Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

Search Recent Publications

  • Abstract Summary:

    The lymphostins are a family of closely related pyrrolo[4,3,2-de]quinoline natural products produced by Streptomyces and Salinispora actinobacteria. Neolymphostin A was recently shown to strongly inhibit phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a covalent manner via conjugation to a catalytic lysine residue in the ATP-binding pocket of the enzymes, making this metabolite the first reported covalent...

  • Pistone K, Eisenman I, Ramanathan V.  2019.  Radiative heating of an ice-free Arctic Ocean. 46:7474-7480.
    Abstract Summary:

    Abstract During recent decades, there has been dramatic Arctic sea ice retreat. This has reduced the top-of-atmosphere albedo, adding more solar energy to the climate system. There is substantial uncertainty regarding how much ice retreat and associated solar heating will occur in the future. This is relevant to future climate projections, including the timescale for reaching global warming stabilization targets. Here we use satellite...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This paper discusses the new radiometric calibration methods and results that we have developed to apply to day/ night whole sky imager data and extinction imager data. Day/night whole sky imagers detect the presence and location of clouds and categorize them by opacity. The new day and night doud algorithms for these instruments are documented elsewhere, and these algorithms depend on the use of the new calibrations we have developed. In...

  • Remer L.A, Davis A.B, Mattoo S., Levy R.C, Kalashnikova O.V, Coddington O., Chowdhary J., Knobelspiesse K., Xu X.G, Ahmad Z. et al..  2019.  Retrieving aerosol characteristics from the PACE mission, part 1: Ocean color instrument. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    NASA's Plankton, Aerosol, Clouds, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) satellite mission is scheduled to launch in 2022, with the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI) on board. For the first time reflected sunlight from the Earth across a broad spectrum from the ultraviolet (UV: 350 nm) to the short wave infrared (SWIR: 2260 nm) will be measured from a single instrument at 1 km spatial resolution. While seven discrete bands will represent the SWIR, the spectrum...

  • Remer L.A, Knobelspiesse K., Zhai P.W, Xu F., Kalashnikova O.V, Chowdhary J., Hasekamp O., Dubovik O., Wu L.H, Ahmad Z. et al..  2019.  Retrieving aerosol characteristics from the PACE mission, part 2: Multi-angle and polarimetry. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The Plankton, Aerosol, Clouds, ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission presents new opportunities and new challenges in applying observations of two complementary multi-angle polarimeters for the space-based retrieval of global aerosol properties. Aerosol remote sensing from multi-angle radiometric-only observations enables aerosol characterization to a greater degree than single-view radiometers, as demonstrated by nearly two decades of heritage...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Zooplankton are important consumers of sinking particles in the ocean's twilight zone. However, the impact of different taxa depends on their feeding mode. In contrast to typical suspension-feeding zooplankton, flux-feeding taxa preferentially consume rapidly sinking particles that would otherwise penetrate into the deep ocean. To quantify the potential impact of two flux-feeding zooplankton taxa [Aulosphaeridae (Rhizaria), and Limacina...

  • Dodiya H.B, Kuntz T., Shaik S.M, Baufeld C., Leibowitz J., Zhang X.L, Gottel N., Zhang X.Q, Butovsky O., Gilbert J.A et al..  2019.  Sex-specific effects of microbiome perturbations on cerebral A beta amyloidosis and microglia phenotypes. 216:1542-1560.
    Abstract Summary:

    We demonstrated that an antibiotic cocktail (ABX)-perturbed gut microbiome is associated with reduced amyloid-beta (A beta) plaque pathology and astrogliosis in the male amyloid precursor protein (APP)(SWE)/presenilin 1 (PS1)(Delta E9) transgenic model of A beta amyloidosis. We now show that in an independent, aggressive APP(SWE)/PS1(L166P) (APPPS1-21) mouse model of A beta amyloidosis, an ABX-perturbed gut microbiome is associated with a...

