Recent Publications

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Aquatic versus terrestrial crab skeletal support: morphology, mechanics, molting and scaling

Impact:

Crabs have many adaptations to life on land that reflect the physical, chemical and biological challenges of the terrestrial environment (Bliss and Mantel, 1968), yet they do not appear to require biomechanical adaptations of exoskeletal support. Comparison of the morphology and mechanics of walking leg meropodites from a highly aquatic species and a highly terrestrial species of crabs revealed no significant differences between them. In contrast, the hydrostatic skeleton used during molting differs between the two species, with higher internal pressure, higher stress and a lower cuticle thickness scaling exponent for land crabs. In the hydrostatic phase, both species experience significant decreases in locomotor performance as they grow to larger sizes, with scale effects being more dramatic in the terrestrial crabs.

The alternating use of two different skeletal support mechanisms presents additional complications for understanding how body size relates to skeletal morphology and function. Rigid and hydrostatic skeletons function by different mechanisms and are affected by scale in different ways. Thus, the two skeletons influence crab growth independently. In order to grow to a larger size, crabs must first successfully undergo ecdysis. If the hydrostatic animal cannot support its own weight and shape, severe deformations may occur that will compromise the hardened skeleton. Thus, the hydrostatic stage may present the more limiting stage, as suggested by Kennedy (1927) for why insects are limited to small size. Whether or not this is the case, the hydrostatic skeleton used by crabs during molting should be recognized as a biomechanical feature of significant importance in the growth to maximum size of crabs and their successful transition to land.

Search Recent Publications

  • Palóczy A, Gille ST, McClean JL.  2018.  Oceanic heat delivery to the Antarctic continental shelf: Large-scale, low-frequency variability. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
    Abstract Summary:

    Onshore penetration of oceanic water across the Antarctic continental slope (ACS) plays a major role in global sea level rise by delivering heat to the Antarctic marginal seas, thus contributing to the basal melting of ice shelves. Here, the time-mean (Φmean) and eddy (Φeddy) components of the heat transport (Φ) across the 1000 m isobath along the entire ACS are investigated using a 0.1° global coupled ocean/sea ice simulation based on the...

  • Vashishtha D., Sieber W., Hailey B., Guirguis K., Gershunov A, Al-Delaimy W.K.  2018.  Outpatient clinic visits during heat waves: findings from a large family medicine clinical database. 35:567-570.
    Abstract Summary:

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether heat waves are associated with increased frequency of clinic visits for ICD-9 codes of illnesses traditionally associated with heat waves. Methods. During 4 years of family medicine clinic data between 2012 and 2016, we identified six heat wave events in San Diego County. For each heat wave event, we selected a control period in the same season that was twice as long. Scheduling...

  • Zhang Y., Xie SP, Kosaka Y, Yang J.C.  2018.  Pacific decadal oscillation: Tropical Pacific forcing versus internal variability. Journal of Climate. 31:8265-8279.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is the leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) variability over the North Pacific (north of 20 degrees N). Its South Pacific counterpart (south of 20 degrees S) is the South Pacific decadal oscillation (SPDO). The effects of tropical eastern Pacific (TEP) SST forcing and internal atmospheric variability are investigated for both the PDO and SPDO using a 10-member ensemble tropical Pacific pacemaker...

  • Avery M.S, Gee J.S, Bowles J.A, Jackson M.J.  2018.  Paleointensity estimates from ignimbrites: The Bishop Tuff Revisited. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:3811-3831.
    Abstract Summary:

    Volcanic ash flow tuffs (ignimbrites) may contain single domain-sized (titano) magnetite that should be good for recording geomagnetic field intensity, but due to their complex thermal histories also contain other magnetic grains, which can complicate and obscure paleointensity determination. An initial study of the suitability of the similar to 767ka Bishop Tuff for measuring paleointensity found an internally consistent estimate of 43.03.2T...

  • Podell S, Blanton JM, Neu A, Agarwal V, Biggs JS, Moore BS, Allen EE.  2018.  Pangenomic comparison of globally distributed Poribacteria associated with sponge hosts and marine particles.
    Abstract Summary:

    Candidatus Poribacteria is a little-known bacterial phylum, previously characterized by partial genomes from a single sponge host, but never isolated in culture. We have reconstructed multiple genome sequences from four different sponge genera and compared them to recently reported, uncharacterized Poribacteria genomes from the open ocean, discovering shared and unique functional characteristics. Two distinct, habitat-linked taxonomic...

