shapes marine phytoplankton communities by setting environmental conditions and dispersing organisms. In addition, processes acting on the water column (e.g., heat fluxes and mixing) affect the community structure by modulating environmental variables that determine in situ growth and loss rates. Understanding the scales over which phytoplankton communities vary in time and space is key to elucidate the relative...

  • Schramek T.A, Cornuelle BD, Gopalakrishnan G, Colin P.L, Rowley S.J, Merrifield M.A, Terrill E.J.  2019.  Tropical western Pacific thermal structure and its relationship to ocean surface variables: A numerical state estimate and forereef temperature records. 32:156-163.
    Abstract Summary:

    Complex interactions between open ocean and nearshore environments pose a predictability problem. Basin-scale ocean models are typically run at grid scales that do not accurately resolve individual islands, and model output is assessed mostly using observations of the open ocean. Thus, model ability to replicate island forereef oceanic variability has gone largely untested. Here, an eight-year regional state estimate covering 2009-2017 is...

  • St Laurent L., Ijichi T., Merrifield S.T, Shapiro J., Simmons H.L.  2019.  Turbulence and vorticity in the wake of Palau. 32:102-109.
    Abstract Summary:

    The inleraclion of flow with sleep island and ridge topography at the Palau island chain leads to rich vorticity fields that generate a cascade of motions. The energy transfer to small scales removes energy from the large-scale mean flow of the equatorial current systems and feeds energy to the fine and microstructure scales where instability mechanisms lead to turbulence and dissipation. Until now, direct assessments of the turbulence...

  • Merrifield S.T, Schramek T.A, Celona S., Boas A.BV, Colin P.L, Terrill E.J.  2019.  Typhoon-forced waves around a western Pacific island nation. 32:56-65.
    Abstract Summary:

    Over the last decade, the Pacific island nation of Palau, situated at 7 degrees N, has had a number of close encounters with Category 4 and 5 typhoons, including the named storms Bopha, Haiyan, and Lan in 2012, 2013, and 2017, respectively. Although historically, due to its low latitude location, typhoon activity has been rare in Palau, it was in the direct path of typhoons Bopha and Haiyan, which caused extensive wind damage, reef...

  • Rudnick D.L, Zeiden K.A, Ou C.Y, Johnston T.MS, MacKinnon JA, Alford MH, Voet G..  2019.  Understanding vorticity caused by flow passing an island. 32:66-73.
    Abstract Summary:

    This article presents a pedagogical approach toward understanding vorticity generated in flow past an island. The ubiquity of eddies in the ocean motivates the use of vorticity to quantify their rotation, and we define two kinds of vorticity: relative vorticity, that is, the vorticity of an eddy relative to Earth, and planetary vorticity, Earth's spin relative to local vertical. The ratio of relative to planetary vorticity is the Rossby...

  • Randall C.J, Toth L.T, Leichter J.J, Mate J.L, Aronson R.B.  2019.  Upwelling buffers climate change impacts on coral reefs of the eastern tropical Pacific.
    Abstract Summary:

    Corals of the eastern tropical Pacific live in a marginal and oceanographically dynamic environment. Along the Pacific coast of Panama, stronger seasonal upwelling in the Gulf of Panama in the east transitions to weaker upwelling in the Gulf of Chiriqui in the west, resulting in complex regional oceanographic conditions that drive differential coral-reef growth. Over millennial timescales, reefs in the Gulf of Chiriqui recovered more quickly...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As the proportion of the human population living in cities continues to increase, understanding the factors affecting urban biodiversity is crucial to enhancing conservation efforts, urban ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Here we present the results of the first comparative study of belowground invertebrate communities in urban soils (lawns and biofilters) and remnant patches of native coastal sage scrub (CSS) in a semi-arid urban...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Summer-mean Indian rainfall (June to September) decreases during a developing El Nino. Here we investigate the variability and predictability of Indian rainfall in each summer month with a focus on June, the onset month of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). We find that Indian rainfall in June is affected by both concurrent and antecedent El Nino conditions, with a larger contribution from the latter. During the post-El Nino June, rainfall...

  • Day JMD, Sossi P.A, Shearer C.K, Moynier F..  2019.  Volatile distributions in and on the Moon revealed by Cu and Fe isotopes in the 'Rusty Rock' 66095. 266:131-143.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Apollo 16 'Rusty Rock' impact melt breccia 66095 is a volatile-rich sample, with the volatiles inherited through vapor condensation from an internal lunar source formed during thermo-magmatic evolution of the Moon. We report Cu and Fe isotope data for 66095 and find that bulk-rocks, residues and acid leaches span a relatively limited range of compositions (3.0 +/- 1.3 wt.% FeO [range = 2.0-4.8 wt.%], 5.4 +/- 3.1 ppm Cu [range = 3-12 ppm...