  • Kranzler CF, Krause JW, Brzezinski MA, Edwards BR, Biggs WP, Maniscalco M, McCrow JP, Van Mooy BAS, Bidle KD, Allen AE et al..  2019.  Silicon limitation facilitates virus infection and mortality of marine diatoms.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms are among the most globally distributed and ecologically successful organisms in the modern ocean, contributing upwards of 40% of total marine primary productivity1,2. By converting dissolved silicon into biogenic silica, and photosynthetically fixing carbon dioxide into particulate organic carbon, diatoms effectively couple the silicon (Si) and carbon cycles and ballast substantial vertical flux of carbon out of the euphotic zone...

  • Luo M., Dommer A.C, Schiffer J.M, Rez D.J, Mitchell A.R, Amaro R.E, Grassian VH.  2019.  Surfactant charge modulates structure and stability of lipase-embedded monolayers at marine-relevant aerosol surfaces. 35:9050-9060.
    Abstract Summary:

    Lipases, as well as other enzymes, are present and active within the sea surface microlayer (SSML). Upon bubble bursting, lipases partition into sea spray aerosol (SSA) along with surface-active molecules such as lipids. Lipases are likely to be embedded in the lipid monolayer at the SSA surface and thus have the potential to influence SSA interfacial structure and chemistry. Elucidating the structure of the lipid monolayer at SSA interfaces...

  • Ponte R.M, Carson M., Cirano M., Domingues C.M, Jevrejeva S., Marcos M., Mitchum G., van de Wal R.SW, Woodworth P.L, Ablain M. et al..  2019.  Towards comprehensive observing and modeling systems for monitoring and predicting regional to coastal sea level. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    A major challenge for managing impacts and implementing effective mitigation measures and adaptation strategies for coastal zones affected by future sea level (SL) rise is our limited capacity to predict SL change at the coast on relevant spatial and temporal scales. Predicting coastal SL requires the ability to monitor and simulate a multitude of physical processes affecting SL, from local effects of wind waves and river runoff to remote...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Amphiglena is a clade of sabellid annelids that has 12 named species from around the world. New COI and 18S sequences were combined with some available data to generate a molecular phylogeny for Amphiglena. Two new species of Amphiglena are described as a result, using an integrative approach combining molecular evidence with morphological descriptions using histology, 3D reconstructions and electron microscopy. Amphiglena seaverae n. sp is...

  • Thompson C.F, Young A.P, Dickson M.E.  2019.  Wave impacts on coastal cliffs: Do bigger waves drive greater ground motion?
    Abstract Summary:

    Coastal cliff erosion is caused by a combination of marine forcing and sub-aerial processes, but linking cliff erosion to the environmental drivers remains challenging. One key component of these drivers is energy transfer from wave-cliff interaction. The aim of this study is to directly observe cliff ground motion in response to wave impacts at an individual wave scale. Measurements are described from two coastal cliff sites: a 45-minute...

  • Gordon W.E, Espinoza J.A, Leerberg D.M, Yelon D., Hamdoun A..  2019.  Xenobiotic transporter activity in zebrafish embryo ionocytes. 212:88-97.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ionocytes are specialized cells in the epidermis of embryonic zebrafish (Danio rerio) that play important roles in ion homeostasis and have functional similarities to mammalian renal cells. Here, we examined whether these cells might also share another functional similarity with renal cells, which is the presence of efflux transporter activities useful for elimination of toxic small molecules. Xenobiotic transporters (XTs), including the ATP-...

  • Reynolds C.A, Doyle J.D, Ralph FM, Demirdjian R..  2019.  Adjoint sensitivity of North Pacific atmospheric river forecasts. Monthly Weather Review. 147:1871-1897.
    Abstract Summary:

    The initial-state sensitivity and optimal perturbation growth for 24- and 36-h forecasts of low-level kinetic energy and precipitation over California during a series of atmospheric river (AR) events that took place in early 2017 are explored using adjoint-based tools from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). This time period was part of the record-breaking winter of 2016-17 in which several high-impact ARs made...

