Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

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  • Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs), intense water vapor transports associated with extra-tropical cyclones, frequently bring heavy rainfalls over mid-latitudes. Over East Asia, landfalling ARs result in major socio-economic impacts including widespread floods and landslides; for example, western Japan heavy rainfall in July 2018 killed more than 200 people. Using results of high-resolution atmospheric model ensemble simulations, we examine projected...

  • Abstract Summary:

    An extensive data set of measurements within the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas is used to characterize the optical properties of seawater associated with different phytoplankton communities. Hierarchical cluster analysis of diagnostic pigment concentrations partitioned stations into four distinct surface phytoplankton communities based on taxonomic composition and average cell size. Concurrent optical measurements of spectral absorption and...

  • Carter BR, Feely R.A, Wanninkhof R, Kouketsu S., Sonnerup R.E, Pardo P.C, Sabine C.L, Johnson G.C, Sloyan BM, Murata A. et al..  2019.  Pacific anthropogenic carbon between 1991 and 2017. 33:597-617.
    Abstract Summary:

    We estimate anthropogenic carbon (C-anth) accumulation rates in the Pacific Ocean between 1991 and 2017 from 14 hydrographic sections that have been occupied two to four times over the past few decades, with most sections having been recently measured as part of the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program. The rate of change of C-anth is estimated using a new method that combines the extended multiple linear regression...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Dissolved noble gases are ideal conservative tracers of physical processes in the Earth system due to their chemical and biological inertness. Although bulk concentrations of dissolved Ar, Kr, and Xe are commonly measured to constrain physical models of atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial hydrosphere processes, stable isotope ratios of these gases (e.g. Xe-136/Xe-129) are seldom used because of low signal-to-noise ratios. Here we present the...

  • Makarim S., Sprintall J, Liu Z, Yu W., Santoso A., Yan X.H, Susanto R.D.  2019.  Previously unidentified Indonesian Throughflow pathways and freshening in the Indian Ocean during recent decades. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The Earth has experienced a global surface warming slowdown (GSWS) or so-called "global warming hiatus" since the end of the 20th century. The GSWS was marked by a La Nina-like decadal cooling in the Pacific Ocean that subsequently generated an increase in the transfer of Pacific waters into the Indian Ocean via the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). How the Pacific water spreads through the interior of the Indian Ocean and the impact of these...

  • Bauman K.D, Li J., Murata K., Mantovani S.M, Dahesh S., Nizet V., Luhavaya H., Moore BS.  2019.  Refactoring the cryptic streptophenazine biosynthetic gene cluster unites phenazine, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide biochemistry. 26:724-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    The disconnect between the genomic prediction of secondary metabolite biosynthetic potential and the observed laboratory production profile of microorganisms is well documented. While heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) is often seen as a potential solution to bridge this gap, it is not immune to many challenges including impaired regulation, the inability to recruit essential building blocks, and transcriptional and/...

  • Cenci S., Sugihara G, Saavedra S..  2019.  Regularized S-map for inference and forecasting with noisy ecological time series. 10:650-660.
    Abstract Summary:

    It is well known that fluctuations of species abundances observed in ecological time series emerge from an interplay between deterministic nonlinear dynamics and stochastic forces. Importantly, nonlinearity and stochasticity introduce significant challenges to the analysis of ecological time series, such as the inference of the effect of species interactions on community dynamics and forecasting of species abundances. Local linear fits with...

  • Ramirez-Reyes C., Brauman K.A, Chaplin-Kramer R., Galford G.L, Adamo S.B, Anderson C.B, Anderson C., Allington G.RH, Bagstad K.J, Coe M.T et al..  2019.  Reimagining the potential of Earth observations for ecosystem service assessments. Science of the Total Environment. 665:1053-1063.
    Abstract Summary:

    The benefits nature provides to people, called ecosystem services, are increasingly recognized and accounted for in assessments of infrastructure development, agricultural management, conservation prioritization, and sustainable sourcing. These assessments are often limited by data, however, a gap with tremendous potential to be filled through Earth observations (EO), which produce a variety of data across spatial and temporal extents and...