  • Abstract Summary:

    An oceanographic survey around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) and the South Orkney Islands (SOI) was conducted during January 2007 and February 2008, respectively, as part of the United States Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) program ecosystems surveys. At 27 stations, concentrations of dissolved labile Fe (DFe) and total acid leachable (unfiltered, TaLFe) iron (Fe) were measured in the upper 200 m (including coastal and oceanic...

  • O'Donoghue A.J, Bibo-Verdugo B., Miyamoto Y., Wang S.C, Yang J.Z, Zuill D.E, Matsuka S., Jiang Z.Z, Almaliti J., Caffrey C.R et al..  2019.  20S proteasome as a drug target in Trichomonas vaginalis. 63
    Abstract Summary:

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease with hundreds of millions of annual cases worldwide. Approved treatment options are limited to two related nitro-heterocyclic compounds, yet resistance to these drugs is an increasing concern. New antimicrobials against the causative agent, Trichomonas vaginalis, are urgently needed. We show here that clinically approved anticancer drugs that inhibit the proteasome, a large protease complex...

  • Calmer R., Roberts GC, Sanchez K.J, Sciare J., Sellegri K., Picard D., Vrekoussis M., Pikridas M..  2019.  Aerosol-cloud closure study on cloud optical properties using remotely piloted aircraft measurements during a BACCHUS field campaign in Cyprus. 19:13989-14007.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) project, an intensive field campaign was performed in Cyprus (March 2015). Remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS), ground-based instruments, and remote-sensing observations were operating in parallel to provide an integrated characterization of aerosol-cloud interactions. Remotely piloted aircraft...

  • Lenain L., Statom N.M, Melville W.K.  2019.  Airborne measurements of surface wind and slope statistics over the ocean. 49:2799-2814.
    Abstract Summary:

    As reported in 1954, more than a half century ago, C. Cox and W. Munk developed an empirical model of the slope distribution of ocean surface waves that has been widely used ever since to model the optical properties of the sea surface and is of particular importance to the satellite remote sensing community. In that work, the reflectance of sunlight was photographed from a Boeing B-17G bomber and was then analyzed. In this paper, surface...

  • Sharma A., Laxman B., Naureckas E.T, Hogarth D.K, Sperling A.I, Solway J., Ober C., Gilbert J.A, White S.R.  2019.  Associations between fungal and bacterial microbiota of airways and asthma endotypes. 144:1214-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: The relationship between asthma, atopy, and underlying type 2 (T2) airway inflammation is complex. Although the bacterial airway microbiota is known to differ in asthmatic patients, the fungal and bacterial markers that discriminate T2-high (eosinophilic) and T2-low (neutrophilid mixed-inflammation) asthma and atopy are still incompletely identified. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the fungal microbiota...

  • Le Bras I.AA, Sonnewald M., Toole J.M.  2019.  A barotropic vorticity budget for the subtropical North Atlantic Based on observations. 49:2781-2797.
    Abstract Summary:

    To ground truth the large-scale dynamical balance of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre with observations, a barotropic vorticity budget is constructed in the ECCO state estimate and compared with hydrographic observations and wind stress data products. The hydrographic dataset at the center of this work is the A22 WOCE section, which lies along 66 degrees W and creates a closed volume with the North and South American coasts to its west....

  • Gallo N.D, Drenkard E., Thompson A.R, Weber E.D, Wilson-Vandenberg D., McClatchie S., Koslow JA, Semmens B.X.  2019.  Bridging from monitoring to solutions-based thinking: Lessons from CalCOFI for understanding and adapting to marine climate change impacts. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Multidisciplinary, integrated ocean observing programs provide critical data for monitoring the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) samples along the US West Coast and is one of the world's longest-running and most comprehensive time series, with hydrographic and biological data collected since 1949. The pairing of ecological and physical measurements across this...

  • Chesley C., Key K, Constable S, Behrens J., MacGregor L..  2019.  Crustal cracks and frozen flow in oceanic lithosphere inferred from electrical anisotropy.
    Abstract Summary:

    Geophysical observations of anisotropy in oceanic lithosphere offer insight into the formation and evolution of tectonic plates. Seismic anisotropy is well studied but electrical anisotropy remains poorly understood, especially in the crust and uppermost mantle. Here we characterize electrical anisotropy in 33 Ma Pacific lithosphere using controlled-source electromagnetic data that are highly sensitive to lithospheric azimuthal anisotropy....

