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Recent Publications

  • Shackleton S., Baggenstos D, Menking J.A, Dyonisius M.N, Bereiter B., Bauska T.K, Rhodes R.H, Brook E.J, Petrenko VV, McConnell J.R et al..  2020.  Global ocean heat content in the Last Interglacial. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    The Last Interglacial (129-116 thousand years ago (ka)) represents one of the warmest climate intervals of the past 800,000 years and the most recent time when sea level was metres higher than today. However, the timing and magnitude of the peak warmth varies between reconstructions, and the relative importance of individual sources that contribute to the elevated sea level (mass gain versus seawater expansion) during the Last Interglacial...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Collections of holothurians taken in 2012-2016 by three German-Russian deep-sea expeditions to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (KuramBio, SokhoBio and KuramBio II) were examined. Here we present data on the genus Psychropotes (Psychropotidae, Elasipodida). Based on new material and some additional (mainly old) material from the North-West and East Pacific, we re-describe the species Psychropotes Iongicauda Theel, 1882, describe two varieties...

  • Wyatt ASJ, Leichter J.J, Toth L.T, Miyajima T., Aronson R.B, Nagata T..  2020.  Heat accumulation on coral reefs mitigated by internal waves. 13:28-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coral reefs are among the most species-rich, productive and economically valuable ecosystems on Earth but increasingly frequent pantropical coral bleaching events are threatening their persistence on a global scale. The 2015-2016 El Nino led to the hottest sea surface temperatures on record and widespread bleaching of shallow-water corals. However, the causes of spatial variation in bleaching are poorly understood, and near-surface estimates...

  • McCall L.I, Callewaert C., Zhu Q.Y, Song S.J, Bouslimani A., Minich J.J, Ernst M., Ruiz-Calderon J.F, Cavallin H., Pereira H.S et al..  2020.  Home chemical and microbial transitions across urbanization. 5:108-115.
    Abstract Summary:

    Urbanization represents a profound shift in human behaviour, and has considerable cultural and health-associated consequences(1,2). Here, we investigate chemical and microbial characteristics of houses and their human occupants across an urbanization gradient in the Amazon rainforest, from a remote Peruvian Amerindian village to the Brazilian city of Manaus. Urbanization was found to be associated with reduced microbial outdoor exposure,...

  • Simpson C., Herrera-Cubilla A., Jackson J.BC.  2020.  How colonial animals evolve. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The evolution of modular colonial animals such as reef corals and bryozoans is enigmatic because of the ability for modules to proliferate asexually as whole colonies reproduce sexually. This reproductive duality creates an evolutionary tension between modules and colonies because selection operates at both levels. To understand how this evolutionary conflict is resolved, we compared the evolutionary potential of module- and colony-level...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Shallow (<= 40 km), low magnitude (M >= 2.0) seismicity in southern Alaska is examined for seasonal variations during the annual hydrological cycle. The seismicity is declustered with a spatio-temporal epidemic type aftershock sequence model. The removal of aftershock sequences allows detailed investigation of seismicity rate changes as water, snow and ice loads modulate crustal stresses throughout the year. The GRACE surface loads are...

  • Hull P.M, Bomemann A., Penman D.E, Henehan M.J, Norris RD, Wilson PA, Blum P., Alegret L., Batenburg S.J, Bown P.R et al..  2020.  On impact and volcanism across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. 367:266-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The cause of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction is vigorously debated, owing to the occurrence of a very large bolide impact and flood basalt volcanism near the boundary. Disentangling their relative importance is complicated by uncertainty regarding kill mechanisms and the relative timing of volcanogenic outgassing, impact, and extinction We used carbon cycle modeling and paleotemperature records to constrain the timing of volcanogenic...

  • Rocha C.B, Bossy T., Smith SGL, Young W.R.  2020.  Improved bounds on horizontal convection. 883
    Abstract Summary:

    For the problem of horizontal convection the Nusselt number based on entropy production is bounded from above by C Ra-1/3 as the horizontal convective Rayleigh number Ra -> infinity for some constant C (Siggers et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 517, 2004, pp. 55-70). We re-examine the variational arguments leading to this `ultimate regime' by using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to solve the variational problem in the Ra -> infinity...