  • Matusik K.E, Smith SGL.  2019.  The response of surface buoyancy flux-driven convection to localized mechanical forcing. Experiments in Fluids. 60
    Abstract Summary:

    We present laboratory experiments in which both a buoyancy and mechanical forcing are imposed on the surface of a rectangular tank filled with freshwater. The buoyancy forcing is generated by a saltwater source at the surface that drives a sinking half-line plume along one endwall, and the mechanical forcing is generated by a continuous flow of freshwater across the surface of the tank. A steady-state circulation is achieved when the...

  • Mackenzie B., Celliers L., Assad L.PD, Heymans J.J, Rome N., Thomas J., Anderson C., Behrens J., Calverley M., Desai K. et al..  2019.  The role of stakeholders in creating societal value from coastal and ocean observations. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The importance of stakeholder engagement in ocean observation and in particular the realization of economic and societal benefits is discussed, introducing a number of overarching principles such as the convergence on common goals, effective communication, co-production of information and knowledge and the need for innovation. A series of case studies examine the role of coordinating frameworks such as the United States' Interagency Ocean...

  • Anderson C.R, Berdalet E., Kudela R.M, Cusack C.K, Silke J., O'Rourke E., Dugan D., McCammon M., Newton J.A, Moore S.K et al..  2019.  Scaling up from regional case studies to a global Harmful Algal Bloom observing system. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) produce local impacts in nearly all freshwater and marine systems. They are a problem that occurs globally requiring an integrated and coordinated scientific understanding, leading to regional responses and solutions. Given that these natural phenomena will never be completely eliminated, an improved scientific understanding of HAB dynamics coupled with monitoring and ocean observations, facilitates new prediction...

  • Ross Z.E, Trugman D.T, Hauksson E., Shearer PM.  2019.  Searching for hidden earthquakes in Southern California. 364:767-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Earthquakes follow a well-known power-law size relation, with smaller events occurring much more often than larger events. Earthquake catalogs are thus dominated by small earthquakes yet are still missing a much larger number of even smaller events because of signal fidelity issues. To overcome these limitations, we applied a template-matching detection technique to the entire waveform archive of the regional seismic network in Southern...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The seasonal and interannual variability of photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) over the tropical oceans is examined using satellite imagery acquired from 1997 to 2017. Spatial and temporal biases between monthly PAR estimates from different instruments are determined and corrected, resulting in a consistent time series over the 20-year record. Uncertainty is evaluated in comparisons with in situ measurements at various sites....

  • Beguelin P., Bizimis M., McIntosh E.C, Cousens B., Clague D.A.  2019.  Sources vs processes: Unraveling the compositional heterogeneity of rejuvenated-type Hawaiian magmas. 514:119-129.
    Abstract Summary:

    Spatial isotope variations in oceanic island basalts hold clues to the geochemical structure of mantle plumes. This signal is however susceptible to contributions from non-plume sources and modifications by physical processing in the upper mantle, i.e. source hybridization and segregation through gradients in melting conditions. A comprehensive survey of lava isotope systematics is therefore necessary to reveal spatiotemporal patterns at the...

  • Page H.N, Courtney T.A, De Carlo E.H, Howins N.M, Koester I., Andersson AJ.  2019.  Spatiotemporal variability in seawater carbon chemistry for a coral reef flat in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i. 64:913-934.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coral reef community composition and ecosystem function may change in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification. However, the magnitude of acidification on reefs will be modified by natural spatial and temporal variability in seawater CO2 chemistry. Consequently, it is necessary to quantify the ecological, biogeochemical, and physical drivers of this natural variability before making robust predictions of future acidification on reefs. In...