  • Coppola U., Caccavale F., Scelzo M., Holland N.D, Ristoratore F., D'Aniello S..  2018.  Ran GTPase, an eukaryotic gene novelty, is involved in amphioxus mitosis. Plos One. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    Ran (ras-related nuclear protein) is a small GTPase belonging to the RAS superfamily that is specialized in nuclear trafficking. Through different accessory proteins, Ran plays key roles in several processes including nuclear import-export, mitotic progression and spindle assembly. Consequently, Ran dysfunction has been linked to several human pathologies. This work illustrates the high degree of amino acid conservation of Ran orthologues...

  • Byun G., Song HC, Kim J.S, Park J.S.  2018.  Real-time tracking of a surface ship using a bottom-mounted horizontal array. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:2375-2382.
    Abstract Summary:

    The cascade of blind deconvolution and array invariant has been successful to localize and track a surface ship radiating random waveforms, using a 56-m long vertical array in 100-m deep shallow water. In this paper, it is shown that a 60-m long, bottom-mounted horizontal array can be utilized for blind deconvolution to extract the Green's functions from the same ship (100-800 Hz), in conjunction with the array invariant for source-range...

  • Kauer K., Bellquist L., Gleason M., Rubinstein A., Sullivan J., Oberhoff D., Damrosch L., Norvell M., Bell M..  2018.  Reducing bycatch through a risk pool: A case study of the US West Coast groundfish fishery. Marine Policy. 96:90-99.
    Abstract Summary:

    Voluntary collective agreements among fishermen can improve the environmental and economic performance of a fishery, particularly when local leadership, strong incentives, catch accountability, and operational support are in place. Rights-based fisheries, such as Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) systems, incentivize fishermen to act collectively to reduce fishing impacts, enhance stock health, and improve economic outcomes. However, developing...

  • Knowles N., Cronkite-Ratcliff C., Pierce DW, Cayan DR.  2018.  Responses of unimpaired flows, storage, and managed flows to scenarios of climate change in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Watershed. Water Resources Research. 54:7631-7650.
    Abstract Summary:

    Projections of meteorology downscaled from global climate model runs were used to drive a model of unimpaired hydrology of the Sacramento/San Joaquin watershed, which in turn drove models of operational responses and managed flows. Twenty daily climate change scenarios for water years 1980-2099 were evaluated with the goal of producing inflow boundary conditions for a watershed sediment model and for a hydrodynamical model of the San...

  • Nadler L.E, Killen S.S, Domenici P., McCormick M.I.  2018.  Role of water flow regime in the swimming behaviour and escape performance of a schooling fish. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    Animals are exposed to variable and rapidly changing environmental flow conditions, such as wind in terrestrial habitats and currents in aquatic systems. For fishes, previous work suggests that individuals exhibit flow-induced changes in aerobic swimming performance. Yet, no one has examined whether similar plasticity is found in fast-start escape responses, which are modulated by anaerobic swimming performance, sensory stimuli and neural...

  • Kilpatrick T, Xie S-P, Miller AJ, Schneider N.  2018.  Satellite observations of enhanced chlorophyll variability in the Southern California Bight. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 123:7550-7563.
    Abstract Summary:

    Satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor reveal a “tongue” of elevated near-surface chlorophyll that extends into the Southern California Bight from Point Conception. A local chlorophyll maximum at the western edge of the bight, near the Santa Rosa Ridge, indicates that the chlorophyll is not solely due to advection from Point Conception but is enhanced by local...

  • Pickett E.P, Fraser W.R, Patterson-Fraser D.L, Cimino M.A, Torres L.G, Friedlaender A.S.  2018.  Spatial niche partitioning may promote coexistence of Pygoscelis penguins as climate-induced sympatry occurs. Ecology and Evolution. 8:9764-9778.
    Abstract Summary:

    Climate-induced range overlap can result in novel interactions between similar species and potentially lead to competitive exclusion. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth and is experiencing a poleward climate migration from a polar to subpolar environment. This has resulted in a range expansion of the ice-intolerant gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) and a coincident decrease in ice-obligate...