  • Stanley K.M, Say D., Mühle J, Harth CM, Krummel PB, Young D, O'Doherty S.J, Salameh PK, Simmonds PG, Weiss RF et al..  2020.  Increase in global emissions of HFC-23 despite near-total expected reductions. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol, new controls are being implemented to reduce emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3), a by-product during the manufacture of HCFC-22 (CHClF2). Starting in 2015, China and India, who dominate global HCFC-22 production (75% in 2017), set out ambitious programs to reduce HFC-23 emissions. Here, we estimate that these measures should have seen global emissions drop by 87% between 2014 and 2017. Instead,...

  • Wang Q., Li B., Benmarhnia T., Hajat S., Ren M., Liu T., Knibbs L.D, Zhang H.H, Bao J.Z, Zhang Y.W et al..  2020.  Independent and combined effects of heatwaves and PM2.5 on preterm birth in Guangzhou, China: A survival analysis. 128
    Abstract Summary:

    BACKGROUND: Both extreme heat and air pollution exposure during pregnancy have been associated with preterm birth; however, their combined effects are unclear. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to estimate the independent and joint effects of heatwaves and fine particulate matter [PM <2.5 mu m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)], exposure during the final gestational week on preterm birth. METHODS: Using birth registry data from Guangzhou, China, we...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Biomass distribution among size classes follows a power law where the Log-abundance of taxa scales to Log-size with a slope that responds to environmental abiotic and biotic conditions. The interactions between ecological mechanisms controlling the slope of locally realized size-abundance relationships (SAR) are however not well understood. Here we tested how warming, nutrient levels, and grazing affect the slope of phytoplankton community...

  • James A.K, Washburn L., Gotschalk C., Maritorena S., Alldredge A., Nelson CE, Hench J.L, Leichter J.J, Wyatt ASJ, Carlson CA.  2020.  An island mass effect resolved near Mo'orea, French Polynesia. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    We sought to resolve the extent, variability, and magnitude of productivity enrichment around a high tropical island consistent with the phenomenon of an Island Mass Effect (IME). Key biogeochemical constituents and physical oceanographic parameters were measured offshore over the upper 500 m from July 27 to August 7, 2014 around the Society Island of Mo'orea in French Polynesia in association with the nearshore measurements of the Mo'orea...

  • Dailey S.K, Clift P.D, Kulhanek D.K, Blusztajn J., Routledge C.M, Calves G., O'Sullivan P., Jonell T.N, Pandey D.K, Ando S. et al..  2020.  Large-scale mass wasting on the Miocene continental margin of western India. 132:85-112.
    Abstract Summary:

    A giant mass-transport complex was recently discovered in the eastern Arabian Sea, exceeding in volume all but one other known complex on passive margins worldwide. The complex, named the Nataraja Slide, was drilled by International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 in two locations where it is similar to 300 m (Site U1456) and similar to 200 m thick (Site U1457). The top of this mass-transport complex is defined by the presence...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Marginal probability distributions for parameters representing an effective sound-speed structure of a fine-grained sediment are inferred from a data ensemble maximum entropy method that utilizes a sparse spatially distributed set of received pressure time series resulting from multiple explosive sources in a shallow-water ocean environment possessing significant spatial variability of the seabed. A remote sensing seabed acoustics experiment...

  • Moosburner M.A, Gholami P., McCarthy JK, Tan M., Bielinski V.A, Allen A.E.  2020.  Multiplexed knockouts in the model diatom phaeodactylum by episomal delivery of a selectable Cas9. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine diatoms are eukaryotic microalgae that play significant ecological and biogeochemical roles in oceans. They also have significant potential as organismal platforms for exploitation to address biotechnological and industrial goals. In order to address both modes of research, sophisticated molecular and genetic tools are required. We presented here new and improved methodologies for introducing CRISPR-Cas9 to the model diatom...

