Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

Search Recent Publications

  • Abstract Summary:

    In this study, we investigated the geomorphic and incision history for an similar to 5 km reach of the northern Rio Grande gorge in New Mexico using field and LiDAR-based geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic 3 He surface exposure dating. This wide (>1.5 km) and deep (similar to 240 m) section of the gorge exhibits Toreva blocks, incoherent landslides, rock falls, and slumps developed within Servilleta Basalts and intercalated weakly...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Aim Our aim was to collect sightings data on oceanic manta rays (Mobula birostris) within the Raja Ampat Archipelago to better understand their population dynamics within the region. These data were compared with environmental variables to seek correlates that may explain any variations in observed sightings frequency. Combined, it is hoped this knowledge will be used to aid effective management of this species in the region. Location Raja...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Athens, Greece has been in economic and social crises after the 2008 global recession, resulting in an increase in wood burning as a cheaper method of residential heating in the winter. Reducing wood burning emissions is a source-specific method to address air quality degradation, and indirectly climate change, through instituting policies aimed at human health co-benefits. In this work, we investigate and quantify the potential health co-...

  • Lundesgaard O., Powell B., Merrifield M., Hahn-Woernle L., Winsor P..  2019.  Response of an Antarctic Peninsula fjord to summer katabatic wind events. 49:1485-1502.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fjords along the western Antarctic Peninsula are episodically exposed to strong winds flowing down marine-terminating glaciers and out over the ocean. These wind events could potentially be an important mechanism for the ventilation of fjord waters. A strong wind event was observed in Andvord Bay in December 2015, and was associated with significant increases in upper-ocean salinity. We examine the dynamical impacts of such wind events during...

  • Tinto K.J, Padman L., Siddoway C.S, Springer S.R, Fricker H.A, Das I., Tontini F.C, Porter D.F, Frearson N.P, Howard S.L et al..  2019.  Ross Ice Shelf response to climate driven by the tectonic imprint on seafloor bathymetry. 12:441-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean melting has thinned Antarctica's ice shelves at an increasing rate over the past two decades, leading to loss of grounded ice. The Ross Ice Shelf is currently close to steady state but geological records indicate that it can disintegrate rapidly, which would accelerate grounded ice loss from catchments equivalent to 11.6 m of global sea level rise. Here, we use data from the ROSETTA-Ice airborne survey and ocean simulations to identify...

  • Chekan J.R, McKinnie S.MK, Moore M.L, Poplawski S.G, Michael T.P, Moore BS.  2019.  Scalable biosynthesis of the seaweed neurochemical, kainic acid. 58:8454-8457.
    Abstract Summary:

    Kainic acid, the flagship member of the kainoid family of natural neurochemicals, is a widely used neuropharmacological agent that helped unravel the key role of ionotropic glutamate receptors, including the kainate receptor, in the central nervous system. Worldwide shortages of this seaweed natural product in the year 2000 prompted numerous chemical syntheses, including scalable preparations with as few as six-steps. Herein we report the...

  • Gonzalez-Pech N.I, Stebounova L.V, Ustunol I.B, Park J.H, Anthony T.R, Peters T.M, Grassian VH.  2019.  Size, composition, morphology, and health implications of airborne incidental metal-containing nanoparticles. 16:387-399.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is great concern regarding the adverse health implications of engineered nanoparticles. However, there are many circumstances where the production of incidental nanoparticles, i.e., nanoparticles unintentionally generated as a side product of some anthropogenic process, is of even greater concern. In this study, metal-based incidental nanoparticles were measured in two occupational settings: a machining center and a foundry. On-site...

  • Nannuru S., Gemba K.L, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss WS, Mecklenbrauker C.F.  2019.  Sparse Bayesian learning with multiple dictionaries. Signal Processing. 159:159-170.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has emerged as a fast and competitive method to perform sparse processing. The SBL algorithm, which is developed using a Bayesian framework, iteratively solves a non-convex optimization problem using fixed point updates. It provides comparable performance and is significantly faster than convex optimization techniques used in sparse processing. We propose a multi-dictionary SBL algorithm that simultaneously can...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The present article describes a numerical modeling study of the spatial distribution of the wave energy resource for Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). The study consists of an analysis of three years of output from the CARICOOS Nearshore Wave Model, an operational model based on the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Using the wave model output, the wave power was computed and then averaged for a three year period...

