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Recent Publications

  • Randall C.J, Toth L.T, Leichter J.J, Mate J.L, Aronson R.B.  2019.  Upwelling buffers climate change impacts on coral reefs of the eastern tropical Pacific.
    Abstract Summary:

    Corals of the eastern tropical Pacific live in a marginal and oceanographically dynamic environment. Along the Pacific coast of Panama, stronger seasonal upwelling in the Gulf of Panama in the east transitions to weaker upwelling in the Gulf of Chiriqui in the west, resulting in complex regional oceanographic conditions that drive differential coral-reef growth. Over millennial timescales, reefs in the Gulf of Chiriqui recovered more quickly...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As the proportion of the human population living in cities continues to increase, understanding the factors affecting urban biodiversity is crucial to enhancing conservation efforts, urban ecosystem function, and human wellbeing. Here we present the results of the first comparative study of belowground invertebrate communities in urban soils (lawns and biofilters) and remnant patches of native coastal sage scrub (CSS) in a semi-arid urban...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Summer-mean Indian rainfall (June to September) decreases during a developing El Nino. Here we investigate the variability and predictability of Indian rainfall in each summer month with a focus on June, the onset month of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM). We find that Indian rainfall in June is affected by both concurrent and antecedent El Nino conditions, with a larger contribution from the latter. During the post-El Nino June, rainfall...

  • Day JMD, Sossi P.A, Shearer C.K, Moynier F..  2019.  Volatile distributions in and on the Moon revealed by Cu and Fe isotopes in the 'Rusty Rock' 66095. 266:131-143.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Apollo 16 'Rusty Rock' impact melt breccia 66095 is a volatile-rich sample, with the volatiles inherited through vapor condensation from an internal lunar source formed during thermo-magmatic evolution of the Moon. We report Cu and Fe isotope data for 66095 and find that bulk-rocks, residues and acid leaches span a relatively limited range of compositions (3.0 +/- 1.3 wt.% FeO [range = 2.0-4.8 wt.%], 5.4 +/- 3.1 ppm Cu [range = 3-12 ppm...

  • Abstract Summary:

    An oceanographic survey around the South Shetland Islands (SSI) and the South Orkney Islands (SOI) was conducted during January 2007 and February 2008, respectively, as part of the United States Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) program ecosystems surveys. At 27 stations, concentrations of dissolved labile Fe (DFe) and total acid leachable (unfiltered, TaLFe) iron (Fe) were measured in the upper 200 m (including coastal and oceanic...

  • O'Donoghue A.J, Bibo-Verdugo B., Miyamoto Y., Wang S.C, Yang J.Z, Zuill D.E, Matsuka S., Jiang Z.Z, Almaliti J., Caffrey C.R et al..  2019.  20S proteasome as a drug target in Trichomonas vaginalis. 63
    Abstract Summary:

    Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease with hundreds of millions of annual cases worldwide. Approved treatment options are limited to two related nitro-heterocyclic compounds, yet resistance to these drugs is an increasing concern. New antimicrobials against the causative agent, Trichomonas vaginalis, are urgently needed. We show here that clinically approved anticancer drugs that inhibit the proteasome, a large protease complex...

  • Calmer R., Roberts GC, Sanchez K.J, Sciare J., Sellegri K., Picard D., Vrekoussis M., Pikridas M..  2019.  Aerosol-cloud closure study on cloud optical properties using remotely piloted aircraft measurements during a BACCHUS field campaign in Cyprus. 19:13989-14007.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 BACCHUS (impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding) project, an intensive field campaign was performed in Cyprus (March 2015). Remotely piloted aircraft system (RPAS), ground-based instruments, and remote-sensing observations were operating in parallel to provide an integrated characterization of aerosol-cloud interactions. Remotely piloted aircraft...

  • Lenain L., Statom N.M, Melville W.K.  2019.  Airborne measurements of surface wind and slope statistics over the ocean. 49:2799-2814.
    Abstract Summary:

    As reported in 1954, more than a half century ago, C. Cox and W. Munk developed an empirical model of the slope distribution of ocean surface waves that has been widely used ever since to model the optical properties of the sea surface and is of particular importance to the satellite remote sensing community. In that work, the reflectance of sunlight was photographed from a Boeing B-17G bomber and was then analyzed. In this paper, surface...