  • Lindkvist E., Wijermans N., Daw T.M, Gonzalez-Mon B., Giron-Nava A., Johnson A.F, van Putten I., Basurto X., Schluter M..  2020.  Navigating complexities: Agent-based modeling to support research, governance, and management in small-scale fisheries. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The sustainable governance and management of small-scale fisheries (SSF) is challenging, largely due to their dynamic and complex nature. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a computational modeling approach that can account for the dynamism and complexity in SSF by modeling entities as individual agents with different characteristics and behavior, and simulate how their interactions can give rise to emergent phenomena, such as over-fishing and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    By mass, dust is the largest contributor to global aerosol burden, yet long-term observational records of dust, particularly over the ocean, are limited. Here, two nearly global observational datasets of dust aerosol optical depth tau(d) are created primarily on the basis of optical measurements of the aerosol column from 1) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite spanning from 2001 to 2018 and 2)...

  • McSweeney J.M, Lerczak J.A, Barth J.A, Becherer J., Colosi J.A, MacKinnon JA, Macmahan J.H, Moum J.N, Pierce S.D, Waterhouse A.F.  2020.  Observations of shoaling nonlinear internal bores across the central California inner shelf. 50:111-132.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present observations of shoaling nonlinear internal bores off the coast of central California. The dataset includes 15 moorings deployed during September-October 2017 and cross-shore shipboard surveys. We describe the cross-shore structure and evolution of large-amplitude internal bores as they transit from 9 km (100-m depth) to 1 km offshore (10 m). We observe that two bores arrive each semidiurnal period, both propagating from the...

  • Matsumoto H., Young A.P, Guza RT.  2020.  Observations of surface cobbles at two southern California beaches. 419
    Abstract Summary:

    Southern California beaches are often sandy, but with largely undocumented cobble patches and berms. We describe the first multi-year, spatially extensive observations of surface cobbles at southern California beaches. The variation (spatial and temporal) of surface cobble distribution and backshore (e.g. upper foreshore) cobble morphology (slope, vertical extent, and elevation) are characterized using 11 years (2008-2018) of observations...

  • Zhang J.J, Tang X.Y, Huan T., Ross AC, Moore BS.  2020.  Pass-back chain extension expands multimodular assembly line biosynthesis. 16:42-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Modular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) enzymatic assembly lines are large and dynamic protein machines that generally effect a linear sequence of catalytic cycles. Here, we report the heterologous reconstitution and comprehensive characterization of two hybrid NRPS-PKS assembly lines that defy many standard rules of assembly line biosynthesis to generate a large combinatorial library of cyclic...

  • Oliveira M.I, Acevedo O.C, Sorgel M., Nascimento E.L, Manzi A.O, Oliveira P.ES, Brondani D.V, Tsokankunku A., Andreae M.O.  2020.  Planetary boundary layer evolution over the Amazon rainforest in episodes of deep moist convection at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory. 20:15-27.
    Abstract Summary:

    In this study, high-frequency, multilevel measurements, performed from late October to mid-November of 2015 at a 80m tall tower of the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) project in the central state of Amazonas, Brazil, were used to diagnose the evolution of thermodynamic and kinematic variables as well as scalar fluxes during the passage of outflows generated by deep moist convection (DMC). Outflow associated with DMC activity over or near...

  • Wilson K.C, Semmens B.X, Pattengill-Semmens C.V, McCoy C., Sirovic A..  2020.  Potential for grouper acoustic competition and partitioning at a multispecies spawning site off Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. 634:127-146.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many fishes produce calls during spawning that aid in species and mate recognition. When multiple sound-producing species inhabit an area, the detection range may decrease and limit call function. Acoustic partitioning, the separation of calls in time, space, or spectral frequency, can minimize interference among species and provide information about fish behavior and ecology, including possible response to increasing anthropogenic noise. We...