  • Zamanillo M., Ortega-Retuerta E., Nunes S., Estrada M., Sala M.M, Royer S.J, Lopez-Sandoval D.C, Emelianov M., Vaque D., Marrase C. et al..  2019.  Distribution of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in distinct regions of the Southern Ocean. 691:736-748.
    Abstract Summary:

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are an abundant class of suspended organic particles, mainly formed by polysaccharides, which play important roles in biogeochemical and ecological processes in the ocean. In this study we investigated horizontal and vertical TEP distributions (within the euphotic layer, including the upper surface) and their short-term variability along with a suite of environmental and biological variables in four...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The appearance of a spurious double ITCZ south of the equator in coupled general circulation models has been a stubborn problem ever since the beginning of coupled model development. This article reviews the past research in this area, with a focus on three possible major contributors to the double ITCZ biases: 1) the southeastern Pacific marine stratus clouds and associated warm sea surface temperature (SST) biases; 2) the extratropical...

  • Lutz H.L, Jackson E.W, Webala P.W, Babyesiza W.S, Peterhans J.CK, Demos T.C, Patterson B.D, Gilbert J.A.  2019.  Ecology and host identity outweigh evolutionary history in shaping the bat microbiome. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent studies of mammalian microbiomes have identified strong phylogenetic effects on bacterial community composition. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) are among the most speciose mammals on the planet and the only mammal capable of true flight. We examined 1,236 16S rRNA amplicon libraries of the gut, oral, and skin microbiota from 497 Afrotropical bats (representing 9 families, 20 genera, and 31 species) to assess the extent to which host...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The concept of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) has been subjected to debate since it was introduced in the late 1990s. The development of the concept seems to follow two separate but simultaneous trajectories of increased popularity but also sustained critique. This paper offers an analysis of potential mechanisms behind these disparate trajectories by drawing on a theoretical framework from science and technology studies (STS)...

  • Delgado J.A, Sudre J., Tanahara S., Montes I., Hernandez-Ayon J.M, Zirino A..  2019.  Effect of Caribbean Water incursion into the Gulf of Mexico derived from absolute dynamic topography, satellite data, and remotely sensed chlorophyll a. 15:1561-1578.
    Abstract Summary:

    The dynamics of the Loop Current (LC) and the detached Loop Current eddies (LCEs) dominate the surface circulation of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and transport Caribbean Water (CW) into the gulf. In this work, 25 years (1993-2017) of daily satellite data are used to investigate the variability of these physical processes and their effect on chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations from 1998 to 2017, including temporal changes, mean differences, and...

  • Spydell M.S, Feddersen F, MacMahan J..  2019.  The effect of drifter GPS errors on estimates of submesoscale vorticity. 36:2101-2119.
    Abstract Summary:

    Differential kinematic flow properties (DKP), such as vertical vorticity, have been estimated from surface drifters. However, previous DKP error estimates were a posteriori and did not include correlated errors across drifters. To accurately estimate submesoscale (<= 1 km) DKPs from drifters, errors must be better understood. Here, the a priori vorticity standard error is derived that depends upon the number of drifters in the cluster, the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A large-scale anomalous anticyclone (AAC) is a recurrent pattern in post-El Nino summers, extending from the tropical Northwest Pacific (NWP) to the North Indian Ocean. In boreal summer, there is a strongly confluent lower-level flow between the monsoonal westerlies and easterly trades over the Indo-Northwest Pacific. The effect of this basic state confluent flow on the AAC is investigated with energetics analysis and numerical modeling. The...

  • Stephens BM, Wankel SD, J. Beman M, Rabines AJ, Allen AE, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (δ15N and δ18O, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the California...

  • Stephens B.M, Wankel S.D, Beman J.M, Rabines A.J, Allen A.E, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (delta N-15 and delta O-18, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the...

  • Chen Z.S, Du Y., Wen Z.P, Wu R.G, Xie SP.  2019.  Evolution of south Tropical Indian Ocean warming and the climatic impacts following strong El Nino Events. 32:7329-7347.
    Abstract Summary:

    The south tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warms following a strong El Nino, affecting Indo-Pacific climate in early boreal summer. While much attention has been given to the southwest TIO where the mean thermocline is shallow, this study focuses on the subsequent warming in the southeast TIO, where the mean sea surface temperature (SST) is high and deep convection is strong in early summer. The southeast TIO warming induces an anomalous...