  • Sharma A., Laxman B., Naureckas E.T, Hogarth D.K, Sperling A.I, Solway J., Ober C., Gilbert J.A, White S.R.  2019.  Associations between fungal and bacterial microbiota of airways and asthma endotypes. 144:1214-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Background: The relationship between asthma, atopy, and underlying type 2 (T2) airway inflammation is complex. Although the bacterial airway microbiota is known to differ in asthmatic patients, the fungal and bacterial markers that discriminate T2-high (eosinophilic) and T2-low (neutrophilid mixed-inflammation) asthma and atopy are still incompletely identified. Objectives: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the fungal microbiota...

  • Le Bras I.AA, Sonnewald M., Toole J.M.  2019.  A barotropic vorticity budget for the subtropical North Atlantic Based on observations. 49:2781-2797.
    Abstract Summary:

    To ground truth the large-scale dynamical balance of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre with observations, a barotropic vorticity budget is constructed in the ECCO state estimate and compared with hydrographic observations and wind stress data products. The hydrographic dataset at the center of this work is the A22 WOCE section, which lies along 66 degrees W and creates a closed volume with the North and South American coasts to its west....

  • Gallo N.D, Drenkard E., Thompson A.R, Weber E.D, Wilson-Vandenberg D., McClatchie S., Koslow JA, Semmens B.X.  2019.  Bridging from monitoring to solutions-based thinking: Lessons from CalCOFI for understanding and adapting to marine climate change impacts. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Multidisciplinary, integrated ocean observing programs provide critical data for monitoring the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) samples along the US West Coast and is one of the world's longest-running and most comprehensive time series, with hydrographic and biological data collected since 1949. The pairing of ecological and physical measurements across this...

  • Chesley C., Key K, Constable S, Behrens J., MacGregor L..  2019.  Crustal cracks and frozen flow in oceanic lithosphere inferred from electrical anisotropy.
    Abstract Summary:

    Geophysical observations of anisotropy in oceanic lithosphere offer insight into the formation and evolution of tectonic plates. Seismic anisotropy is well studied but electrical anisotropy remains poorly understood, especially in the crust and uppermost mantle. Here we characterize electrical anisotropy in 33 Ma Pacific lithosphere using controlled-source electromagnetic data that are highly sensitive to lithospheric azimuthal anisotropy....

  • Zamanillo M., Ortega-Retuerta E., Nunes S., Estrada M., Sala M.M, Royer S.J, Lopez-Sandoval D.C, Emelianov M., Vaque D., Marrase C. et al..  2019.  Distribution of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in distinct regions of the Southern Ocean. 691:736-748.
    Abstract Summary:

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are an abundant class of suspended organic particles, mainly formed by polysaccharides, which play important roles in biogeochemical and ecological processes in the ocean. In this study we investigated horizontal and vertical TEP distributions (within the euphotic layer, including the upper surface) and their short-term variability along with a suite of environmental and biological variables in four...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The appearance of a spurious double ITCZ south of the equator in coupled general circulation models has been a stubborn problem ever since the beginning of coupled model development. This article reviews the past research in this area, with a focus on three possible major contributors to the double ITCZ biases: 1) the southeastern Pacific marine stratus clouds and associated warm sea surface temperature (SST) biases; 2) the extratropical...

  • Lutz H.L, Jackson E.W, Webala P.W, Babyesiza W.S, Peterhans J.CK, Demos T.C, Patterson B.D, Gilbert J.A.  2019.  Ecology and host identity outweigh evolutionary history in shaping the bat microbiome. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent studies of mammalian microbiomes have identified strong phylogenetic effects on bacterial community composition. Bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) are among the most speciose mammals on the planet and the only mammal capable of true flight. We examined 1,236 16S rRNA amplicon libraries of the gut, oral, and skin microbiota from 497 Afrotropical bats (representing 9 families, 20 genera, and 31 species) to assess the extent to which host...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The concept of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) has been subjected to debate since it was introduced in the late 1990s. The development of the concept seems to follow two separate but simultaneous trajectories of increased popularity but also sustained critique. This paper offers an analysis of potential mechanisms behind these disparate trajectories by drawing on a theoretical framework from science and technology studies (STS)...

  • Delgado J.A, Sudre J., Tanahara S., Montes I., Hernandez-Ayon J.M, Zirino A..  2019.  Effect of Caribbean Water incursion into the Gulf of Mexico derived from absolute dynamic topography, satellite data, and remotely sensed chlorophyll a. 15:1561-1578.
    Abstract Summary:

    The dynamics of the Loop Current (LC) and the detached Loop Current eddies (LCEs) dominate the surface circulation of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) and transport Caribbean Water (CW) into the gulf. In this work, 25 years (1993-2017) of daily satellite data are used to investigate the variability of these physical processes and their effect on chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations from 1998 to 2017, including temporal changes, mean differences, and...