  • Waterhouse L., Heppell S.A, Pattengill-Semmens C.V, McCoy C., Bush P., Johnson B.C, Semmens B.X.  2020.  Recovery of critically endangered Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) in the Cayman Islands following targeted conservation actions. 117:1587-1595.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many large-bodied marine fishes that form spawning aggregations, such as the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus), have suffered regional overfishing due to exploitation during spawning. In response, marine resource managers in many locations have established marine protected areas or seasonal closures to recover these overfished stocks. The challenge in assessing management effectiveness lies largely in the development of accurate estimates...

  • Skiba M.A, Tran C.L, Dan Q.Y, Sikkema A.P, Klaver Z., Gerwick WH, Sherman D.H, Smith J.L.  2020.  Repurposing the GNAT fold in the initiation of polyketide biosynthesis. 28:63-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Natural product biosynthetic pathways are replete with enzymes repurposed for new catalytic functions. In some modular polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways, a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT)-like enzyme with an additional decarboxylation function initiates biosynthesis. Here, we probe two PKS GNAT-like domains for the dual activities of S-acyl transfer from coenzyme A (CoA) to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) and decarboxylation. The GphF...

  • Aguilera R., Gershunov A, Ilango S.D, Guzman-Morales J., Benmarhnia T..  2020.  Santa Ana winds of Southern California impact PM2.5 with and without smoke from wildfires. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) raises human health concerns since it can deeply penetrate the respiratory system and enter the bloodstream, thus potentially impacting vital organs. Strong winds transport and disperse PM2.5, which can travel over long distances. Smoke from wildfires is a major episodic and seasonal hazard in Southern California (SoCal), where the onset of Santa Ana winds (SAWs) in early fall before the first rains of winter...

  • Katsura S., Ueno H., Mitsudera H., Kouketsu S..  2020.  Spatial distribution and seasonality of halocline structures in the subarctic north Pacific. 50:95-109.
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatial distribution and seasonality of halocline structures in the subarctic North Pacific (SNP) were investigated using Argo profiling float data and various surface flux data collected in 2003-17. The permanent halocline (PH) showed zonal patterns in the spatial distributions of its depth and intensity and tended to be shallow and strong in the eastern SNP but deep and weak in the west. Mean distributions of PH depth and intensity...

  • Waters C.L, Day JMD, Watanabe S., Sayit K., Zanon V., Olson K.M, Hanan B.B, Widom E..  2020.  Sulfide mantle source heterogeneity recorded in basaltic lavas from the Azores. 268:422-445.
    Abstract Summary:

    New highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) abundance and Os isotopic compositions, along with major- and trace-element abundance and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope data are reported for high-MgO (>8-17 wt.%) lavas from the islands of Sao Miguel, Terceira, Pico and Faial in the Azores archipelago. The lavas span the range of Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotope and trace-element abundance variability reported previously for the islands. Pico and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Radar interferograms provide a map of the phase difference between the reference and repeat acquisitions modulo . Under ideal conditions, the phase can be unwrapped to provide an absolute phase connection across the map, although there is always an unknown integer phase ambiguity (i.e., ) for the entire map. Here, we demonstrate a practical time series method to solve for these integer ambiguities in order to recover the absolute phase change...

  • Gauglitz J.M, Aceves C.M, Aksenov A.A, Aleti G., Almaliti J., Bouslimani A., Brown E.A, Campeau A., Caraballo-Rodriguez A.M, Chaar R. et al..  2020.  Untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach unveils molecular changes in raw and processed foods and beverages. 302
    Abstract Summary:

    In our daily lives, we consume foods that have been transported, stored, prepared, cooked, or otherwise processed by ourselves or others. Food storage and preparation have drastic effects on the chemical composition of foods. Untargeted mass spectrometry analysis of food samples has the potential to increase our chemical understanding of these processes by detecting a broad spectrum of chemicals. We performed a time-based analysis of the...

