Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Parasite and host biomass and reproductive output in barnacle populations in the rocky intertidal zone

Impact:
Here, we provide an initial insight into the role of parasites in rocky intertidal communities by examining how H. balani impacts Chthamalus fissus hosts and populations using the currencies of biomass and reproduction. Chthamalus fissus is a simultaneously hermaphroditic acorn barnacle susceptible to parasitism by H. balani that inhabits the high rocky intertidal zone. We first documented the relationship between body size and reproductive output for both individual hosts and parasites. We then applied these relationships to natural barnacle populations from 12 localities throughout Southern California, allowing us to express the impacts of parasitism at the population-level in terms of host and parasite standing-stock biomasses and reproductive outputs.

Search Recent Publications

  • McNamara D.E, Cortale N., Edwards C., Eynaud Y., Sandin SA.  2019.  Insights into coral reef benthic dynamics from nonlinear spatial forecasting. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Nonlinear time-series forecasting, or empirical dynamic modelling, has been used extensively in the past two decades as a tool for distinguishing between random temporal behaviour and nonlinear deterministic dynamics. Previous authors have extended nonlinear time-series forecasting to continuous spatial data. Here, we adjust spatial forecasting to handle discrete data and apply the technique to explore the ubiquity of nonlinear determinism in...

  • Inglis E.C, Moynier F., Creech J., Deng Z.B, Day JMD, Teng F.Z, Bizzarro M., Jackson M., Savage P..  2019.  Isotopic fractionation of zirconium during magmatic differentiation and the stable isotope composition of the silicate Earth. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 250:311-323.
    Abstract Summary:

    High-precision double-spike Zr stable isotope measurements (expressed as delta Zr-94/90(IPGP-Zr), the permil deviation of the Zr-94/Zr-90 ratio from the IPGP-Zr standard) are presented for a range of ocean island basalts (OIB) and mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) to examine mass-dependent isotopic variations of zirconium in Earth. Ocean island basalt samples, spanning a range of radiogenic isotopic flavours (HIMU, EM) show a limited range in...

  • Pizzo N., Melville W.K, Deike L..  2019.  Lagrangian transport by nonbreaking and breaking deep-water waves at the ocean surface. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 49:983-992.
    Abstract Summary:

    Using direct numerical simulations (DNS), Deike et al. found that the wave-breaking-induced mass transport, or drift, at the surface for a single breaking wave scales linearly with the slope of a focusing wave packet, and may be up to an order of magnitude larger than the prediction of the classical Stokes drift. This model for the drift due to an individual breaking wave, together with the statistics of wave breaking measured in the field,...

  • Allemann M.N, Shulse C.N, Allen EE.  2019.  Linkage of marine bacteria polyunsaturated fatty acid and long-chain hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Frontiers in Microbiology. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Vaious marine gamma-proteobacteria produce omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, DHA), which are incorporated into membrane phospholipids. Five genes, designated pfaABCDE, encode the polyketide/fatty acid synthase necessary for production of these long-chain fatty acids. In addition to de novo biosynthesis of EPA and DHA, the "Pfa synthase" is also involved with...

  • Allemann MN, Shulse CN, Allen EE.  2019.  Linkage of marine bacterial polyunsaturated fatty acid and long-chain hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Frontiers in Microbiology. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Various marine gamma-proteobacteria produce omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6, DHA), which are incorporated into membrane phospholipids. Five genes, designated pfaABCDE, encode the polyketide/fatty acid synthase necessary for production of these long-chain fatty acids. In addition to de novo biosynthesis of EPA and DHA, the “Pfa synthase” is also involved with...

  • Jelinski N.A, Campforts B., Willenbring J.K, Schumacher T.E, Li S., Lobb D.A, Papiernik S.K, Yoo K..  2019.  Meteoric beryllium-10 as a tracer of erosion due to postsettlement land use in west-central Minnesota, USA. 124:874-901.
    Abstract Summary:

    Meteoric beryllium-10 (Be-10(m), t(1/2)=1.4Myr) is a cosmogenic radionuclide that remains largely underutilized for deriving hillslope-scale estimates of erosion on uplands under conditions of land use change. We applied two different models for estimating erosion rates from observed Be-10(m) concentrations (a one-dimensional model predicting vertical profiles of Be-10(m) within hillslope soils [loss only, diffusion only, LODO] and a two-...

  • Lax S., Cardona C., Zhao D, Winton V.J, Goodney G., Gao P., Gottel N., Hartmann E.M, Henry C., Thomas P.M et al..  2019.  Microbial and metabolic succession on common building materials under high humidity conditions. Nature Communications. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Despite considerable efforts to characterize the microbial ecology of the built environment, the metabolic mechanisms underpinning microbial colonization and successional dynamics remain unclear, particularly at high moisture conditions. Here, we applied bacterial/viral particle counting, qPCR, amplicon sequencing of the genes encoding 16S and ITS rRNA, and metabolomics to longitudinally characterize the ecological dynamics of four common...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) and pantropical spotted dolphins (S. attenuata) show high intraspecific morphological diversity and endemic subspecies in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP). Previous studies of mitochondrial DNA have found low genetic differentiation among most of these groups, possibly due to demographic factors, ongoing gene flow, and/or recent divergence. These species were heavily depleted due to bycatch in...