  • Spydell M.S, Feddersen F, MacMahan J..  2019.  The effect of drifter GPS errors on estimates of submesoscale vorticity. 36:2101-2119.
    Abstract Summary:

    Differential kinematic flow properties (DKP), such as vertical vorticity, have been estimated from surface drifters. However, previous DKP error estimates were a posteriori and did not include correlated errors across drifters. To accurately estimate submesoscale (<= 1 km) DKPs from drifters, errors must be better understood. Here, the a priori vorticity standard error is derived that depends upon the number of drifters in the cluster, the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A large-scale anomalous anticyclone (AAC) is a recurrent pattern in post-El Nino summers, extending from the tropical Northwest Pacific (NWP) to the North Indian Ocean. In boreal summer, there is a strongly confluent lower-level flow between the monsoonal westerlies and easterly trades over the Indo-Northwest Pacific. The effect of this basic state confluent flow on the AAC is investigated with energetics analysis and numerical modeling. The...

  • Stephens BM, Wankel SD, J. Beman M, Rabines AJ, Allen AE, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (δ15N and δ18O, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the California...

  • Stephens B.M, Wankel S.D, Beman J.M, Rabines A.J, Allen A.E, Aluwihare LI.  2019.  Euphotic zone nitrification in the California Current Ecosystem.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nitrification, the microbial conversion of ammonium to nitrite then to nitrate, occurs throughout the oceanic water column, yet the environmental factors influencing the production of nitrate in the euphotic zone (EZ) remain unclear. In this study, the natural abundances of N and O isotopes (delta N-15 and delta O-18, respectively) in nitrate were used in an existing model framework to quantify nitrate contributed by EZ nitrification in the...

  • Chen Z.S, Du Y., Wen Z.P, Wu R.G, Xie SP.  2019.  Evolution of south Tropical Indian Ocean warming and the climatic impacts following strong El Nino Events. 32:7329-7347.
    Abstract Summary:

    The south tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) warms following a strong El Nino, affecting Indo-Pacific climate in early boreal summer. While much attention has been given to the southwest TIO where the mean thermocline is shallow, this study focuses on the subsequent warming in the southeast TIO, where the mean sea surface temperature (SST) is high and deep convection is strong in early summer. The southeast TIO warming induces an anomalous...

  • DeFlorio M.J, Waliser D.E, Ralph FM, Guan B., Goodman A., Gibson P.B, Asharaf S., L. Monache D, Zhang Z.H, Subramanian AC et al..  2019.  Experimental subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) forecasting of atmospheric rivers over the western United States. 124:11242-11265.
    Abstract Summary:

    A multimodel evaluation of subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) hindcast skill of atmospheric rivers (ARs) out to 4-week lead over the western United States is presented for three operational hindcast systems: European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; Europe), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP; U.S.), and Environment and Canada Climate Change (ECCC; Canada). Ensemble mean biases and Brier Skill Scores are examined...

  • Woodworth P.L, Melet A., Marcos M., Ray R.D, Woppelmann G., Sasaki Y.N, Cirano M., Hibbert A., Huthnance J.M, Monserrat S. et al..  2019.  Forcing factors affecting sea level changes at the coast. 40:1351-1397.
    Abstract Summary:

    We review the characteristics of sea level variability at the coast focussing on how it differs from the variability in the nearby deep ocean. Sea level variability occurs on all timescales, with processes at higher frequencies tending to have a larger magnitude at the coast due to resonance and other dynamics. In the case of some processes, such as the tides, the presence of the coast and the shallow waters of the shelves results in the...

  • Rogers J.S, Rayson M.D, Ko D.S, Winters KB, Fringer O.B.  2019.  A framework for seamless one-way nesting of internal wave-resolving ocean models. 143
    Abstract Summary:

    To resolve nonlinear internal wave motions in regional domains, we propose a one-way ocean model nesting framework in which a nonhydrostatic model is nested within a regional model. The nesting scheme produces internal tides that propagate freely into and out of the nonhydrostatic model domain with no reflections while nudging the low-frequency motions. We demonstrate the method with idealized test cases and a field-scale simulation of the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Matsuoka et al. [1] present a set of equations governing the evolution of two-dimensional MHD flows using current-vortex sheets. In the resulting model the vorticity omega and current density j are zero except on the current-vortex sheets. We show that this is not true in general and that the term Delta(B x u) in the evolution equation for j does not vanish, leading to the generation of j and omega in the bulk. This means that the evolution...