  • Leung K., Subramanian AC, Shen S.SP.  2018.  Statistical characteristics of long-term high-resolution precipitable water vapor data at Darwin. Advances in Data Science and Adaptive Analysis. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of a unique long-term high-resolution precipitable water vapor (PWV) data set at Darwin, Australia, from 12 March 2002 to 28 February 2011. To understand the convective precipitation processes for climate model development, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program made high-frequency radar observations of PWV at the Darwin ARM site and released the best...

  • Lee C.TA, Erdman M., Yang W.B, Ingram L., Chin E.J, DePaolo D.J.  2018.  Sulfur isotopic compositions of deep arc cumulates. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 500:76-85.
    Abstract Summary:

    Heavy sulfur isotopic compositions of arc lavas suggest a seawater component in the sulfur budget of arc lavas, but whether the seawater signature derives from the subducting slab or from magma interactions with lithologies in the upper plate is unclear. To see through the effects of degassing or crustal processing, a study was conducted on the S isotopic composition of deep arc cumulates from 45-90 km beneath the Sierra Nevada batholith in...

  • Xu X.H, Ward L.A, Jiang J.L, Smith-Konter B, Tymofyeyeva E., Lindsey EO, Sylvester A.G, Sandwell DT.  2018.  Surface creep rate of the southern San Andreas Fault modulated by stress perturbations from nearby large events. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:10259-10268.
    Abstract Summary:

    A major challenge for understanding the physics of shallow fault creep has been to observe and model the long-term effect of stress changes on creep rate. Here we investigate the surface creep along the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) using data from interferometric synthetic aperture radar spanning over 25 years (ERS 1992-1999, ENVISAT 2003-2010, and Sentinel-1 2014-present). The main result of this analysis is that the average surface...

  • Sibert E., Friedman M., Hull P., Hunt G., Norris R..  2018.  Two pulses of morphological diversification in Pacific pelagic fishes following the Cretaceous - Palaeogene mass extinction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 285
    Abstract Summary:

    Molecular phylogenies suggest some major radiations of open-ocean fish clades occurred roughly coincident with the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary, however the timing and nature of this diversification is poorly constrained. Here, we investigate evolutionary patterns in ray-finned fishes across the K/Pg mass extinction 66 million years ago (Ma), using microfossils (isolated teeth) preserved in a South Pacific sediment core spanning 72-...

  • Barron ME, Thies AB, Espinoza JA, Barott KL, Hamdoun A, Tresguerres M.  2018.  A vesicular Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in coral calcifying cells. Plos One. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    The calcium carbonate skeletons of corals provide the underlying structure of coral reefs; however, the cellular mechanisms responsible for coral calcification remain poorly understood. In osteoblasts from vertebrate animals, a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) present in the plasma membrane transports Ca2+ to the site of bone formation. The aims of this study were to establish whether NCX exists in corals and its localization within coral cells,...

  • Nematollahi N., Kolev S.D, Steinemann A..  2018.  Volatile chemical emissions from essential oils. Air Quality Atmosphere and Health. 11:949-954.
    Abstract Summary:

    Essential oils, widely used in society, emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some of these VOCs are considered as potentially hazardous under federal regulations. However, essential oils are exempt from disclosure of their ingredients on their label. Thus, the public may lack information on emissions and potential hazards from essential oils. This study examined VOCs emitted from a range of commercial essential oils, including tea...

  • Zhou Q., Hu J.S, Liu L.J, Chaparro T., Stegman DR, Faccenda M..  2018.  Western US seismic anisotropy revealing complex mantle dynamics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 500:156-167.
    Abstract Summary:

    The origin of the complex pattern of SKS splitting over the western United States (U.S.) remains a long-lasting debate, where a model that simultaneously matches the various SKS features is still lacking. Here we present a series of quantitative geodynamic models with data assimilation that systematically evaluate the influence of different lithospheric and mantle structures on mantle flow and seismic anisotropy. These tests reveal a...

  • Carranza M.M, Gille ST, Franks PJS, Johnson K.S, Pinkel R, Girton J.B.  2018.  When mixed layers are not mixed. Storm-driven mixing and bio-optical vertical gradients in mixed layers of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:7264-7289.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mixed layers are defined to have homogeneous density, temperature, and salinity. However, bio-optical profiles may not always be fully homogenized within the mixed layer. The relative timescales of mixing and biological processes determine whether bio-optical gradients can form within a uniform density mixed layer. Vertical profiles of bio-optical measurements from biogeochemical Argo floats and elephant seal tags in the Southern Ocean are...