  • Subramanian A., Juricke S., Dueben P., Palmer T..  2019.  A stochastic representation of subgrid uncertainty for dynamical core development. 100:1091-1101.
    Abstract Summary:

    Numerical weather prediction and climate models comprise a) a dynamical core describing resolved parts of the climate system and b) parameterizations describing unresolved components. Development of new subgrid-scale parameterizations is particularly uncertain compared to representing resolved scales in the dynamical core. This uncertainty is currently represented by stochastic approaches in several operational weather models, which will...

  • Vittori G., Blondeaux P., Coco G., Guza RT.  2019.  Subharmonic edge wave excitation by narrow-band, random incident waves. 868
    Abstract Summary:

    A monochromatic, small amplitude, normally incident standing wave on a sloping beach is unstable to perturbation by subharmonic (half the frequency) edge waves. At equilibrium, edge wave shoreline amplitudes can exceed incident wave amplitudes. Here, the effect of incident wave randomness on subharmonic edge wave excitation is explored following a weakly nonlinear stability analysis under the assumption of narrow-band incident random waves....

  • Lu W.H, Cusack C., Baker M., Wang T., Chen M.B, Paige K., Zhang X.F, Levin L., Escobar E., Amon D. et al..  2019.  Successful blue economy examples with an emphasis on international perspectives. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Careful definition and illustrative case studies are fundamental work in developing a Blue Economy. As blue research expands with the world increasingly understanding its importance, policy makers and research institutions worldwide concerned with ocean and coastal regions are demanding further and improved analysis of the Blue Economy. Particularly, in terms of the management connotation, data access, monitoring, and product development,...

  • Hermes J.C, Masumoto Y., Beal L.M, Roxy M.K, Vialard J., Andres M., Annamalai H., Behera S., D'Adamo N., Doi T. et al..  2019.  A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Indian Ocean is warming faster than any of the global oceans and its climate is uniquely driven by the presence of a landmass at low latitudes, which causes monsoonal winds and reversing currents. The food, water, and energy security in the Indian Ocean rim countries and islands are intrinsically tied to its climate, with marine environmental goods and services, as well as trade within the basin, underpinning their economies. Hence, there...

  • Heo S., Nori-Sarma A., Lee K., Benmarhnia T., Dominici F., Bell M.L.  2019.  The use of a quasi-experimental study on the mortality effect of a heat wave warning system in Korea. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Many cities and countries have implemented heat wave warning systems to combat the health effects of extreme heat. Little is known about whether these systems actually reduce heat-related morbidity and mortality. We examined the effectiveness of heat wave alerts and health plans in reducing the mortality risk of heat waves in Korea by utilizing the discrepancy between the alerts and the monitored temperature. A difference-in-differences...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Variability of North Atlantic annual hurricane frequency during 1951-2010 is studied using a 100-member ensemble of climate simulations by a 60-km atmospheric general circulation model that is forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The ensemble mean results well capture the interannual-to-decadal variability of hurricane frequency in best track data since 1970, and suggest that the current best track data might underestimate...

  • Choy C.A, Robison B.H, Gagne T.O, Erwin B., Firl E., Halden R.U, Hamilton J.A, Katija K., Lisin S.E, Rolsky C. et al..  2019.  The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Plastic waste has been documented in nearly all types of marine environments and has been found in species spanning all levels of marine food webs. Within these marine environments, deep pelagic waters encompass the largest ecosystems on Earth. We lack a comprehensive understanding of the concentrations, cycling, and fate of plastic waste in sub-surface waters, constraining our ability to implement effective, large-scale policy and...

  • Dorman C.E, Mejia J., Koracin D., McEvoy D..  2019.  World marine fog analysis based on 58-years of ship observations.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study presents the first global-scale comprehensive climatology of marine fog and is based on ICOADS ship present weather observations for the period 1950-2007. In general, the median marine fog occurrence away from the polar oceans is low (0.2%). Substantially greater marine fog occurrences are limited to four regions, not including the polar region. Fog occurrence maxima along the western side of the sub-polar ocean gyre occur during...

  • Svensen C., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Franze G., Dmoch K., Lavrentyev P.J, Kwasniewski S..  2019.  Zooplankton communities associated with new and regenerated primary production in the Atlantic inflow north of Svalbard. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly with respect to ice cover extent and volume, growth season duration and biological production. Zooplankton are important components in the arctic marine food web, and tightly coupled to the strong seasonality in primary production. In this study, we investigate zooplankton composition, including microzooplankton, copepod nauplii, as well as small and large copepod taxa, and primary productivity in the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study investigates the impact of internal variability on East Asian summer (June-July-August) surface air temperature (SAT) trends on the multidecadal time scale based on a 30-member ensemble of simulations that share the same external forcing from 1970 to 2005. The ensemble-mean SAT in East Asia shows a positive trend, but the patterns and the magnitudes in the individual members are remarkably diverse, highlighting the strong effect of...