  • Nori-Sarma A., Benmarhnia T., Rajiva A., Azhar G.S, Gupta P., Pednekar M.S, Bell M.L.  2019.  Advancing our understanding of heat wave criteria and associated health impacts to improve heat wave alerts in developing country settings. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Health effects of heat waves with high baseline temperatures in areas such as India remain a critical research gap. In these regions, extreme temperatures may affect the underlying population's adaptive capacity; heat wave alerts should be optimized to avoid continuous high alert status and enhance constrained resources, especially under a changing climate. Data from registrars and meteorological departments were collected for four...

  • Rogowski P, Zavala-Garay J., Shearman K., Terrill E, Wilkin J., Lam T.H.  2019.  Air-sea-land forcing in the Gulf of Tonkin: Assessing seasonal variability using modern tools. 32:150-161.
    Abstract Summary:

    A US-Vietnamese collaborative program established in 2014 provides a framework for partnership with foreign governments. A primary objective of the program is to enhance the Vietnamese collaborators' skills through training and education and to increase the capacity of their local institutions to conduct research and collect observations that benefit Vietnam. Here, we the synthesize the first results from this program, including development...

  • Campbell E.C, Wilson E.A, Moore G.WK, Riser S.C, Brayton C.E, Mazloff MR, Talley LD.  2019.  Antarctic offshore polynyas linked to Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies. 570:319-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Offshore Antarctic polynyas -large openings in the winter sea ice cover-are thought to be maintained by a rapid ventilation of deep-ocean heat through convective mixing. These rare phenomena may alter abyssal properties and circulation, yet their formation mechanisms are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that concurrent upper-ocean preconditioning and meteorological perturbations are responsible for the appearance of polynyas in the...

  • Hill G.E, Havird J.C, Sloan D.B, Burton RS, Greening C., Dowling D.K.  2019.  Assessing the fitness consequences of mitonuclear interactions in natural populations. 94:1089-1104.
    Abstract Summary:

    Metazoans exist only with a continuous and rich supply of chemical energy from oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria. The oxidative phosphorylation machinery that mediates energy conservation is encoded by both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and hence the products of these two genomes must interact closely to achieve coordinated function of core respiratory processes. It follows that selection for efficient respiration will lead to...

  • Frajka-Williams E., Ansorge I.J, Baehr J., Bryden H.L, Chidichimo M.P, Cunningham S.A, Danabasoglu G., Dong S.F, Donohue K.A, Elipot S. et al..  2019.  Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: Observed transport and variability. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) extends from the Southern Ocean to the northern North Atlantic, transporting heat northwards throughout the South and North Atlantic, and sinking carbon and nutrients into the deep ocean. Climate models indicate that changes to the AMOC both herald and drive climate shifts. Intensive trans-basin AMOC observational systems have been put in place to continuously monitor meridional volume...

  • Aguilera R., Gershunov A, Benmarhnia T..  2019.  Atmospheric rivers impact California's coastal water quality via extreme precipitation. Science of the Total Environment. 671:488-494.
    Abstract Summary:

    Precipitation in California is projected to become more volatile: less frequent but more extreme as global warming pushes midlatitude frontal cyclones further poleward while bolstering the atmospheric rivers (ARs), which tend to produce the region's extreme rainfall. Pollutant accumulation and delivery to coastal waters can be expected to increase, as lengthening dry spells will be increasingly punctuated by more extreme precipitation events...

  • Guirguis K., Gershunov A, Shulgina T., Clemesha R.ES, Ralph FM.  2019.  Atmospheric rivers impacting Northern California and their modulation by a variable climate. Climate Dynamics. 52:6569-6583.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the role of climate variability in modulating the behavior of land-falling atmospheric rivers (ARs) is important for seasonal and subseasonal predictability for water resource management and flood control. We examine daily activity of ARs targeting the Northern California coast over six decades using observations of synoptic-scale circulation, high-resolution precipitation, and a long-term AR detection catalog to quantify...