  • Yadav V., Duren R., Mueller K., Verhulst K.R, Nehrkorn T., Kim J., Weiss RF, Keeling R., Sander S., Fischer M.L et al..  2019.  Spatio-temporally resolved methane fluxes from the Los Angeles megacity. 124:5131-5148.
    Abstract Summary:

    We combine sustained observations from a network of atmospheric monitoring stations with inverse modeling to uniquely obtain spatiotemporal (3-km, 4-day) estimates of methane emissions from the Los Angeles megacity and the broader South Coast Air Basin for 2015-2016. Our inversions use customized and validated high-fidelity meteorological output from Weather Research Forecasting and Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian model for South Coast...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Anatomical and physiological adaptations of animals to extreme environments provide insight into basic physiological principles and potential therapies for human disease. In that regard, the diving physiology of marine mammals and seabirds is especially relevant to pulmonary and cardiovascular function, and to the pathology and potential treatment of patients with hypoxaemia and/or ischaemia. This review highlights past and recent progress in...

  • Jagannathan A., Winters K., Armi L..  2019.  Stratified flows over and around long dynamically tall mountain ridges. 76:1265-1287.
    Abstract Summary:

    Uniformly stratified flows approaching long and dynamically tall ridges develop two distinct flow components over disparate time scales. The fluid upstream and below a "blocking level" is stagnant in the limit of an infinite ridge and flows around the sides when the ridge extent is finite. The streamwise half-width of the obstacle at the blocking level arises as a natural inner length scale for the flow, while the excursion time over this...

  • Hopkins J.E, Holliday N.P, Rayner D., Houpert L., Le Bras I., Straneo F, Wilson C., Bacon S..  2019.  Transport variability of the Irminger Sea deep western boundary current from a mooring array. 124:3246-3278.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Deep Western Boundary Current in the subpolar North Atlantic is the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and a key component of the global climate system. Here, a mooring array deployed at 60 degrees N in the Irminger Sea, between 2014 and 2016, provides the longest continuous record of total Deep Western Boundary Current volume transport at this latitude. The 1.8-year averaged transport of water denser than sigma...

  • McCormick L.R, Levin L.A, Oesch N.W.  2019.  Vision is highly sensitive to oxygen availability in marine invertebrate larvae. 222
    Abstract Summary:

    For many animals, evolution has selected for complex visual systems despite the high energetic demands associated with maintaining eyes and their processing structures. Therefore, the metabolic demands of visual systems make them highly sensitive to fluctuations in available oxygen. In the marine environment, oxygen changes over daily, seasonal and inter-annual time scales, and there are large gradients of oxygen with depth. Vision is linked...

  • Glotfelty T., Alapaty K., He J., Hawbecker P., Song X.L, Zhang G..  2019.  The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (WRF-ACI): Development, evaluation, and initial application. 147:1491-1511.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Aerosol-Cloud Interactions (WRF-ACI) is developed for studying aerosol effects on gridscale and subgrid-scale clouds using common aerosol activation and ice nucleation formulations and double-moment cloud microphysics in a scale-aware subgrid-scale parameterization scheme. Comparisons of both the standard WRF and WRF-ACI models' results for a summer season against satellite and reanalysis...

  • Williams C.L, Sato K., Ponganis P.J.  2019.  Activity, not submergence, explains diving heart rates of captive loggerhead sea turtles. Journal of Experimental Biology. 222
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine turtles spend their life at sea and can rest on the seafloor for hours. As air-breathers, the breath-hold capacity of marine turtles is a function of oxygen (O-2) stores, O-2 consumption during dives and hypoxia tolerance. However, some physiological adaptations to diving observed in mammals are absent in marine turtles. This study examined cardiovascular responses in loggerhead sea turtles, which have even fewer adaptations to diving...

  • Tayler N.M, Boya C.A, Herrera L., Moy J., Ng M., Pineda L., Almanza A., Rosero S., Coronado L.M, Correa R. et al..  2019.  Analysis of the antiparasitic and anticancer activity of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L. ARECACEAE) from the natural reserve of Punta Patino, Darien. Plos One. 14
    Abstract Summary:

    Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) (the coconut palm tree) has been traditionally used to fight a number of human diseases, but only a few studies have tested its components against parasites such as those that cause malaria. In this study, C. nucifera samples were collected from a private natural reserve in Punta Patino, Darien, Panama. The husk, leaves, pulp, and milk of C. nucifera were extracted and evaluated against the parasites that cause...