  • Bates T.S, Quinn P.K, Coffman D.J, Johnson J.E, Upchurch L., Saliba G., Lewis S., Graff J., Russell LM, Behrenfeld M.J.  2020.  Variability in marine plankton ecosystems are not observed in freshly emitted sea spray aerosol over the North Atlantic Ocean. 47
    Abstract Summary:

    Sea spray aerosol (SSA) consists of both sea salt and organic components. These aerosols affect Earth's climate by scattering solar radiation and by altering cloud properties. Here we present observations of SSA particles generated at sea using an over-the-side bubbling system (Sea Sweep) and an onboard plunging wave mesocosm (Marine Aerosol Reference Tank-MART) during five cruises in the North Atlantic. The cruises were timed to sample...

  • Maboloc E.A, Batzel G., Grunbaum D., Chan K.YK.  2020.  Vertical distribution of echinoid larvae in pH stratified water columns. 167
    Abstract Summary:

    The abundance and distribution of many benthic marine organisms are shaped by the success of their dispersive larval life-history stage. An increasing number of studies have shown that ocean acidification negatively impacts the larval life-history stage, including those of echinoids which are commercially and ecologically important. However, little is known about the behavioral responses of echinoid larvae to different pH levels in the water...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Climatic changes over the central Himalaya are critical for water resources in downstream regions where hundreds of millions of people live. Warming and drying in this region have both occurred in recent decades, but the associated meteorological factors are difficult to diagnose based on observations from unevenly distributed weather stations, reanalyses, and global climate models that poorly reproduce the orographic diurnal cycle. Here,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Deterministic or statistical inversion schemes to retrieve ocean color from space often use a simplified water reflectance model that may introduce unrealistic constraints on the solution, a disadvantage compared with standard, two-step algorithms that make minimal assumptions about the water signal. In view of this, the semi-analytical models of Morel and Maritorena (2001), MM01, and Park and Ruddick (2005), PR05, used in the spectral...

  • Rutz J.J, Shields C.A, Lora J.M, Payne A.E, Guan B., Ullrich P., O'Brien T., Leung LR, Ralph FM, Wehner M. et al..  2019.  The Atmospheric River Tracking Method Intercomparison Project (ARTMIP): Quantifying uncertainties in atmospheric river climatology. 124:13777-13802.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are now widely known for their association with high-impact weather events and long-term water supply in many regions. Researchers within the scientific community have developed numerous methods to identify and track of ARs-a necessary step for analyses on gridded data sets, and objective attribution of impacts to ARs. These different methods have been developed to answer specific research questions and hence use...

  • Corringham T.W, Ralph FM, Gershunov A, Cayan DR, Talbot C.A.  2019.  Atmospheric rivers drive flood damages in the western United States. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are extratropical storms that produce extreme precipitation on the west coasts of the world's major landmasses. In the United States, ARs cause significant flooding, yet their economic impacts have not been quantified. Here, using 40 years of data from the National Flood Insurance Program, we show that ARs are the primary drivers of flood damages in the western United States. Using a recently developed AR scale, which...

  • Chekan J.R, Lee G.Y, A. Gamal E, Purdy T.N, Houk K.N, Moore BS.  2019.  Bacterial tetrabromopyrrole debrominase shares a reductive dehalogenation strategy with human thyroid deiodinase. 58:5329-5338.
    Abstract Summary:

    Enzymatic dehalogenation is an important and well-studied biological process in both the detoxification and catabolism of small molecules, many of which are anthro-pogenic in origin. However, dedicated dehalogenation reactions that replace a halogen atom with a hydrogen are rare in the biosynthesis of natural products. In fact, the debrominase Bmp8 is the only known example. It catalyzes the reductive debromination of the coral settlement cue...