  • Luhavaya H., Sigrist R., Chekan J.R, McKinnie S.MK, Moore BS.  2019.  Biosynthesis of l-4-chlorokynurenine, an antidepressant prodrug and a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in lipopeptide antibiotics. 58:8394-8399.
    Abstract Summary:

    l-4-Chlorokynurenine (l-4-Cl-Kyn) is a neuropharmaceutical drug candidate that is in development for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Recently, this amino acid was naturally found as a residue in the lipopeptide antibiotic taromycin. Herein, we report the unprecedented conversion of l-tryptophan into l-4-Cl-Kyn catalyzed by four enzymes in the taromycin biosynthetic pathway from the marine bacterium Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490....

  • Gilbert J.A, Lynch S.V.  2019.  Community ecology as a framework for human microbiome research. Nature Medicine. 25:884-889.
    Abstract Summary:

    The field of human microbiome research has revealed the intimate co-association of humans with diverse communities of microbes in various habitats in the human body, and the necessity of these microbes for the maintenance of human health. Microbial heterogeneity between humans and across spatial and temporal gradients requires multidimensional datasets and a unifying set of theories and statistical tools to analyze the human microbiome and...

  • Schorn MA, Jordan PA, Podell S, Blanton JM, Agarwal V, Biggs JS, Allen EE, Moore BS.  2019.  Comparative genomics of cyanobacterial symbionts reveals distinct, specialized metabolism in tropical Dysideidae sponges. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine sponges are recognized as valuable sources of bioactive metabolites and renowned as petri dishes of the sea, providing specialized niches for many symbiotic microorganisms. Sponges of the family Dysideidae are well documented to be chemically talented, often containing high levels of polyhalogenated compounds, terpenoids, peptides, and other classes of bioactive small molecules. This group of tropical sponges hosts a high abundance of...

  • Richardson M., Gottel N., Gilbert J.A, Gordon J., Gandhi P., Reboulet R., Hampton-Marcell J.T.  2019.  Concurrent measurement of microbiome and allergens in the air of bedrooms of allergy disease patients in the Chicago area. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The particulate and biological components of indoor air have a substantial impact on human health, especially immune respiratory conditions such as asthma. To better explore the relationship between allergens, the microbial community, and the indoor living environment, we sampled the bedrooms of 65 homes in the Chicago area using 23the patient-friendly Inspirotec electrokinetic air sampling device, which collects airborne particles for...

  • Trofimov A.A, Pawlicki A.A, Borodinov N., Mandal S., Mathews T.J, Hildebrand M, Ziatdinov M.A, Hausladen K.A, Urbanowicz P.K, Steed C.A et al..  2019.  Deep data analytics for genetic engineering of diatoms linking genotype to phenotype via machine learning. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Genome engineering for materials synthesis is a promising avenue for manufacturing materials with unique properties under ambient conditions. Biomineralization in diatoms, unicellular algae that use silica to construct micron-scale cell walls with nanoscale features, is an attractive candidate for functional synthesis of materials for applications including photonics, sensing, filtration, and drug delivery. Therefore, controllably modifying...

  • Sprintall J, Gordon A.L, Wijffels S.E, Feng M, Hu S.J, Koch-Larrouy A., Phillips H., Nugroho D., Napitu A., Pujiana K. et al..  2019.  Detecting change in the Indonesian Seas. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Indonesian seas play a fundamental role in the coupled ocean and climate system with the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) providing the only tropical pathway connecting the global oceans. Pacific warm pool waters passing through the Indonesian seas are cooled and freshened by strong air-sea fluxes and mixing from internal tides to form a unique water mass that can be tracked across the Indian Ocean basin and beyond. The Indonesian seas lie at...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Marine biogeographic boundaries act as barriers to dispersal for many animal species, thereby creating distinctive faunas on either side. However, how such boundaries affect the distributions of microbial taxa remains poorly known. To test whether biogeographic boundaries influence the diversity and composition of host-associated microbiota, we analysed the microbiomes of three species of common intertidal gastropods at two sites separated by...