  • Ralph FM, Wilson A.M, Shulgina T., Kawzenuk B., Sellars S., Rutz J.J, Lamjiri M.A, Barnes E.A, Gershunov A, Guan B. et al..  2019.  ARTMIP-early start comparison of atmospheric river detection tools: how many atmospheric rivers hit northern California's Russian River watershed? Climate Dynamics. 52:4973-4994.
    Abstract Summary:

    Many atmospheric river detection tools (ARDTs) have now been developed. However, their relative performance is not well documented. This paper compares a diverse set of ARDTs by applying them to a single location where a unique 12-year-long time-series from an atmospheric river observatory at Bodega Bay, California is available. The study quantifies the sensitivity of the diagnosed number, duration, and intensity of ARs at this location to...

  • Martinez-Ruiz F., Paytam A., Gonzalez-Munoz M.T, Jroundi F., Abad M.M, Lam P.J, Bishop J.KB, Horner T.J, Morton P.L, Kastner M..  2019.  Barite formation in the ocean: Origin of amorphous and crystalline precipitates. Chemical Geology. 511:441-451.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean export production is a key constituent in the global carbon cycle impacting climate. Past ocean export production is commonly estimated by means of barite and Barium proxies. However, the precise mechanisms underlying barite precipitation in the undersaturated marine water column are not fully understood. Here we present a detailed mineralogical and crystallographic analysis of barite from size-fractionated particulate material...

  • Diaz-Isaac L.I, Lauvaux T., Bocquet M., Davis K.J.  2019.  Calibration of a multi-physics ensemble for estimating the uncertainty of a greenhouse gas atmospheric transport model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 19:5695-5718.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric inversions have been used to assess biosphere-atmosphere CO2 surface exchanges at various scales, but variability among inverse flux estimates remains significant, especially at continental scales. Atmospheric transport errors are one of the main contributors to this variability. To characterize transport errors and their spatiotemporal structures, we present an objective method to generate a calibrated ensemble adjusted with...

  • Poudel S., Tsunemoto H., Meehan M., Szubin R., Olson C.A, Lamsa A., Seif Y., Dillon N., Vrbanac A., Sugie J. et al..  2019.  Characterization of CA-MRSA TCH1516 exposed to nafcillin in bacteriological and physiological media. Scientific Data. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Cation adjusted-Mueller Hinton Broth (CA-MHB) is the standard bacteriological medium utilized in the clinic for the determination of antibiotic susceptibility. However, a growing number of literature has demonstrated that media conditions can cause a substantial difference in the efficacy of antibiotics and antimicrobials. Recent studies have also shown that minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests performed in standard cell culture media...

  • Sielaff A.C, Urbaniak C., Mohan G.BM, Stepanov V.G, Tran Q., Wood J.M, Minich J., McDonald D., Mayer T., Knight R. et al..  2019.  Characterization of the total and viable bacterial and fungal communities associated with the International Space Station surfaces. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    BackgroundThe International Space Station (ISS) is a closed system inhabited by microorganisms originating from life support systems, cargo, and crew that are exposed to unique selective pressures such as microgravity. To date, mandatory microbial monitoring and observational studies of spacecraft and space stations have been conducted by traditional culture methods, although it is known that many microbes cannot be cultured with standard...

  • Shearer PM, Abercrombie R.E, Trugman D.T, Wang W..  2019.  Comparing EGF methods for estimating corner frequency and stress drop from p wave spectra. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 124:3966-3986.
    Abstract Summary:

    Empirical Green's functions (EGFs) are widely applied to correct earthquake spectra for attenuation and other path effects in order to estimate corner frequencies and stress drops, but these source parameter estimates often exhibit poor agreement between different studies. We examine this issue by analyzing a compact cluster of over 3,000 aftershocks of the 1992 Landers earthquake. We apply and compare two different analysis and modeling...