  • Llovel W., Purkey S., Meyssignac B., Blazquez A., Kolodziejczyk N., Bamber J..  2019.  Global ocean freshening, ocean mass increase and global mean sea level rise over 2005-2015. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Global mean sea level has experienced an unabated rise over the 20th century. This observed rise is due to both ocean warming and increasing continental freshwater discharge. We estimate the net ocean mass contribution to sea level by assessing the global ocean salt budget based on the unprecedented amount of in situ data over 2005-2015. We obtain the ocean mass trends of 1.30 +/- 1.13 mm.yr(-1) (0-2000 m) and 1.55 +/- 1.20 mm.yr(-1) (full...

  • Hinzke T., Kleiner M., Breusing C., Felbeck H., Hasler R., Sievert S.M, Schluter R., Rosenstiel P., Reusch T.BH, Schweder T. et al..  2019.  Host-microbe interactions in the chemosynthetic Riftia pachyptila symbiosis. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    The deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila lacks a digestive system but completely relies on bacterial endosymbionts for nutrition. Although the symbiont has been studied in detail on the molecular level, such analyses were unavailable for the animal host, because sequence information was lacking. To identify host-symbiont interaction mechanisms, we therefore sequenced the Riftia transcriptome, which served as a basis for comparative...

  • Wang J.K, Johnson K.R, Borsato A., Amaya D.J, Griffiths M.L, Henderson G.M, Frisia S., Mason A..  2019.  Hydroclimatic variability in Southeast Asia over the past two millennia. 525
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatiotemporal variability of the Asian Monsoon (AM) over the last two millennia has been attributed to a combination of external solar and volcanic forcing and/or internal coupled atmosphere-ocean dynamics, but the relative importance of these mechanisms remains unresolved. The present knowledge of multidecadal to centennial-scale AM variability over Mainland Southeast Asia is not well-constrained, despite substantial progress in...

  • Hell M.C, Cornelle B.D, Gille ST, Miller AJ, Bromirski PD.  2019.  Identifying ocean swell generation events from Ross Ice Shelf seismic data. 36:2171-2189.
    Abstract Summary:

    Strong surface winds under extratropical cyclones exert intense surface stresses on the ocean that lead to upper-ocean mixing, intensified heat fluxes, and the generation of waves, that, over time, lead to swell waves (longer than 10-s period) that travel long distances. Because low-frequency swell propagates faster than high-frequency swell, the frequency dependence of swell arrival times at a measurement site can be used to infer the...

  • Gudmundsson G.H, Paolo F.S, Adusumilli S., Fricker H.A.  2019.  Instantaneous Antarctic ice sheet mass loss driven by thinning ice shelves.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent observations show that the rate at which the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) is contributing to sea level rise is increasing. Increases in ice-ocean heat exchange have the potential to induce substantial mass loss through the melting of its ice shelves. Lack of data and limitations in modeling, however, has made it challenging to quantify the importance of ocean-induced changes in ice shelf thickness as a driver for ongoing mass loss. Here,...

  • Smith B., Fricker H.A, Holschuh N., Gardner AS, Adusumilli S., Brunt K.M, Csatho B., Harbeck K., Huth A., Neumann T. et al..  2019.  Land ice height-retrieval algorithm for NASA's ICESat-2 photon-counting laser altimeter. 233
    Abstract Summary:

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) and its sole scientific instrument, the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS), was launched on 15 September 2018 with a primary goal of measuring changes in the surface of the Earth's land ice (glaciers and ice sheets). ATLAS is a photon-counting laser altimeter, which records the transit time of individual photons in order to reconstruct surface height along track. The...

  • Natali S.M, Watts J.D, Rogers B.M, Potter S., Ludwig S.M, Selbmann A.K, Sullivan P.F, Abbott B.W, Arndt K.A, Birch L. et al..  2019.  Large loss of CO2 in winter observed across the northern permafrost region. 9:852-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent warming in the Arctic, which has been amplified during the winter(1-3), greatly enhances microbial decomposition of soil organic matter and subsequent release of carbon dioxide (CO2)(4). However, the amount of CO2 released in winter is not known and has not been well represented by ecosystem models or empirically based estimates(5,6). Here we synthesize regional in situ observations of CO2 flux from Arctic and boreal soils to assess...