  • Cardenas P., Lange C.B, Vernet M, Esper O., Srain B., Vorrath M.E, Ehrhardt S., Muller J., Kuhn G., Arz H.W et al..  2019.  Biogeochemical proxies and diatoms in surface sediments across the Drake Passage reflect oceanic domains and frontal systems in the region. 174:72-88.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the world's largest current system connecting all major ocean basins of the global ocean. Its flow, driven by strong westerly winds, is constricted to its narrowest extent in the Drake Passage, located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Due to the remoteness of the area, harsh weather conditions and strong bottom currents, sediment recovery is difficult and data coverage is still inadequate...

  • de Morals M.G, de Morais E.G, Duarte J.H, Deamici K.M, Mitchell B.G, Costa J.AV.  2019.  Biological CO2 mitigation by microalgae: technological trends, future prospects and challenges. 35
    Abstract Summary:

    The increase in the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has been a topic of worldwide concern since anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases began increasing considerably during the industrial period. The effects of these mass emissions are probably the main cause of global warming, which has been observed over recent decades. Among the various techniques of CO2 capture, microalgal biofixation by photosynthesis is considered a...

  • House B.M, Bebout G.E, Hilton DR.  2019.  Carbon cycling at the Sunda margin, Indonesia: A regional study with global implications. Geology. 47:483-486.
    Abstract Summary:

    The subduction and release of carbon at convergent margins is a primary mechanism by which tectonic processes influence atmospheric pCO(2), but the balance between the amount of carbon subducting and the CO2 flux from volcanic arcs remains poorly constrained. Estimating CO2 recycling efficiency in complex regions like the Sunda margin, Indonesia, is particularly difficult due to the lateral variability in sediment thickness, composition, and...

  • Stukel M.R, Kelly T.B, Aluwihare LI, Barbeau K.A, Goericke R, Krause J.W, Landry MR, Ohman MD.  2019.  The Carbon:(234)Thorium ratios of sinking particles in the California current ecosystem 1: relationships with plankton ecosystem dynamics. Marine Chemistry. 212:1-15.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated variability in the C:Th-234 ratio of sinking particles and its relationship to changing water column characteristics and plankton ecological dynamics during 29 Lagrangian experiments conducted on six cruises of the California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program. C:Th-234 ratios of sinking particles collected by a surface-tethered sediment trap ((CThST)-Th-:234) varied from 2.3 to 20.5 mu mol C...

  • Atwood S.A, Kreidenweis S.M, DeMott PJ, Petters M.D, Cornwell G.C, Martin A.C, Moore K.A.  2019.  Classification of aerosol population type and cloud condensation nuclei properties in a coastal California littoral environment using an unsupervised cluster model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 19:6931-6947.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aerosol particle and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements from a littoral location on the northern coast of California at Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory (BML) are presented for approximately six weeks of observations during the boreal winter-spring as part of the CalWater-2015 field campaign. The nature and variability of surface (marine boundary layer, MBL) aerosol populations were evaluated by classifying observations into periods of...

  • Mitovski T., Cole J.NS, McFarlane N.A, von Salzen K., Zhang GJ.  2019.  Convective response to large-scale forcing in the tropical western Pacific simulated by spCAM5 and CanAM4.3. Geoscientific Model Development. 12:2107-2117.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changes in the large-scale environment during convective precipitation events in the tropical western Pacific simulated by version 4.3 of the Canadian Atmospheric Model (CanAM4.3) are compared against those simulated by version 5.0 of the super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (spCAM5). This is done by compositing sub-hourly output of convective rainfall, convective available potential energy (CAPE), CAPE generation due to large-scale...

  • Broddrick J.T, Du N., Smith S.R, Tsuji Y., Jallet D., Ware M.A, Peers G., Matsuda Y., Dupont C.L, Mitchell B.G et al..  2019.  Cross-compartment metabolic coupling enables flexible photoprotective mechanisms in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. New Phytologist. 222:1364-1379.
    Abstract Summary:

    Photoacclimation consists of short- and long-term strategies used by photosynthetic organisms to adapt to dynamic light environments. Observable photophysiology changes resulting from these strategies have been used in coarse-grained models to predict light-dependent growth and photosynthetic rates. However, the contribution of the broader metabolic network, relevant to species-specific strategies and fitness, is not accounted for in these...