  • Gopalakrishnan G, Hoteit I., Cornuelle BD, Rudnick D.L.  2019.  Comparison of 4DVAR and EnKF state estimates and forecasts in the Gulf of Mexico. 145:1354-1376.
    Abstract Summary:

    An experiment is conducted to compare four-dimensional variational (4DVAR) and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) assimilation systems and their predictability in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). The quality of the ocean-state estimates, forecasts, and the contribution of ensemble prediction are evaluated. The MITgcm-Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (...

  • Jenkins W.J, Doney SC, Fendrock M., Fine R., Gamo T., Jean-Baptiste P., Key R., Klein B., Lupton J.E, Newton R. et al..  2019.  A comprehensive global oceanic dataset of helium isotope and tritium measurements. Earth System Science Data. 11:441-454.
    Abstract Summary:

    Tritium and helium isotope data provide key information on ocean circulation, ventilation, and mixing, as well as the rates of biogeochemical processes and deep-ocean hydrothermal processes. We present here global oceanic datasets of tritium and helium isotope measurements made by numerous researchers and laboratories over a period exceeding 60 years. The dataset's DOI is https://doi.org/10.25921/...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The encounter and capture of bacteria and phytoplankton by microbial predators and parasites is fundamental to marine ecosystem organization and activity. Here, we combined classic biophysical models with published laboratory measurements to infer functional traits, including encounter kernel and capture efficiency, for a wide range of marine viruses and microzooplankton grazers. Despite virus particles being orders of magnitude smaller than...

  • Martin A.C, Cornwell G., Beall C.M, Cannon F., Reilly S., Schaap B., Lucero D., Creamean J., Ralph FM, Mix H.T et al..  2019.  Contrasting local and long-range-transported warm ice-nucleating particles during an atmospheric river in coastal California, USA. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 19:4193-4210.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have been found to influence the amount, phase and efficiency of precipitation from winter storms, including atmospheric rivers. Warm INPs, those that initiate freezing at temperatures warmer than -10 degrees C, are thought to be particularly impactful because they can create primary ice in mixed-phase clouds, enhancing precipitation efficiency. The dominant sources of warm INPs during atmospheric rivers, the...

  • Johnson L.E, Kingsbury J.S, Elder D.L, Cattolico R.A, Latimer L.N, Hardin W., De Meulenaere E., Deodato C., Depotter G., Madabushi S. et al..  2019.  DANPY (dimethylaminonaphthylpyridinium): an economical and biocompatible fluorophore. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 17:3765-3780.
    Abstract Summary:

    Dyes with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties enable new imaging techniques and photonic systems. We have developed a dye (DANPY-1) for photonics applications in biological substrates such as nucleic acids; however, the design specification also enables it to be used for visualizing biomolecules. It is a prototype dye demonstrating a water-soluble, NLO-active fluorophore with high photostability, a large Stokes shift, and a favorable toxicity...

  • Tamsitt V., Talley LD, Mazloff MR.  2019.  A deep eastern boundary current carrying Indian deep water south of Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 124:2218-2238.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the Southern Hemisphere, the ocean's deep waters are predominantly transported from low to high latitudes via boundary currents. In addition to the Deep Western Boundary Currents, pathways along the eastern boundaries of the southern Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific transport deep water poleward into the Southern Ocean where these waters upwell to the sea surface. These deep eastern boundary currents and their physical drivers are not well...

  • Tuttle R.N, Demko A.M, Patin NV, Kapono C.A, Donia M.S, Dorrestein P., Jensen PR.  2019.  Detection of natural products and their producers in ocean sediments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 85
    Abstract Summary:

    Thousands of natural products have been identified from cultured microorganisms, yet evidence of their production in the environment has proven elusive. Technological advances in mass spectrometry, combined with public data-bases, now make it possible to address this disparity by detecting compounds directly from environmental samples. Here, we used adsorbent resins, tandem mass spectrometry, and next-generation sequencing to assess the...