  • DeFlorio M.J, Waliser D.E, Ralph FM, Guan B., Goodman A., Gibson P.B, Asharaf S., L. Monache D, Zhang Z.H, Subramanian AC et al..  2019.  Experimental subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) forecasting of atmospheric rivers over the western United States. 124:11242-11265.
    Abstract Summary:

    A multimodel evaluation of subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) hindcast skill of atmospheric rivers (ARs) out to 4-week lead over the western United States is presented for three operational hindcast systems: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; Europe), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP; U.S.), and Environment and Canada Climate Change (ECCC; Canada). Ensemble mean biases and Brier Skill Scores are examined...

  • Woodworth P.L, Melet A., Marcos M., Ray R.D, Woppelmann G., Sasaki Y.N, Cirano M., Hibbert A., Huthnance J.M, Monserrat S. et al..  2019.  Forcing factors affecting sea level changes at the coast. 40:1351-1397.
    Abstract Summary:

    We review the characteristics of sea level variability at the coast focussing on how it differs from the variability in the nearby deep ocean. Sea level variability occurs on all timescales, with processes at higher frequencies tending to have a larger magnitude at the coast due to resonance and other dynamics. In the case of some processes, such as the tides, the presence of the coast and the shallow waters of the shelves results in the...

  • Rogers J.S, Rayson M.D, Ko D.S, Winters KB, Fringer O.B.  2019.  A framework for seamless one-way nesting of internal wave-resolving ocean models. 143
    Abstract Summary:

    To resolve nonlinear internal wave motions in regional domains, we propose a one-way ocean model nesting framework in which a nonhydrostatic model is nested within a regional model. The nesting scheme produces internal tides that propagate freely into and out of the nonhydrostatic model domain with no reflections while nudging the low-frequency motions. We demonstrate the method with idealized test cases and a field-scale simulation of the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Matsuoka et al. [1] present a set of equations governing the evolution of two-dimensional MHD flows using current-vortex sheets. In the resulting model the vorticity omega and current density j are zero except on the current-vortex sheets. We show that this is not true in general and that the term Delta(B x u) in the evolution equation for j does not vanish, leading to the generation of j and omega in the bulk. This means that the evolution...

  • Llovel W., Purkey S., Meyssignac B., Blazquez A., Kolodziejczyk N., Bamber J..  2019.  Global ocean freshening, ocean mass increase and global mean sea level rise over 2005-2015. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Global mean sea level has experienced an unabated rise over the 20th century. This observed rise is due to both ocean warming and increasing continental freshwater discharge. We estimate the net ocean mass contribution to sea level by assessing the global ocean salt budget based on the unprecedented amount of in situ data over 2005-2015. We obtain the ocean mass trends of 1.30 +/- 1.13 mm.yr(-1) (0-2000 m) and 1.55 +/- 1.20 mm.yr(-1) (full...

  • Hinzke T., Kleiner M., Breusing C., Felbeck H., Hasler R., Sievert S.M, Schluter R., Rosenstiel P., Reusch T.BH, Schweder T. et al..  2019.  Host-microbe interactions in the chemosynthetic Riftia pachyptila symbiosis. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila lacks a digestive system but completely relies on bacterial endosymbionts for nutrition. Although the symbiont has been studied in detail on the molecular level, such analyses were unavailable for the animal host, because sequence information was lacking. To identify host-symbiont interaction mechanisms, we therefore sequenced the Riftia transcriptome, which served as a basis for comparative...

  • Wang J.K, Johnson K.R, Borsato A., Amaya D.J, Griffiths M.L, Henderson G.M, Frisia S., Mason A..  2019.  Hydroclimatic variability in Southeast Asia over the past two millennia. 525
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatiotemporal variability of the Asian Monsoon (AM) over the last two millennia has been attributed to a combination of external solar and volcanic forcing and/or internal coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, but the relative importance of these mechanisms remains unresolved. The present knowledge of multidecadal to centennial-scale AM variability over Mainland Southeast Asia is not well-constrained, despite substantial progress in...