  • Vic C., Garabato A.CN, Green J.AM, Waterhouse A.F, Zhao Z.X, Melet A., de Lavergne C., Buijsman M.C, Stephenson G.R.  2019.  Deep-ocean mixing driven by small-scale internal tides. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Turbulent mixing in the ocean is key to regulate the transport of heat, freshwater and biogeochemical tracers, with strong implications for Earth's climate. In the deep ocean, tides supply much of the mechanical energy required to sustain mixing via the generation of internal waves, known as internal tides, whose fate-the relative importance of their local versus remote breaking into turbulence-remains uncertain. Here, we combine a semi-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA)- and vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA)-rich cells in shark gills secrete excess acid and base, respectively, to seawater to maintain blood acid-base homeostasis. Both cell types are rich in mitochondria, indicating high ATP demand; however, their metabolic fuel is unknown. Here, we report that NKA- and VHA-rich cells have large glycogen stores. Glycogen abundance in NKA-rich cells was lower in starved sharks compared with 24 h post...

  • Busch J., Agarwal V., Schorn M., Machado H., Moore BS, Rouse GW, Gram L., Jensen PR.  2019.  Diversity and distribution of the bmp gene cluster and its Polybrominated products in the genus Pseudoalteromonas. 21:1575-1585.
    Abstract Summary:

    The production of pentabromopseudilin and related brominated compounds by Pseudoalteromonas spp. has recently been linked to the bmp biosynthetic gene cluster. This study explored the distribution and evolutionary history of this gene cluster in the genus Pseudoalteromonas. A phylogeny of the genus revealed numerous clades that do not contain type strains, suggesting considerable species level diversity has yet to be described. Comparative...

  • Andersson AJ, Venn A.A, Pendleton L., Brathwaite A., Camp E.F, Cooley S., Gledhill D., Koch M., Maliki S., Manfrino C..  2019.  Ecological and socioeconomic strategies to sustain Caribbean coral reefs in a high-CO2 world. 29
    Abstract Summary:

    The Caribbean and Western Atlantic region hosts one of the world's most diverse geopolitical regions and a unique marine biota distinct from tropical seas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. While this region varies in human population density, GDP and wealth, coral reefs, and their associated ecosystem services, are central to people's livelihoods. Unfortunately, the region's reefs have experienced extensive degradation over the last several...

  • Kumar R., Lee J.A, L. Monache D, Alessandrini S..  2019.  Effect of meteorological variability on fine particulate matter simulations over the contiguous United States. 124:5669-5694.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study quantifies the impact of meteorological variability on the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model-simulated particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or smaller (particulate matter 2.5 [PM2.5]) over the contiguous United States (CONUS). The meteorological variability is represented using the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast (SREF) produced operationally by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A...

  • Hetherington E.D, Kurle C.M, Ohman MD, Popp BN.  2019.  Effects of chemical preservation on bulk and amino acid isotope ratios of zooplankton, fish, and squid tissues. 33:935-945.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rationale It is imperative to understand how chemical preservation alters tissue isotopic compositions before using historical samples in ecological studies. Specifically, although compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) is becoming a widely used tool, there is little information on how preservation techniques affect amino acid delta N-15 values. Methods We evaluated the effects of chemical preservatives on bulk tissue...

  • Eddebbar Y.A, Rodgers K.B, Long M.C, Subramanian AC, Xie SP, Keeling RF.  2019.  El Nino-like physical and biogeochemical ocean response to tropical eruptions. Journal of Climate. 32:2627-2649.
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceanic response to recent tropical eruptions is examined in Large Ensemble (LE) experiments from two fully coupled global climate models, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (ESM2M), each forced by a distinct volcanic forcing dataset. Following the simulated eruptions of Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo, the ocean loses heat and gains oxygen and carbon, in general...

  • Walsh CT, Moore BS.  2019.  Enzymatic cascade reactions in biosynthesis. 58:6846-6879.
    Abstract Summary:

    Enzyme-mediated cascade reactions are widespread in biosynthesis. To facilitate comparison with the mechanistic categorizations of cascade reactions by synthetic chemists and delineate the common underlying chemistry, we discuss four types of enzymatic cascade reactions: those involving nucleophilic, electrophilic, pericyclic, and radical reactions. Two subtypes of enzymes that generate radical cascades exist at opposite ends of the oxygen...