  • Kelly LW, Nelson CE, Haas AF, Naliboff D.S, Calhoun S., Carlson CA, Edwards R.A, Fox M.D, Hatay M., Johnson M.D et al..  2019.  Diel population and functional synchrony of microbial communities on coral reefs. Nature Communications. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    On coral reefs, microorganisms are essential for recycling nutrients to primary producers through the remineralization of benthic-derived organic matter. Diel investigations of reef processes are required to holistically understand the functional roles of microbial players in these ecosystems. Here we report a metagenomic analysis characterizing microbial communities in the water column overlying 16 remote forereef sites over a diel cycle....

  • Cerovecki I, Meijers A.JS, Mazloff MR, Gille ST, Tamsitt V.M, Holland P.R.  2019.  The effects of enhanced sea ice export from the Ross Sea on recent cooling and freshening of the Southeast Pacific. Journal of Climate. 32:2013-2035.
    Abstract Summary:

    The top 2000 m of the Southern Ocean has freshened and warmed over recent decades. However, the high-latitude (south of 50 degrees S) southeast Pacific was observed to be cooler and fresher in the years 2008-10 compared to 2005-07 over a wide depth range including surface, mode, and intermediate waters. The causes and impacts of this event are analyzed using the ocean-sea ice data-assimilating Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) and...

  • Lelieveld J., Klingmuller K., Pozzer A., Burnett R.T, Haines A., Ramanathan V.  2019.  Effects of fossil fuel and total anthropogenic emission removal on public health and climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116:7192-7197.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols are associated with climate change and human health risks. We used a global model to estimate the climate and public health outcomes attributable to fossil fuel use, indicating the potential benefits of a phaseout. We show that it can avoid an excess mortality rate of 3.61 (2.96-4.21) million per year from outdoor air pollution worldwide. This could be up to 5.55 (4.52-6.52) million per year by...

  • Day JMD, Corder CA, Assayag N, Cartigny P.  2019.  Ferrous oxide-rich asteroid achondrites. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ferrous oxide (FeO)-rich asteroid achondrites can be defined as asteroid-derived samples that experienced incipient partial melting processes in the early Solar System (>4.5 Ga) leading to melt-residues and cumulate and melt rocks that have high FeO in silicate grains (molar Mg/[Mg + Fe] < 80), implying relatively oxidative conditions (fO2 of IW +1 to +3). These achondrites include olivine-dominated brachinite and brachinite-like...

  • Barry PH, de Moor JM, Giovannelli D., Schrenk M., Hummer D.R, Lopez T., Pratt C.A, Segura Y.A, Battaglia A., Beaudry P. et al..  2019.  Forearc carbon sink reduces long-term volatile recycling into the mantle. Nature. 568:487-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbon and other volatiles in the form of gases, fluids or mineral phases are transported from Earth's surface into the mantle at convergent margins, where the oceanic crust subducts beneath the continental crust. The efficiency of this transfer has profound implications for the nature and scale of geochemical heterogeneities in Earth's deep mantle and shallow crustal reservoirs, as well as Earth's oxidation state. However, the proportions of...

  • Lombard F., Boss E., Waite AM, Vogt M., Uitz J., Stemmann L., Sosik H.M, Schulz J., Romagnan J.B, Picheral M. et al..  2019.  Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general-and plankton in particular-in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and...

  • Biedermann A.R, Bilardella D., Jackson M., Tauxe L, Feinberg JM.  2019.  Grain-size-dependent remanence anisotropy and its implications for paleodirections and paleointensities - Proposing a new approach to anisotropy corrections. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 512:111-123.
    Abstract Summary:

    Paleomagnetic data provide information on the evolution of the Earth's magnetic field, and are used to reconstruct plate motions. One fundamental assumption underlying these interpretations is that the magnetization of a rock reliably records the direction and intensity of the magnetizing field, i.e. that the magnetization is parallel to the field direction, and the intensity of magnetization is proportional to the field strength. Preferred...