  • Bianco M.J, Gerstoft P, Traer J., Ozanich E., Roch M.A, Gannot S., Deledalle C.A.  2019.  Machine learning in acoustics: Theory and applications. 146:3590-3628.
    Abstract Summary:

    Acoustic data provide scientific and engineering insights in fields ranging from biology and communications to ocean and Earth science. We survey the recent advances and transformative potential of machine learning (ML), including deep learning, in the field of acoustics. ML is a broad family of techniques, which are often based in statistics, for automatically detecting and utilizing patterns in data. Relative to conventional acoustics and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We carried out a multicomponent electromagnetic (EM) survey of the Scarborough gas field in 950 m water on the northwest Australian shelf. Magnetotelluric (MT) data, along with transmitter inline horizontal electric (Ey), vertical electric (Ez), and horizontal magnetic (Bx) field controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data were collected. The Scarborough reservoir is a challenging EM target because it lies between a resistive overlying...

  • Brignac K.C, Jung M.R, King C., Royer S.J, Bickley L., Lamson M.R, Potemra J.T, Lynch J.M.  2019.  Marine debris polymers on main Hawaiian island beaches, sea surface, and seafloor. 53:12218-12226.
    Abstract Summary:

    Polymeric differences of plastic debris were assessed across four compartments of the Main Hawaiian Islands (sea surface, windward beaches, leeward beaches, and seafloor) to better describe sources and fate. Plastic debris pieces (n = 4671) were collected from 11 beaches, three sea surface tows, and three seafloor dives. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy identified the polymers of 3551 pieces. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in...

  • Sinnett G., Feddersen F.  2019.  The nearshore heat budget: Effects of stratification and surfzone dynamics. 124:8219-8240.
    Abstract Summary:

    Temperature variability in the nearshore (from approximate to 6-m depth to the shoreline) is influenced by many processes including wave breaking and internal waves. A nearshore heat budget resolving these processes has not been considered. A 7-month experiment at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography Pier (shoreline to 6-m depth) measured temperature and surface and cross-shore heat fluxes to examine a nearshore heat budget with fine cross...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Global radiative-convective equilibrium simulations are used to investigate the hypothesis that mutual interactions among cloud albedo, sea surface temperature gradients, and atmospheric circulation constrain the net cloud radiative effect (CRE) to be similar in convective and nonconvective regions over the tropical warm pools. We perform an experiment in which convective clouds interact naturally with the ocean and atmosphere by forming over...

  • Asher E., Hornbrook R.S, Stephens B.B, Kinnison D., Morgan E.J, Keeling RF, Atlas E.L, Schauffler S.M, Tilmes S., Kort E.A et al..  2019.  Novel approaches to improve estimates of short-lived halocarbon emissions during summer from the Southern Ocean using airborne observations. 19:14071-14090.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fluxes of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) over the Southern Ocean remain poorly understood, and few atmospheric measurements exist to constrain modeled emissions of these compounds. We present observations of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH3I, CHClBr2, CHBrCl2, and CH3Br during the O-2/N-2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study and the second Atmospheric Tomography mission (ATom-2) in January and February of 2016 and 2017. Good...

  • Costa J.AV, Freitas B.CB, Rosa G.M, Moraes L., Morais M.G, Mitchell B.G.  2019.  Operational and economic aspects of Spirulina-based biorefinery. 292
    Abstract Summary:

    Microalgae biorefinery systems have been extensively studied from the perspective of resources, energy expenditure, biofuel production potential, and high-added value products. The genus Spirulina (Arthrospira) stands out among the microalgae of commercial importance. It accounts for over 30% of biomass produced globally because of high protein concentration and, carotenoid and phycocyanin content. Spirulina cultivation can be used to reduce...

  • Abstract Summary:

    An extensive data set of measurements within the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas is used to characterize the optical properties of seawater associated with different phytoplankton communities. Hierarchical cluster analysis of diagnostic pigment concentrations partitioned stations into four distinct surface phytoplankton communities based on taxonomic composition and average cell size. Concurrent optical measurements of spectral absorption and...