  • Olli K., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Lavrentyev P.J, Franze G., Sanz-Martin M., Paulsen M.L, Reigstad M..  2019.  Food web functions and interactions during spring and summer in the Arctic Water inflow region: Investigated through inverse modeling. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    We used inverse modeling to reconstruct major planktonic food web carbon flows in the Atlantic Water inflow, east and north of Svalbard during spring (18-25 May) and summer (9-13 August), 2014. The model was based on three intensively sampled stations during both periods, corresponding to early, peak, and decline phases of a Phaeocystis and diatom dominated bloom (May), and flagellates dominated post bloom stages (August). The food web carbon...

  • Young A.P, Carilli JE.  2019.  Global distribution of coastal cliffs. 44:1309-1316.
    Abstract Summary:

    Previous studies have estimated that coastal cliffs exist on about 80% of the global shoreline, but have not been validated on a global scale. This study uses two approaches to capture information on the worldwide existence and erosion of coastal cliffs: a detailed literature survey and imagery search, and a GIS-based global mapping analysis. The literature and imagery review show coastal cliffs exist in 93% of the combined recognized...

  • Roarty H., Cook T., Hazard L, George D., Harlan J., Cosoli S., Wyatt L., Fanjul E.A, Terrill E, Otero M et al..  2019.  The global high frequency radar network. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Academic, government, and private organizations from around the globe have established High Frequency radar (hereinafter, HFR) networks at regional or national levels. Partnerships have been established to coordinate and collaborate on a single global HFR network (http://global-hfradar.org/) . These partnerships were established in 2012 as part of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) to promote HFR...

  • Morrow R., Fu L.L, Ardhuin F., Benkiran M., Chapron B., Cosme E., D'Ovidio F., Farrar J.T, Gille ST, Lapeyre G. et al..  2019.  Global observations of fine-scale ocean surface topography with the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The future international Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) Mission, planned for launch in 2021, will make high-resolution 2D observations of sea-surface height using SAR radar interferometric techniques. SWOT will map the global and coastal oceans up to 77.6 degrees latitude every 21 days over a swath of 120 km (20 km nadir gap). Today's 2D mapped altimeter data can resolve ocean scales of 150 km wavelength whereas the SWOT...

  • Levin L.A, Bett B.J, Gates A.R, Heimbach P., Howe B.M, Janssen F., McCurdy A., Ruhl H.A, Snelgrove P., Stocks K.I et al..  2019.  Global observing needs in the deep ocean. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep ocean below 200 m water depth is the least observed, but largest habitat on our planet by volume and area. Over 150 years of exploration has revealed that this dynamic system provides critical climate regulation, houses a wealth of energy, mineral, and biological resources, and represents a vast repository of biological diversity. A long history of deep-ocean exploration and observation led to the initial concept for the Deep-Ocean...

  • Jamet C., Ibrahim A., Ahmad Z., Angelini F., Babin M., Behrenfeld M.J, Boss E., Cairns B., Churnside J., Chowdhary J. et al..  2019.  Going beyond standard ocean color observations: Lidar and polarimetry. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Passive ocean color images have provided a sustained synoptic view of the distribution of ocean optical properties and color and biogeochemical parameters for the past 20-plus years. These images have revolutionized our view of the ocean. Remote sensing of ocean color has relied on measurements of the radiance emerging at the top of the atmosphere, thus neglecting the polarization and the vertical components. Ocean color remote sensing...

  • White-Gaynor A.L, Nyblade A.A, Aster R.C, Wiens D.A, Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Hansen S.E, Wilson T., Dalziel I.W et al..  2019.  Heterogeneous upper mantle structure beneath the Ross Sea Embayment and Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica, revealed by P-wave tomography. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 513:40-50.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present an upper mantle P-wave velocity model for the Ross Sea Embayment (RSE) region of West Antarctica, constructed by inverting relative P-wave travel-times from 1881 teleseismic earthquakes recorded by two temporary broadband seismograph deployments on the Ross Ice Shelf, as well as by regional ice- and rock-sited seismic stations surrounding the RSE. Faster upper mantle P-wave velocities (similar to +1%) characterize the eastern part...

  • Zigone D., Ben-Zion Y., Lehujeur M., Campillo M., Hillers G., Vernon FL.  2019.  Imaging subsurface structures in the San Jacinto fault zone with high-frequency noise recorded by dense linear arrays. 217:879-893.
    Abstract Summary:

    Cross-correlations of 2-35 Hz ambient seismic noise recorded by three linear arrays across the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ) in Southern California are used to derive high-resolution shear wave velocity models for the top 50-90m of the crust at the array locations. Coherent Rayleigh surface waves are inverted to construct 2-D maps of group velocities in the range 0.2-0.6 km s(-1). These maps are inverted to shear wave velocities around the...