  • Doran A.K, Rapa M., Laske G., Babcock J., McPeak S..  2019.  Calibration of differential pressure gauges through in situ testing.
    Abstract Summary:

    Differential pressure gauges (DPGs) are a standard component of modern broadband ocean-bottom seismometer instruments and have proven useful for observing a wide range of seismic and oceanographic phenomena. However, the response function of the DPG remains poorly known, limiting our ability to recover amplitude and phase information from seafloor pressure signals with high fidelity. The sensitivity and long-period response are difficult to...

  • Szesciorka A.R, Allen A.N, Calambokidis J, Fahlbusch J., McKenna MF, Southall B..  2019.  A case study of a near vessel strike of a blue whale: Perceptual cues and fine-scale aspects of behavioral avoidance. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite efforts to aid recovery, Eastern North Pacific blue whales faces numerous anthropogenic threats. These include behavioral disturbances and noise interference with communication, but also direct physical harm - notably injury and mortality from ship strikes. Factors leading to ship strikes are poorly understood, with virtually nothing known about the cues available to blue whales from nearby vessels, behavioral responses during close...

  • Carter A.L, Edwards C.B, Fox M.D, Amir C.G, Eynaud Y., Johnson M.D, Lewis L.S, Sandin SA, Smith JE.  2019.  Changes in benthic community composition associated with the outbreak of the corallimorph, Rhodactis howesii, at Palmyra Atoll. 38:1267-1279.
    Abstract Summary:

    Few studies have documented the spatial and temporal dynamics of highly invasive species in coral reef benthic communities. Here, we quantified the ecological dynamics of invasion by a corallimorph, Rhodactis howesii, at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific. A localized outbreak of this species was first observed following a shipwreck at Palmyra in 1991 and has subsequently spread across hectares, reaching 100% cover in some areas. We...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Tropical cyclones (TCs) undergoing extratropical transition (ET) can develop into intense cyclonic systems accompanied by high-impact weather in areas far removed from the original TC. This study presents an analysis of multiseasonal global simulations representative of present-day and projected future climates using the Model for Prediction Across Scales-Atmosphere (MPAS-A), with high resolution (15-km grid) throughout the Northern...

  • Schramek T.A, Terrill E.J, Colin P.L, Cornuelle BD.  2019.  Coastally trapped waves around Palau. 191
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations from around the main island group of Palau, located in the tropical Western Pacific, exhibit a persistent presence of baroclinic coastally trapped waves. The signals are found in records of temperature that were sustained on the fore-reef for seven months, May to December 2013, with the strongest signal from Typhoon Haiyan which passed over Kayangel Atoll, along with the northern most Palauan islands, in November of 2013. This...

  • Aarons S.M, Arvin L.J, Aciego S.M, Riebe C.S, Johnson K.R, Blakowski M.A, Koornneef J.M, Hart S.C, Barnes M.E, Dove N. et al..  2019.  Competing droughts affect dust delivery to Sierra Nevada. 41
    Abstract Summary:

    The generation and transport of mineral dust is strongly related to climate on seasonal, year-to-year, and glacial-interglacial timescales. The modern dust cycle is influenced by soil moisture, which is partly a function of drought duration and severity. The production and transport of dust can therefore be amplified by global and regional droughts, thereby moderating ecosystem vulnerability to disturbance through the influence of dust on...

  • Wu M.Y, Barmin M.P, Andrew R.K, Weichman P.B, White A.W, Lavely E.M, Dzieciuch M.A, Mercer J.A, Worcester P.F, Ritzwoller M.H.  2019.  Deep water acoustic range estimation based on an ocean general circulation model: Application to PhilSea10 data. 146:4754-4773.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study identifies general characteristics of methods to estimate the absolute range between an acoustic transmitter and a receiver in the deep ocean. The data are from three days of the PhilSea10 experiment with a single fixed transmitter depth (similar to 998m) and 150 receiver depths (similar to 210-5388 m) of known location, and a great-circle transmitter-receiver distance of similar to 510 km. The proposed ranging methods compare...