  • Frable B.W, Tucker S.J, Walker H.J.  2019.  A new species of grouper, Epinephelus craigi (Perciformes: Epinephelidae), from the South China Sea. Ichthyological Research. 66:215-224.
    Abstract Summary:

    A new species of grouper, Epinephelus craigi. sp. nov., from the South China Sea is described from 17 specimens (104-250mm SL). The new species is distinguished from Epinephelus stictus (Randall and Allen 1987) with which it has historically been conflated, based on coloration, meristics, morphology, and genetics. Epinephelus craigi sp. nov. has a unique color pattern of irregular squarish, dark brown blotches interrupting lighter brown bars...

  • Rankin A., Seo K., Graeve O.A, Taylor J.RA.  2019.  No compromise between metabolism and behavior of decorator crabs in reduced pH conditions. Scientific Reports. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Many marine calcifiers experience metabolic costs when exposed to experimental ocean acidification conditions, potentially limiting the energy available to support regulatory processes and behaviors. Decorator crabs expend energy on decoration camouflage and may face acute trade-offs under environmental stress. We hypothesized that under reduced pH conditions, decorator crabs will be energy limited and allocate energy towards growth and...

  • Wangpraseurt D., Lichtenberg M., Jacques S.L, Larkum A.WD, Kuhl M..  2019.  Optical properties of corals distort variable chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. Plant Physiology. 179:1608-1619.
    Abstract Summary:

    Pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) fluorimetry is widely used in photobiological studies of corals, as it rapidly provides numerous photosynthetic parameters to assess coral ecophysiology. Coral optics studies have revealed the presence of light gradients in corals, which are strongly affected by light scattering in coral tissue and skeleton. We investigated whether coral optics affects variable chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence measurements and...

  • Lubeigt E., Rakotonarivo S., Mensah S., Chaix J.F, Baque F., Kuperman WA.  2019.  Passive structural monitoring based on data-driven matched field processing. 145:EL317-EL322.
    Abstract Summary:

    A passive data-driven method to localize a defect in a structure using the ambient noise is derived. The approach requires only acoustic measurements in a spatially random noise field and no knowledge of the structure. Measurements are taken before and after the perturbation has occurred and Green's functions are retrieved by cross-correlating acoustic measurements. The difference between measured data reveals the perturbation. A frequency...

  • Chen H, Meshik AP, Pravdivtseva OV, Day JMD, Wang K.  2019.  Potassium isotope fractionation during the high-temperature evaporation determined from the Trinity nuclear test. Chemical Geology.
    Abstract Summary:

    Trinitite materials are the post-detonation glassy residues formed from melting and evaporation of arkosic sands during the first nuclear detonation at the Trinity test site, New Mexico on 16th July, 1945. These trinitites provide useful materials for studying elemental and isotopic behaviors associated with high temperature melting and evaporation that is otherwise difficult to be achieved under laboratory conditions. Using a high-precision...

  • Malfacini D., Patt J., Annala S., Harpsoe K., Eryilmaz F., Reher R., Crusemann M., Hanke W., Zhang H, Tietze D. et al..  2019.  Rational design of a heterotrimeric G protein subunit with artificial inhibitor sensitivity. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 294:5747-5758.
    Abstract Summary:

    Transmembrane signals initiated by a range of extracellular stimuli converge on members of the Gq family of heterotrimeric G proteins, which relay these signals in target cells. Gq family G proteins comprise Gq, G11, G14, and G16, which upon activation mediate their cellular effects via inositol lipid-dependent and -independent signaling to control fundamental processes in mammalian physiology. To date, highly specific inhibition of Gq/11/14...

  • Roman S., Lins L., Ingels J., Romano C., Martin D., Vanreusel A..  2019.  Role of spatial scales and environmental drivers in shaping nematode communities in the Blanes Canyon and its adjacent slope. 146:62-78.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding community assembly and processes driving diversity in deep-sea environments is a major challenge in marine ecosystems. In this paper, we investigated the importance of environmental gradients at different spatial scales in structuring deep-sea canyon and continental slope meiobenthic nematode communities in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Three scales were investigated 1) Ecosystem: Blanes Canyon vs. adjacent open slope; 2) Water-...

  • Thompson P.R, Widlansky M.J, Merrifield M.A, Becker J.M, Marra J.J.  2019.  A statistical model for frequency of coastal flooding in Honolulu, Hawaii, during the 21st century. 124:2787-2802.
    Abstract Summary:

    The state of Hawaii and city of Honolulu experienced an unprecedented number of minor flooding episodes during 2017 due to the combination of seasonal high tides and record-high mean sea levels. To quantify the impact of sea level rise on the tendency for flooding events to cluster in future years, we developed a hierarchical statistical model describing the number of days per year for which sea level exceeds a prescribed threshold in...