  • Viglione G.A, Thompson A.F, Flexas M.M, Sprintall J, Swart S..  2018.  Abrupt transitions in submesoscale structure in Southern Drake Passage: Glider observations and model results. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 48:2011-2027.
    Abstract Summary:

    Enhanced vertical velocities associated with submesoscale motions may rapidly modify mixed layer depths and increase exchange between the mixed layer and the ocean interior. These dynamics are of particular importance in the Southern Ocean, where the ventilation of many density classes occurs. Here we present results from an observational field program in southern Drake Passage, a region preconditioned for submesoscale instability owing to...

  • Richards EL, Song H.C, Hodgkiss W.S.  2018.  Acoustic scattering comparison of Kirchhoff approximation to Rayleigh-Fourier method for sinusoidal surface waves at low grazing angles. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1269-1278.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Fourier series method for implementing the Rayleigh hypothesis [Rayleigh-Fourier method (RFM)] is used as a reference solution to assess the Kirchhoff approximation of the Helmholtz integral [Helmholtz-Kirchhoff approximation (HKA)] for modeling broadband scatter from sinusoidal surfaces at low grazing angles. The HKA is a valuable solution because it has an eigen-ray interpretation without unbounded caustic amplitudes and discontinuous...

  • Gray A.R, Johnson K.S, Bushinsky S.M, Riser S.C, Russell J.L, Talley LD, Wanninkhof R, Williams N.L, Sarmiento J.L.  2018.  Autonomous biogeochemical floats detect significant carbon dioxide outgassing in the high-latitude Southern Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:9049-9057.
    Abstract Summary:

    Although the Southern Ocean is thought to account for a significant portion of the contemporary oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2), flux estimates in this region are based on sparse observations that are strongly biased toward summer. Here we present new estimates of Southern Ocean air-sea CO2 fluxes calculated with measurements from biogeochemical profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and...

  • Valletta R.D, Willenbring J.K, Passchier S, Elmi C..  2018.  Be-10/Be-9 ratios reflect Antarctic ice sheet freshwater discharge during Pliocene warming. 33:934-944.
    Abstract Summary:

    Along glaciated margins, ratios of meteoric cosmogenic beryllium-10, Be-10, normalized to its stable isotope, Be-9, reflect an environmental signal, driven ultimately by climatic change. We explore the application of this isotopic pair as a proxy for East Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics. We analyze Be-10/Be-9 in middle Pliocene glaciomarine sediments offshore the Wilkes Land Region (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1361A) and...

  • Highlighted Publication Colorized blending of pseudu nitzschia and data
    Brunson JK, McKinnie SMK, Chekan JR, McCrow JP, Miles ZD, Bertrand EM, Bielinski VA, Luhavaya H, Oborník M, G. Smith J et al..  2018.  Biosynthesis of the neurotoxin domoic acid in a bloom-forming diatom. Science. 361:1356-1358.
    Abstract Summary:

    Algal blooms can devastate marine mammal communities through the production of neurotoxins that accumulate within the food web. Brunson et al. identified a cluster of genes associated with biosynthesis of the neurotoxin domoic acid in a marine diatom (see the Perspective by Pohnert et al.). In vitro experiments established a series of enzymes that create the core structure of the toxin. Knowledge of the genes involved in domoic acid...

  • Saturno J., Holanda B.A, Pohlker C., Ditas F., Wang Q.Q, Moran-Zuloaga D., Brito J., Carbone S., Cheng Y.F, Chi X.G et al..  2018.  Black and brown carbon over central Amazonia: long-term aerosol measurements at the ATTO site. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:12817-12843.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Amazon rainforest is a sensitive ecosystem experiencing the combined pressures of progressing deforestation and climate change. Its atmospheric conditions oscillate between biogenic and biomass burning (BB) dominated states. The Amazon further represents one of the few remaining continental places where the atmosphere approaches pristine conditions during occasional wet season episodes. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been...

  • Yuan Z, Richards EL, Song HC, Hodgkiss WS, Yan S.  2018.  Calibration of vertical array tilt using snapping shrimp sound. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1203-1210.
    Abstract Summary:

    Snapping shrimp are the dominant biological source of high-frequency (>2 kHz) ambient noise in warm coastal waters. In a recent experiment, the highly impulsive signals produced by shrimp snaps were recorded continually by a large-aperture vertical array (56 m) that was bottom-moored in 100-m deep shallow water. Assuming the array vertical, initial localization of individual snaps based on wavefront curvature along the array indicated that...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study examines changes in Earth's energy budget during and after the global warming pause (or hiatus) using observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System. We find a marked 0.83 +/- 0.41 Wm(-2) reduction in global mean reflected shortwave (SW) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux during the three years following the hiatus that results in an increase in net energy into the climate system. A partial radiative perturbation...