  • Wang M.Y, Du Y., Qui B., Xie SP, Feng M.  2019.  Dynamics on seasonal variability of EKE associated with TIWs in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. 49:1503-1519.
    Abstract Summary:

    Energetic mesoscale eddies (vortices) associated with tropical instability waves (TIWs) exist in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean between 0 degrees and 8 degrees N. This study examines the seasonal variations in eddy kinetic energy (EKE) of TIWs using in situ and satellite observations and elucidates the underlying dynamical mechanisms. The results reveal that the cross-equatorial southerly winds are key to sustaining the high-level EKE (...

  • MacKinnon JA, Alford MH, Voet G, Zeiden K, Johnston T.M.Shaun, Siegelman M, Merrifield S, Merrifield M.  2019.  Eddy wake generation from broadband currents near Palau.
    Abstract Summary:

    Wake eddies are frequently created by flow separation where ocean currents encounter abrupt topography in the form of islands or headlands. Most previous work has concentrated on wake eddy generation by either purely oscillatory (usually tidal) currents, or quasi-steady mean flows. Here we report measurements near the point of flow separation at the northern end of the Palau island chain, where energetic tides and vertically sheared low-...

  • Benmarhnia T., Zhao X., Wang J., Macdonald M, Chen H..  2019.  Evaluating the potential public health impacts of the Toronto cold weather program. 127:381-386.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Extreme cold weather alert programs have been implemented in some areas to address the significant health impacts of exposure to cold. One such program is the Toronto Cold Weather Program (TCWP) that was implemented in the City of Toronto since 1996 to protect the public from extreme weather conditions. In this paper, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the TCWP in reducing mortality and morbidity outcomes related to cold...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and fuzzy clustering tools were applied to generate and validate scenarios in operational ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) for U.S. East Coast winter storms. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) EPSs were validated in their ability to capture the analysis scenarios for historical East...

  • Pearlman J., Bushnell M., Coppola L., Karstensen J, Buttigieg P.L, Pearlman F., Simpsons P., Barbier M., Muller-Karger F.E, Munoz-Mas C. et al..  2019.  Evolving and sustaining ocean best practices and standards for the next decade. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceans play a key role in global issues such as climate change, food security, and human health. Given their vast dimensions and internal complexity, efficient monitoring and predicting of the planet's ocean must be a collaborative effort of both regional and global scale. A first and foremost requirement for such collaborative ocean observing is the need to follow well-defined and reproducible methods across activities: from strategies...

  • Sutherland K.M, Coe A., Gast R.J, Plummer S., Suffridge C.P, Diaz J.M, Bowman J.S, Wankel S.D, Hansel C.M.  Submitted.  Extracellular superoxide production by key microbes in the global ocean.
    Abstract Summary:

    Bacteria and eukaryotes produce the reactive oxygen species superoxide both within and outside the cell. Although superoxide is typically associated with the detrimental and sometimes fatal effects of oxidative stress, it has also been shown to be involved in a range of essential biochemical processes, including cell signaling, growth, differentiation, and defense. Light-independent extracellular superoxide production has been shown to be...

  • Lewis V.M, Saunders L.M, Larson T.A, Bain E.J, Sturiale S.L, Gur D., Chowdhury S., Flynn J.D, Allen M.C, Deheyn DD et al..  2019.  Fate plasticity and reprogramming in genetically distinct populations of Danio leucophores. 116:11806-11811.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding genetic and cellular bases of adult form remains a fundamental goal at the intersection of developmental and evolutionary biology. The skin pigment cells of vertebrates, derived from embryonic neural crest, are a useful system for elucidating mechanisms of fate specification, pattern formation, and how particular phenotypes impact organismal behavior and ecology. In a survey of Danio fishes, including the zebrafish Danio rerio,...