  • Sahakian V.J, Baltay A., Hanks T.C, Buehler J., Vernon FL, Kilb D., Abrahamson N.A.  2019.  Ground motion residuals, path effects, and crustal properties: A pilot study in Southern California. 124:5738-5753.
    Abstract Summary:

    Abstract To improve models of ground motion estimation and probabilistic seismic hazard analyses, the engineering seismology field is moving toward developing fully nonergodic ground motion models, models specific for individual source-to-site paths. Previous work on this topic has examined systematic variations in ground-motion along particular paths (from either recorded or simulated earthquake data) and has not included physical properties...

  • Gutierrez-Rodriguez A., Stukel M.R, Santos A.L dos, Biard T., Scharek R., Vaulot D., Landry MR, Not F..  2019.  High contribution of Rhizaria (Radiolaria) to vertical export in the California Current Ecosystem revealed by DNA metabarcoding. Isme Journal. 13:964-976.
    Abstract Summary:

    Passive sinking of particulate organic matter (POM) is the main mechanism through which the biological pump transports surface primary production to the ocean interior. However, the contribution and variability of different biological sources to vertical export is not fully understood. Here, we use DNA metabarcoding of the 18S rRNA gene and particle interceptor traps (PITs) to characterize the taxonomic composition of particles sinking out of...

  • Chyderiotis S., Beck F., Andler R., Hitchman S.C, Benmarhnia T..  2019.  How to reduce biases coming from a before and after design: the impact of the 2007-08 French smoking ban policy. 29:372-377.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: Smoke-free laws aim at protecting against second-hand smoke and at contributing to change smoking behaviors. Impact evaluation studies can help understand to what extent they reach their goals. Simple before and after designs are often used but cannot isolate the effect of the policy of interest. Methods: The short-term impact of the French smoking ban (2007-08) on smoking behavior outcomes was evaluated among smokers with data...

  • Green H., Bailey J., Schwarz L., Vanos J., Ebi K., Benmarhnia T..  2019.  Impact of heat on mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries: A review of the epidemiological evidence and considerations for future research. Environmental Research. 171:80-91.
    Abstract Summary:

    Heat waves and high air temperature are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the majority of research conducted on this topic is focused on high income areas of the world. Although heat waves have the most severe impacts on vulnerable populations, relatively few studies have studied their impacts in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The aim of this paper is to review the existing evidence in the literature on the...

  • Spydell M.S, Feddersen F, Suanda S..  2019.  Inhomogeneous turbulent dispersion across the nearshore induced by surfzone eddies. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 49:1015-1034.
    Abstract Summary:

    In various oceanic regions, drifter-derived diffusivities reach a temporal maximum and subsequently decrease. Often, these are regions of inhomogeneous eddies, however, the effect of inhomogeneous turbulence on dispersion is poorly understood. The nearshore region (spanning from the surfzone to the inner shelf) also has strong cross-shore inhomogeneous turbulence. Nearshore Lagrangian statistics are estimated from drifter trajectories...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Due to advances in technology, routine seawater pH measurements of excellent repeatability are becoming increasingly common for studying the ocean CO2 system. However, the accuracy of pH measurements has come into question due to a widespread observation, from a large number of carefully calibrated state-of-the-art CO2 measurements on various cruises, of there being a significant pH-dependent discrepancy between pH that was measured...

  • McNamara D.E, Cortale N., Edwards C., Eynaud Y., Sandin SA.  2019.  Insights into coral reef benthic dynamics from nonlinear spatial forecasting. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Nonlinear time-series forecasting, or empirical dynamic modelling, has been used extensively in the past two decades as a tool for distinguishing between random temporal behaviour and nonlinear deterministic dynamics. Previous authors have extended nonlinear time-series forecasting to continuous spatial data. Here, we adjust spatial forecasting to handle discrete data and apply the technique to explore the ubiquity of nonlinear determinism in...

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