  • Seltzer A.M, Ng J., Danskin W.R, Kulongoski JT, Gannon R.S, Stute M., Severinghaus JP.  2019.  Deglacial water-table decline in Southern California recorded by noble gas isotopes. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Constraining the magnitude of past hydrological change may improve understanding and predictions of future shifts in water availability. Here we demonstrate that water-table depth, a sensitive indicator of hydroclimate, can be quantitatively reconstructed using Kr and Xe isotopes in groundwater. We present the first-ever measurements of these dissolved noble gas isotopes in groundwater at high precision (<= 0.005 parts per thousand amu(-1...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We develop a methodology to separate continuous seismic waveforms into random noise (RN), not random noise (NRN) produced by earthquakes, wind, traffic and other sources of ground motions, and an undetermined mixture of signals. The analysis is applied to continuous records from a dense seismic array on the San Jacinto fault zone. To detect RN signals, we cut hourly waveforms into non-overlapping 1 s time windows and apply cross-correlations...

  • Cyronak T., Takeshita Y, Courtney T.A, DeCarlo E.H, Eyre B.D, Kline DI, Martz T., Page H., Price N.N, Smith J. et al..  2019.  Diel temperature and pH variability scale with depth across diverse coral reef habitats.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coral reefs are facing intensifying stressors, largely due to global increases in seawater temperature and decreases in pH. However, there is extensive environmental variability within coral reef ecosystems, which can impact how organisms respond to global trends. We deployed spatial arrays of autonomous sensors across distinct shallow coral reef habitats to determine patterns of spatiotemporal variability in seawater physicochemical...

  • Dick H.JB, MacLeod C.J, Blum P., Abe N., Blackman D.K, Bowles J.A, Cheadle M.J, Cho K., Ciazela J., Deans J.R et al..  2019.  Dynamic accretion beneath a slow-spreading ridge segment: IODP Hole 1473A and the Atlantis Bank oceanic core complex. 124:12631-12659.
    Abstract Summary:

    809 deep IODP Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank, SWIR, is 2.2 km from 1,508-mHole 735B and 1.4 from 158-m Hole 1105A. With mapping, it provides the first 3-D view of the upper levels of a 660-km(2) lower crustal batholith. It is laterally and vertically zoned, representing a complex interplay of cyclic intrusion, and ongoing deformation, with kilometer-scale upward and lateral migration of interstial melt. Transform wall dives over the gabbro-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Diatom cell walls, called frustules, are main sources of biogenic silica in the ocean and their intricate morphology is an inspiration for nanoengineering. Here we show dynamic aspects of frustule biosynthesis involving acidification of the silica deposition vesicle (SDV) by V-type H+ ATPase (VHA). Transgenic Thalassiosira pseudonana expressing the VHA B subunit tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein (VHA(B)-eGFP) enabled subcellular...

  • Simmons H.L, Powell B.S, Merrifield S.T, Zedler S.E, Colin P.L.  2019.  Dynamical downscaling of equatorial flow response to Palau. 32:84-91.
    Abstract Summary:

    The wake created by the interaction of equatorial currents with the Palau islands generates small-scale vortices. We aim to identify the significant scales of this vortex wake by studying its structure and variability. We utilize a subkilometer resolution numerical model integrated from May 2016 through April 2017 that is nested within a 2.5 km state estimate hindcast model. The near-Palau flow is highly variable and has very different wake...

  • Andres M., Siegelman M., Hormann V., Musgrave R.C, Merrifield S.T, Rudnick D.L, Merrifield M.A, Alford MH, Voet G., Wijesekera H.W et al..  2019.  Eddies, topography, and the abyssal flow by the Kyushu-Palau Ridge near Velasco Reef. 32:46-55.
    Abstract Summary:

    Palau, an island group in the tropical western North Pacific at the southern end of Kyushu-Palau Ridge, sits near the boundary between the westward-flowing North Equatorial Current (NEC) and the eastward-flowing North Equatorial Countercurrent. Combining remote-sensing observations of the sea surface with an unprecedented in situ set of subsurface measurements, we examine the flow near Palau with a particular focus on the abyssal circulation...

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