  • Tilic E., Sermelwall S., Bartolomaeus T..  2019.  Formation and structure of paleae and chaetal arrangement in chrysopetalidae (Annelida). 138:209-220.
    Abstract Summary:

    Chrysopetalids, more specifically the subfamily Chrysopetalinae, are known for their characteristic, flattened, leaf-like notopodial chaetae. In many chrysopetalid species the animal's body is dorsally covered by these paleae that are arranged in rows similar to the blades of a folding fan. In this study we investigate and compare the chaetal arrangement in two chrysopetalids: Bhawania goodei Webster, 1884 and Chrysopetalum cf. occidentale...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Microalgae are capable of tolerating variations in water temperature and sudden exposures to toxic substances, and cellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) help to protect cells from such stress. Here, we determined the complete open reading frames (ORF) of small TsHSP20 and large TsHSP70 and 100 in the chlorophyte Tetraselmis suecica, and examined the expression levels of these genes after exposure to thermal stressors, redox-active metals, and...

  • Chen F., Zhao E.R, Hableel G., Hu T., Kim T., Li J.T, Gonzalez-Pech N.I, Cheng D.J, Lemaster J.E, Xie Y.J et al..  2019.  Increasing the efficacy of stem cell therapy via triple-function inorganic nanoparticles. 13:6605-6617.
    Abstract Summary:

    Stem cell therapy in heart disease is challenged by mis-injection, poor survival, and low cell retention. Here, we describe a biocompatible multifunctional silica-iron oxide nanoparticle to help solve these issues. The nanoparticles were made via an in situ growth of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on both the external surfaces and pore walls of mesocellular foam silica nanoparticles. In contrast to previous work, this approach builds a magnetic moiety...

  • Runge J., Bathiany S., Bollt E., Camps-Valls G., Coumou D., Deyle E., Glymour C., Kretschmer M., Mahecha M.D, Munoz-Mari J. et al..  2019.  Inferring causation from time series in Earth system sciences. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    The heart of the scientific enterprise is a rational effort to understand the causes behind the phenomena we observe. In large-scale complex dynamical systems such as the Earth system, real experiments are rarely feasible. However, a rapidly increasing amount of observational and simulated data opens up the use of novel data-driven causal methods beyond the commonly adopted correlation techniques. Here, we give an overview of causal inference...

  • Singleton D.M, Rockwell T.K, Murbach D., Murbach M., Maloney J.M, Freeman T., Levy Y..  2019.  Late-Holocene rupture history of the Rose Canyon Fault in Old Town, San Diego: Implications for cascading earthquakes on the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault system. 109:855-874.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present new results from paleoseismic trenches excavated across the main trace of the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) in Old Town-San Diego, California, to determine the timing of late-Holocene earthquakes. There is evidence for four large surface-rupturing events, as well as two smaller events, the youngest of which cuts the early historical living surface that contains glass, ceramics, and a historical era foundation. This youngest event...

  • Byun G., Song HC, Byun S.H.  2019.  Localization of multiple ships using a vertical array in shallow water. 145:EL528-EL533.
    Abstract Summary:

    The blind deconvolution employs conventional plane-wave beamforming using an array, selects a well-resolved angle of arrival for beam steering to estimate the phase component of an unknown source waveform, and then extracts the Green's function between the source and the array. In this letter, the approach is extended to multiple-ship scenarios in which the multipath arrivals from one ship are masked by other ships, adopting the basic concept...

  • Tanner M.K, Moity N., Costa M.T, Jarrin J.RM, Aburto-Oropeza O, Salinas-de-Leon P..  2019.  Mangroves in the Galapagos: Ecosystem services and their valuation. 160:12-24.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mangroves provide many benefits to human welfare, but they are disappearing rapidly; Ecuador and countries within the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) region have lost over 40% of their mangrove coverage in the last 40 years. One reason for this destruction is that the benefits of mangroves have not been valued in a way that policymakers and markets can understand. Here, we present the first economic valuation of multiple ecosystem services (ES...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We use a simple, semianalytic, column model to understand better the meridional structure of the tropopause height and future changes in its height and temperature associated with global warming. The model allows us to separate the effects of tropospheric lapse rate, optical depth, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and stratospheric cooling on the tropopause height. When applied locally at each latitudinal band, the model predicts the...