  • Kravitz B., Rasch PJ, Wang HL, Robock A., Gabriel C., Boucher O., Cole J.NS, Haywood J., Ji D.Y, Jones A. et al..  2018.  The climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineering. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:13097-13113.
    Abstract Summary:

    Geoengineering, or climate intervention, describes methods of deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. As an idealized representation of near-surface solar geoengineering over the ocean, such as marine cloud brightening, this paper discusses experiment Glocean-albedo of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), involving an abrupt quadrupling of the CO2 concentration and an...

  • Wilson A., Scott R.C, Cadeddu M.P, Ghate V., Lubin D..  2018.  Cloud optical properties over West Antarctica from shortwave spectroradiometer measurements during AWARE. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:9559-9570.
    Abstract Summary:

    A shortwave spectroradiometer was deployed on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). This instrument recorded 1-min averages of downwelling hemispheric spectral irradiance covering the wavelength range 350-2,200nm with spectral resolution 3 and 10nm for wavelengths shorter and longer than 1,000nm, respectively...

  • Fleming A.H, Yack T., Redfern JV, Becker EA, Moore TJ, Barlow J.  2018.  Combining acoustic and visual detections in habitat models of Dall's porpoise. Ecological Modelling. 384:198-208.
    Abstract Summary:

    Habitat-based distribution modelling is an established method for predicting species distributions and is necessary for many conservation and management applications. Cetacean habitat models have primarily been developed using data from visual surveys. However, numerous techniques exist for detecting animal presence and each capture a portion of the true population. Combining detection data gathered from multiple survey methods, such as...

  • Lunt M.F, Park S., Li S., Henne S., Manning A.J, Ganesan A.L, Simpson I.J, Blake D.R, Liang Q., O'Doherty S et al..  2018.  Continued emissions of the ozone-depleting substance carbon tetrachloride from Eastern Asia. Geophysical Research Letters.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, accounting for about 10% of the chlorine in the troposphere. Under the terms of the Montreal Protocol, its production for dispersive uses was banned from 2010. In this work we show that, despite the controls on production being introduced, CCl4 emissions from the eastern part of China did not decline between 2009 and 2016. This finding is in contrast to a recent bottom-up estimate,...

  • Ricke K, Drouet L, Caldeira K, Tavoni M.  2018.  Country-level social cost of carbon. Nature Climate Change.
    Abstract Summary:

    The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a commonly employed metric of the expected economic damages from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although useful in an optimal policy context, a world-level approach obscures the heterogeneous geography of climate damage and vast differences in country-level contributions to the global SCC, as well as climate and socio-economic uncertainties, which are larger at the regional level. Here we estimate country-...

  • Hu S.N, Fedorov A.V.  2018.  Cross-equatorial winds control El Nino diversity and change. Nature Climate Change. 8:798-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Over the past two decades, El Nino events have weakened on average and their sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies shifted westward towards the central Pacific. Moreover, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which typically migrates southward from its northerly position during El Nino events, has not crossed the Equator since 1998. The causes of these changes remain under debate(1-5). Here, using in situ, satellite and atmospheric...

  • Shen W.S, Wiens D.A, Anandakrishnan S., Aster R.C, Gerstoft P, Bromirski PD, Hansen S.E, Dalziel I.WD, Heeszel D.S, Huerta A.D et al..  2018.  The crust and upper mantle structure of central and west Antarctica from bayesian inversion of rayleigh wave and receiver functions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:7824-7849.
    Abstract Summary:

    We construct a new seismic model for central and West Antarctica by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities along with P wave receiver functions. Ambient noise tomography exploiting data from more than 200 seismic stations deployed over the past 18years is used to construct Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion maps. Comparison between the ambient noise phase velocity maps with those constructed using...