  • Rigby M, Park S., Saito T., Western L.M, Redington A.L, Fang X., Henne S., Manning A.J, Prinn RG, Dutton GS et al..  2019.  Increase in CFC-11 emissions from eastern China based on atmospheric observations. 569:546-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer relies on the continued decline in the atmospheric concentrations of ozone-depleting gases such as chlorofluorocarbons(1). The atmospheric concentration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), the second-most abundant chlorofluorocarbon, has declined substantially since the mid-1990s(2). A recently reported slowdown in the decline of the atmospheric concentration of CFC-11 after 2012, however,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    For dengue fever and other seasonal epidemics we show how the stability of the preceding inter-outbreak period can predict subsequent total outbreak magnitude, and that a feasible stability metric can be computed from incidence data alone. As an observable of a dynamical system, incidence data contains information about the underlying mechanisms: climatic drivers, changing serotype pools, the ecology of the vector populations, and evolving...

  • DeSanto J.B, Chadwell C.D, Sandwell DT.  2019.  Kinematic post-processing of ship navigation data using precise point positioning. 72:795-804.
    Abstract Summary:

    Seafloor geodetic studies such as Global Positioning System (GPS)-Acoustic experiments often require the measurement platform on the sea surface to be positioned accurately to within a few centimetres. In this paper, we test the utility of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) for this application with two experiments. The first fixed platform experiment is a comparison between three independent processing software packages: Positioning and...

  • Sharma A., Richardson M., Cralle L., Stamper C.E, Maestre J.P, Stearns-Yoder K.A, Postolache T.T, Bates K.L, Kinney K.A, Brenner L.A et al..  2019.  Longitudinal homogenization of the microbiome between both occupants and the built environment in a cohort of United States Air Force Cadets. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The microbiome of the built environment has important implications for human health and wellbeing; however, bidirectional exchange of microbes between occupants and surfaces can be confounded by lifestyle, architecture, and external environmental exposures. Here, we present a longitudinal study of United States Air Force Academy cadets (n=34), which have substantial homogeneity in lifestyle, diet, and age, all factors that influence the human...

  • Lee T., Fournier S., Gordon A.L, Sprintall J.  2019.  Maritime Continent water cycle regulates low-latitude chokepoint of global ocean circulation. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    The Maritime Continent (MC) is a low-latitude chokepoint of the world oceans with the Indonesian throughflow (ITF) linking the Indo-Pacific oceans, influencing global ocean circulation, climate, and biogeochemistry. While previous studies suggested that South-China-Sea freshwaters north of the MC intruding the Indonesian Seas weaken the ITF during boreal winter, the impact of the MC water cycle on the ITF has not been investigated. Here we...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We evaluated the performance of a recently developed absorption partitioning model [J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120, 2601 (2015)] that derives the spectral absorption coefficients of non-algal particles, a(NAP)(lambda), and colored dissolved organic matter, a(g)(lambda), from the total absorption coefficient of seawater. The model's performance was found unsatisfactory when the model was tested with a large dataset of absorption measurements from...

  • Carvajal M., Araya-Cornejo C., Sepulveda I., Melnick D., Haase JS.  2019.  Nearly instantaneous tsunamis following the Mw 7.5 2018 Palu earthquake. 46:5117-5126.
    Abstract Summary:

    The tsunami observations produced by the 2018 magnitude 7.5 Palu strike-slip earthquake challenged the traditional basis underlying tsunami hazard assessments and early warning systems. We analyzed an extraordinary collection of 38 amateur and closed circuit television videos to show that the Palu tsunamis devastated widely separated coastal areas around Palu Bay within a few minutes after the mainshock and included wave periods shorter than...

  • Wang Q., Zhang S.P, Xie SP, Norris J.R, Sun J.X, Jiang Y.X.  2019.  Observed variations of the atmospheric boundary layer and stratocumulus over a warm eddy in the Kuroshio Extension. 147:1581-1591.
    Abstract Summary:

    A research vessel sailing across a warm eddy in the Kuroshio Extension on 13 April 2016 captured an abrupt development of stratocumulus under synoptic high pressure. Shipboard observations and results from regional atmospheric model simulations indicate that increased surface heat flux over the ocean eddy lowered surface pressure and thereby accelerated southeasterly winds. The southeasterly winds transported moisture toward the low pressure...

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