  • Chowdhary J., Zhai P.W, Boss E., Dierssen H., Frouin R., Ibrahim A., Lee Z., Remer L.A, Twardowski M., Xu F. et al..  2019.  Modeling atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer: A PACE mission perspective. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The research frontiers of radiative transfer (RT) in coupled atmosphere-ocean systems are explored to enable new science and specifically to support the upcoming Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud ocean Ecosystem (PACE) satellite mission. Given (i) the multitude of atmospheric and oceanic constituents at any given moment that each exhibits a large variety of physical and chemical properties and (ii) the diversity of light-matter interactions (...

  • Velasco-Hogan A, Deheyn DD, Koch M, Nothdurft B, Arzt E, Meyers MA.  2019.  On the nature of the transparent teeth of the deep-sea dragonfish, Aristostomias scintillans.
    Abstract Summary:

    The dragonfish is a voracious predator of the deep sea with an arsenal of tools to hunt prey and remain concealed. In contrast to its dark pigmented skin, the dragonfish is equipped with transparent teeth. Here, we establish the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of the transparent teeth for the first time. We find the enamel-like layer to consist of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite domains (?20 nm grain size) embedded in an...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Lamellibrachia columna Southward was originally described from hydrothermal vents of the Lau Basin, between Fiji and Tonga. This study utilizes phylogenetic and morphological analyses to confirm the collection of Lamellibrachia columna from cold seeps on the Hikurangi Margin off New Zealand, thereby extending its geographic range southward by approximately 1900 km. We also propose, based on molecular evidence, that specimens previously...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Pomacentrus vatosoa, new species, is described on the basis of four specimens collected from Nosy Faho, Madagascar. The new species is distinctive in having a pearlescent-white body with a large black spot midlaterally behind the pectoral fin, a black saddle of similar size on the dorsal edge of the caudal peduncle, and a black recurved band from the orbit to origin of dorsal fin. Aside from details in live coloration, the new species is...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A new ascothoracidan species has been discovered in the Macaronesia region of the eastern Atlantic Ocean at SCUBA depths. Ten specimens including both sexes of the new species, described herein as Synagoga grygieri sp. nov., were collected from colonies of the antipatharian Antipathella wollastoni (Gray, 1857). Two previously described species of Synagoga, morphologically the most generalized ascothoracidan genus, were found as ectoparasites...

  • Rainville L, Centurioni LR, Asher W.E, Clayson CA, Drushka K., Edson J.B, Hodges B.A, Hermann V., Farrar J.T, Schanze J.J et al..  2019.  Novel and flexible approach to access the open ocean uses of sailing research vessel Lady Amber during SPURS-2. 32:116-121.
    Abstract Summary:

    SPURS-2 (Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study 2) used the schooner Lady Amber, a small sailing research vessel, to deploy, service, maintain, and recover a variety of oceanographic and meteorological instruments in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Low operational costs allowed us to frequently deploy floats and drifters to collect data necessary for resolving the regional circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific. The small...

  • Pratt LJ, Voet G, Pacini A, Tan S, Alford MH, Carter GS, Girton JB, Menemenlis D.  2019.  Pacific Abyssal Transport and Mixing: Through the Samoan Passage versus around the Manihiki Plateau. 49:1577-1592.
    Abstract Summary:

    The main source feeding the abyssal circulation of the North Pacific is the deep, northward flow of 5–6 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) through the Samoan Passage. A recent field campaign has shown that this flow is hydraulically controlled and that it experiences hydraulic jumps accompanied by strong mixing and dissipation concentrated near several deep sills. By our estimates, the diapycnal density flux associated with this mixing is...