  • Schramek T.A, Colin P.L, Merrifield M.A, Terrill E.J.  2018.  Depth-dependent thermal stress around corals in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:9739-9747.
    Abstract Summary:

    Thermally driven bleaching events are a growing concern for reef ecosystems across the tropics. To assess and predict thermal stress impacts on reefs, remotely observed sea surface temperature (SST) commonly is used; however, reef communities typically extend to depths where SST alone may not be an accurate measure of in situ variability. Here nearly two decades of temperature observations (2- to 90-m depth) at three stations around Palau are...

  • McMahon A., Santos I.R, Schulz K.G, Cyronak T., Maher D.T.  2018.  Determining coral reef calcification and primary production using automated alkalinity, pH and pCO(2) measurements at high temporal resolution. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 209:80-88.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated coral reef carbonate chemistry dynamics and metabolic rates using an automated system that measured total alkalinity (TA, 30 min intervals), pH on the total scale (pH(T), 10 min intervals) and the partial pressure "of carbon dioxide (pCO(2), 1 min intervals) over 2 weeks at Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). The calculation of pH(T) (using the pCO(2) and TA pair) and pCO(2) (using the pH and TA pair) had similar...

  • Keen E.M, Wray J., Pilkington JF, Thompson K.L, Picard C.R.  2018.  Distinct habitat use strategies of sympatric rorqual whales within a fjord system. Marine Environmental Research. 140:180-189.
    Abstract Summary:

    We used ecosystem sampling during systematic surveys and opportunistic focal follows, comparison tests, and random forest models to evaluate fin whale (Balaenoptera physallts) and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeonglicte)habitat associations within an inland feeding ground (Kitimat Fjord System, British Columbia, Canada). Though these species are sympatric and share a common prey source, they were attuned to different aspects of the local...

  • Murik O, Tirichine L, Prihoda J, Thomas Y, Araújo WL, Allen AE, Fernie AR, Bowler C.  2018.  Downregulation of mitochondrial alternative oxidase affects chloroplast function, redox status and stress response in a marine diatom. New Phytologist.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms dominance in contemporary aquatic environments indicates that they have developed unique and effective mechanisms to cope with the rapid and considerable fluctuations that characterize these environments. In view of their evolutionary history from a secondary endosymbiosis, inter-organellar regulation of biochemical activities may be of particular relevance. Diatom mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is believed to play a...

  • Deyle E., Schueller A.M, Ye H, Pao G.M, Sugihara G.  2018.  Ecosystem-based forecasts of recruitment in two menhaden species. Fish and Fisheries. 19:769-781.
    Abstract Summary:

    Gulf (Brevoortia patronus, Clupeidae) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus, Clupeidae) support large fisheries that have shown substantial variability over several decades, in part, due to dependence on annual recruitment. Nevertheless, traditional stock-recruitment relationships lack predictive power for these stocks. Current management of Atlantic menhaden explicitly treats recruitment as a random process. However, traditional methods...

  • Dinasquet J., Tiirola M., Azam F.  2018.  Enrichment of bacterioplankton able to utilize one-carbon and methylated compounds in the coastal Pacific Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the temporal variations and succession of bacterial communities involved in the turnover of one-carbon and methylated compounds is necessary to better predict bacterial impacts on the marine carbon cycle and air-sea carbon fluxes. The ability of the local bacterioplankton community to exploit one-carbon and methylated compounds as main source of bioavailable carbon during a productive and less productive period was assessed...

  • Gemba KL, Sarkar J, Cornuelle B, Hodgkiss WS, Kuperman WA.  2018.  Estimating relative channel impulse responses from ships of opportunity in a shallow water environment. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1231-1244.
    Abstract Summary:

    The uncertainty of estimating relative channel impulse responses (CIRs) obtained using the radiated signature from a ship of opportunity is investigated. The ship observations were taken during a 1.4 km (11 min) transect in a shallow water environment during the Noise Correlation 2009 (NC09) experiment. Beamforming on the angle associated with the direct ray-path yields an estimate of the ship signature, subsequently used in a matched filter...

  • Betancur-Turizo S.P, Gonzalez-Silvera A., Santamaria-del-Angel E., Tan J., Frouin R..  2018.  Evaluation of semi-analytical algorithms to retrieve particulate and dissolved absorption coefficients in Gulf of California optically complex waters. Remote Sensing. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Two semi-analytical algorithms, Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) and Garver-Siegel-Maritorena (GSM), were evaluated in terms of how well they reproduced the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton (a(ph)(lambda)) and dissolved and detrital organic matter (a(dg)(lambda)) at three wavelengths (lambda of 412, 443, and 488 nm) in a zone with optically complex waters, the Upper Gulf of California (UGC) and the Northern Gulf of...