  • Gonzalez-Solis D., Soler-Jimenez L.C, Aguirre-Macedo M.L, McLaughlin J.P, Shaw J.C, James A.K, Hechinger R.E, Kuris A.M, Lafferty K.D, Vidal-Martinez V.M.  2019.  Parasitic nematodes of marine fishes from Palmyra Atoll, East Indo-Pacific, including a new species of Spinitectus (Nematoda, Cystidicolidae). :1-26.
    Abstract Summary:

    Here, we present the results of a taxonomic survey of the nematodes parasitizing fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll, Eastern Indo-Pacific. We performed quantitative parasitological surveys of 653 individual fish from each of the 44 species using the intertidal sand flats that border the atoll's lagoon. We provide morphological descriptions, prevalence, and mean intensities of the recovered seven species of adult nematode (...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Abstract Microplastics (< 5 mm) have long been a concern in marine debris research, but quantifying the smallest microplastics (< 333 μm) has been hampered by appropriate collection methods, like net tows. We modified standard epifluorescence microscopy methods to develop a new technique to enumerate < 333 μm microplastics (mini-microplastics) from filtered surface seawater samples and salp stomach contents. This permitted us to...

  • Meskhidze N., Volker C., Al-Abadleh H.A, Barbeau K., Bressac M., Buck C., Bundy R.M, Croot P., Feng Y., Ito A. et al..  2019.  Perspective on identifying and characterizing the processes controlling iron speciation and residence time at the atmosphere-ocean interface. 217
    Abstract Summary:

    It is well recognized that the atmospheric deposition of iron (Fe) affects ocean productivity, atmospheric CO2 uptake, ecosystem diversity, and overall climate. Despite significant advances in measurement techniques and modeling efforts, discrepancies persist between observations and models that hinder accurate predictions of processes and their global effects. Here, we provide an assessment report on where the current state of knowledge is...

  • Gove JM, Whitney J.L, McManus MA, Lecky J., Carvalho F.C, Lynch J.M, Li J.W, Neubauer P., Smith K.A, Phipps J.E et al..  2019.  Prey-size plastics are invading larval fish nurseries. 116:24143-24149.
    Abstract Summary:

    Life for many of the world's marine fish begins at the ocean surface. Ocean conditions dictate food availability and govern survivorship, yet little is known about the habitat preferences of larval fish during this highly vulnerable life-history stage. Here we show that surface slicks, a ubiquitous coastal ocean convergence feature, are important nurseries for larval fish from many ocean habitats at ecosystem scales. Slicks had higher...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The adverse health impact of high heat is widely documented and can lead to a substantial public health burden. Although heat-related illness in western countries is largely preventable, extreme heat remains the main weather contributor to the burden of disease in the United States. In most US cities, local National Weather Service offices issue heat alerts in advance of forecast periods of high heat. In some locations, additional local heat...

  • Coale T.H, Moosburner M., Horak A., Obornik M., Barbeau K.A, Allen A.E.  2019.  Reduction-dependent siderophore assimilation in a model pennate diatom. 116:23609-23617.
    Abstract Summary:

    Iron uptake by diatoms is a biochemical process with global biogeochemical implications. In large regions of the surface ocean diatoms are both responsible for the majority of primary production and frequently experiencing iron limitation of growth. The strategies used by these phytoplankton to extract iron from seawater constrain carbon flux into higher trophic levels and sequestration into sediments. In this study we use reverse genetic...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Morphological plasticity is a critical mechanism that animals use to cope with variations in resource availability. During periods of food scarcity, sea urchins demonstrate an increase in jaw length relative to test diameter. This trait is thought to be reversible and adaptive by yielding an increase in feeding efficiency. We directly tested the hypotheses that (1) there are reversible shifts in jaw length to test diameter ratios with food...

  • Sandoval J.A, Jadhav S., Quan H.C, Deheyn DD, Tolley M.T.  2019.  Reversible adhesion to rough surfaces both in and out of water, inspired by the clingfish suction disc. 14
    Abstract Summary:

    Adhesion is difficult to achieve on rough surfaces both in air and underwater. In nature, the northern clingfish (Gobiesox maeandricus) has evolved the impressive ability to adhere onto substrates of various shapes and roughnesses, while subject to strong intertidal surges. The suction disc of the clingfish relies on suction and friction to achieve and maintain adhesion. Inspired by this mechanism of attachment, we designed an artificial...

  • Ohishi S., Katsura S., Aiki H..  2019.  Salinity frontogenesis/frontolysis in the northeastern subtropical Pacific region. 53:5927-5943.
    Abstract Summary:

    Detailed mechanisms of reinforcement/relaxation of a sea surface salinity front, i.e. frontogenesis/frontolysis, in the northeastern subtropical Pacific region are investigated using observational datasets. Throughout the year, meridional shears of zonal wind induce meridional ageostrophic convergence around the front. Saltier water is advected on the southern side than the northern side, and thus the convergence contributes to frontogenesis...

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