  • Hell M.C, Cornelle B.D, Gille ST, Miller AJ, Bromirski PD.  2019.  Identifying ocean swell generation events from Ross Ice Shelf seismic data. 36:2171-2189.
    Abstract Summary:

    Strong surface winds under extratropical cyclones exert intense surface stresses on the ocean that lead to upper-ocean mixing, intensified heat fluxes, and the generation of waves, that, over time, lead to swell waves (longer than 10-s period) that travel long distances. Because low-frequency swell propagates faster than high-frequency swell, the frequency dependence of swell arrival times at a measurement site can be used to infer the...

  • Gudmundsson G.H, Paolo F.S, Adusumilli S., Fricker H.A.  2019.  Instantaneous Antarctic ice sheet mass loss driven by thinning ice shelves.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent observations show that the rate at which the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) is contributing to sea level rise is increasing. Increases in ice-ocean heat exchange have the potential to induce substantial mass loss through the melting of its ice shelves. Lack of data and limitations in modeling, however, has made it challenging to quantify the importance of ocean-induced changes in ice shelf thickness as a driver for ongoing mass loss. Here,...

  • Smith B., Fricker H.A, Holschuh N., Gardner AS, Adusumilli S., Brunt K.M, Csatho B., Harbeck K., Huth A., Neumann T. et al..  2019.  Land ice height-retrieval algorithm for NASA's ICESat-2 photon-counting laser altimeter. 233
    Abstract Summary:

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) and its sole scientific instrument, the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), was launched on 15 September 2018 with a primary goal of measuring changes in the surface of the Earth's land ice (glaciers and ice sheets). ATLAS is a photon-counting laser altimeter, which records the transit time of individual photons in order to reconstruct surface height along track. The...

  • Natali S.M, Watts J.D, Rogers B.M, Potter S., Ludwig S.M, Selbmann A.K, Sullivan P.F, Abbott B.W, Arndt K.A, Birch L. et al..  2019.  Large loss of CO2 in winter observed across the northern permafrost region. 9:852-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent warming in the Arctic, which has been amplified during the winter(1-3), greatly enhances microbial decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent release of carbon dioxide (CO2)(4). However, the amount of CO2 released in winter is not known and has not been well represented by ecosystem models or empirically based estimates(5,6). Here we synthesize regional in situ observations of CO2 flux from Arctic and boreal soils to assess...

  • Bianco M.J, Gerstoft P, Traer J., Ozanich E., Roch M.A, Gannot S., Deledalle C.A.  2019.  Machine learning in acoustics: Theory and applications. 146:3590-3628.
    Abstract Summary:

    Acoustic data provide scientific and engineering insights in fields ranging from biology and communications to ocean and Earth science. We survey the recent advances and transformative potential of machine learning (ML), including deep learning, in the field of acoustics. ML is a broad family of techniques, which are often based in statistics, for automatically detecting and utilizing patterns in data. Relative to conventional acoustics and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We carried out a multicomponent electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Scarborough gas field in 950 m water on the northwest Australian shelf. Magnetotelluric (MT) data, along with transmitter inline horizontal electric (Ey), vertical electric (Ez), and horizontal magnetic (Bx) field controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data were collected. The Scarborough reservoir is a challenging EM target because it lies between a resistive overlying...

  • Brignac K.C, Jung M.R, King C., Royer S.J, Bickley L., Lamson M.R, Potemra J.T, Lynch J.M.  2019.  Marine debris polymers on main Hawaiian island beaches, sea surface, and seafloor. 53:12218-12226.
    Abstract Summary:

    Polymeric differences of plastic debris were assessed across four compartments of the Main Hawaiian Islands (sea surface, windward beaches, leeward beaches, and seafloor) to better describe sources and fate. Plastic debris pieces (n = 4671) were collected from 11 beaches, three sea surface tows, and three seafloor dives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified the polymers of 3551 pieces. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in...

  • Sinnett G., Feddersen F.  2019.  The nearshore heat budget: Effects of stratification and surfzone dynamics. 124:8219-8240.
    Abstract Summary:

    Temperature variability in the nearshore (from approximate to 6-m depth to the shoreline) is influenced by many processes including wave breaking and internal waves. A nearshore heat budget resolving these processes has not been considered. A 7-month experiment at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Pier (shoreline to 6-m depth) measured temperature and surface and cross-shore heat fluxes to examine a nearshore heat budget with fine cross...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Global radiative-convective equilibrium simulations are used to investigate the hypothesis that mutual interactions among cloud albedo, sea surface temperature gradients, and atmospheric circulation constrain the net cloud radiative effect (CRE) to be similar in convective and nonconvective regions over the tropical warm pools. We perform an experiment in which convective clouds interact naturally with the ocean and atmosphere by forming over...