  • Shi J.R, Xie SP, Talley LD.  2018.  Evolving relative importance of the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic in anthropogenic ocean heat uptake. Journal of Climate. 31:7459-7479.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic heat over the past 15 years has mostly occurred in the Southern Ocean, based on Argo float observations. This agrees with historical simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), where the Southern Ocean (south of 30 degrees S) accounts for 72% +/- 28% of global heat uptake, while the contribution from the North Atlantic north of 30 degrees N is only 6%. Aerosols preferentially...

  • Gagniere S., Smith SGL, Yeh H.D.  2018.  Excess pore water pressure due to ground surface erosion. 61:72-82.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Laplace transform is applied to solve the groundwater flow equation with a boundary that is initially fixed but that starts to move at a constant rate after some fixed time. This problem arises in the study of pore water pressures due to erosional unloading where the aquifer lies underneath an unsaturated zone. We derive an analytic solution and examine the predicted pressure profiles and boundary fluxes. We calculate the negative pore...

  • Smith SGL, Chang C., Chu T.Y, Blyth M., Hattori Y., Salman H..  2018.  Generalized contour dynamics: A review. 23:507-518.
    Abstract Summary:

    Contour dynamics is a computational technique to solve for the motion of vortices in incompressible inviscid flow. It is a Lagrangian technique in which the motion of contours is followed, and the velocity field moving the contours can be computed as integrals along the contours. Its best-known examples are in two dimensions, for which the vorticity between contours is taken to be constant and the vortices are vortex patches, and in...

  • Parnell-Turner R., Escartin J., Olive J.A, Smith D.K, Petersen S..  2018.  Genesis of corrugated fault surfaces by strain localization recorded at oceanic detachments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 498:116-128.
    Abstract Summary:

    Seafloor spreading at slow and ultraslow rates is often taken up by extension on large-offset faults called detachments, which exhume lower crustal and mantle rocks, and in some cases make up domed oceanic core complexes. The exposed footwall may reveal a characteristic pattern of spreading-parallel corrugations, the largest of which are clearly visible in multibeam bathymetric data, and whose nature and origin have been the subject of...

  • Pethybridge H., Choy C.A, Logan J.M, Allain V., Lorrain A., Bodin N., Somes C.J, Young J., Menard F., Langlais C. et al..  2018.  A global meta-analysis of marine predator nitrogen stable isotopes: Relationships between trophic structure and environmental conditions. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 27:1043-1055.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aim We examined potential environmental drivers of broad-scale spatial patterns in the trophic structure of marine ecosystems as represented by nitrogen stable isotopes in globally distributed marine predators. Additionally, we assessed the effects of spatial scale on the predictive capabilities of environmental variables. LocationTime periodGlobal oceans. 2000 to 2015. Major taxa studiedMethodsTunas: Thunnus albacares, Thunnus obesus,...

  • Macholdt D.S, Al-Amri A.M, Tuffaha H.T, Jochum K.P, Andreae M.O.  2018.  Growth of desert varnish on petroglyphs from Jubbah and Shuwaymis, Ha'il region, Saudi Arabia. Holocene. 28:1495-1511.
    Abstract Summary:

    Petroglyphs, engraved throughout the Holocene into rock varnish coatings on sandstone, were investigated in the Ha'il region of northwestern Saudi Arabia, at Jabal Yatib, Jubbah, and Shuwaymis. The rock art has been created by removing the black varnish coating and thereby exposing the light sandstone underneath. With time, the varnish, a natural manganese (Mn)-rich coating, grows back. To study the rate of regrowth, we made 234 measurements...

  • Aburto-Oropeza O, Johnson A.F, Agha M., Allen E.B, Allen M.F, Gonzalez J.A, Moreno D.MA, Beas-Luna R., Butterfield S., Caetano G. et al..  2018.  Harnessing cross-border resources to confront climate change. Environmental Science & Policy. 87:128-132.
    Abstract Summary:

    The US and Mexico share a common history in many areas, including language and culture. They face ecological changes due to the increased frequency and severity of droughts and rising energy demands; trends that entail economic costs for both nations and major implications for human wellbeing. We describe an ongoing effort by the Environment Working Group (EWG), created by The University of California's UC-Mexico initiative in 2015, to...

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