  • Negrete-Garcia G., Lovenduski N.S, Hauri C., Krumhardt K.M, Lauvset S.K.  2019.  Sudden emergence of a shallow aragonite saturation horizon in the Southern Ocean. Nature Climate Change. 9:313-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Models project that with current CO2 emission rates, the Southern Ocean surface will be undersaturated with respect to aragonite by the end of this century(1-4). This will result in widespread impacts on biogeochemistry and ocean ecosystems(5-7), particularly the health of aragonitic organisms, such as pteropods(7), which can dominate polar surface water communities(6). Here, we quantify the depth of the present-day Southern Ocean aragonite...

  • Rothe M.L, Li J., Garibay E., Moore BS, McKinnie S.MK.  2019.  Synthesis, bioactivity, and enzymatic modification of antibacterial thiotetromycin derivatives. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 17:3416-3423.
    Abstract Summary:

    Thiotetronate-containing natural products, including thiolactomycin, thiotetromycin, and thiotetroamide, are potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial compounds that target fatty acid synthesis in bacteria. Natural modifications at the C-5 dialkyl position in this molecular series result in pronounced bioactivity differences. The C-5 acetamide-containing thiotetroamide, which is the more potent antibacterial agent in this family, is biosynthesized...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Intense competition between microbes in the environment has directed the evolution of antibiotic production in bacteria. Humans have harnessed these natural molecules for medicinal purposes, magnifying them from environmental concentrations to industrial scale. This increased exposure to antibiotics has amplified antibiotic resistance across bacteria, spurring a global antimicrobial crisis and a search for antibiotics with new modes of action...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Two new species of the mesopelagic genus Photonectes are described from the Pacific Ocean. Both of them are characterized by the presence of blue luminous tissue on the body. Photonectes cyanogrammicus new species, is characterized by the unique shape of the mental barbel, expanded distally and lacking bulbs or appendages. It is presently known only from the holotype collected in the Solomon Sea. Photonectes sphaerolampas new species, is...

  • Manu-Marfo D., Aoudia A., Pachhai S., Kherchouche R..  2019.  3D shear wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Tyrrhenian basin and margins. Scientific Reports. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    The Tyrrhenian basin serves as a natural laboratory for back-arc basin studies in the Mediterranean region.Yet, little is known about the crust-uppermost mantle structure beneath the basin and its margins. Here, we present a new 3D shear-wave velocity model and Moho topography map for the Tyrrhenian basin and its margins using ambient noise cross-correlations. We apply a self-parameterized Bayesian inversion of Rayleigh group and phase...

  • Highlighted Publication Miriam Kastner with water sample aboard D/V Glomar Challenger
    Becker K., Austin J.A, Exon N., Humphris S., Kastner M., McKenzie J.A, Miller K.G, Suyehiro K., Taira A..  2019.  50 years of scientific ocean drilling. Oceanography. 32:17-21.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nearly a century after the first systematic study of the global ocean and seafloor by HMS Challenger (1871-1876), US scientists began to drill beneath the sea floor to unlock the secrets of the similar to 70% of Earth's surface covered by the seas. Fifty years of scientific ocean drilling by teams of international partners has provided unparalleled advancements in Earth sciences. Here, we briefly review the history, impacts, and scientific...

  • Hosokawa Y., Casa D.J, Trtanj J.M, Belval L.N, Deuster P.A, Giltz S.M, Grundstein A.J, Hawkins M.D, Huggins R.A, Jacklitsch B. et al..  2019.  Activity modification in heat: critical assessment of guidelines across athletic, occupational, and military settings in the USA. International Journal of Biometeorology. 63:405-427.
    Abstract Summary:

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) risk is a serious concern among athletes, laborers, and warfighters. US Governing organizations have established various activity modification guidelines (AMGs) and other risk mitigation plans to help ensure the health and safety of their workers. The extent of metabolic heat production and heat gain that ensue from their work are the core reasons for EHI in the aforementioned population. Therefore, the major...

  • Yang Q.Q, Ma Q., Herum K.M, Wang C.H, Patel N., Lee J., Wang S.S, Yen T.M, Wang J., Tang H.M et al..  2019.  Array atomic force microscopy for real-time multiparametric analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116:5872-5877.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nanoscale multipoint structure-function analysis is essential for deciphering the complexity of multiscale biological and physical systems. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows nanoscale structure-function imaging in various operating environments and can be integrated seamlessly with disparate probe-based sensing and manipulation technologies. Conventional AFMs only permit sequential single-point analysis; widespread adoption of array AFMs...

  • Sutton A.J, Feely R.A, Maenner-Jones S., Musielwicz S., Osborne J., Dietrich C., Monacci N., Cross J., Bott R., Kozyr A. et al..  2019.  Autonomous seawater pCO(2) and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends. Earth System Science Data. 11:421-439.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ship-based time series, some now approaching over 3 decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous marine carbon sensors and technologies over the last 2 decades have led to the expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improving the...

  • Le Voyer M., Hauri EH, Cottrell E., Kelley K.A, Salters V.JM, Langmuir C.H, Hilton DR, Barry PH, Füri E..  2019.  Carbon fluxes and primary magma CO2 contents along the global mid-ocean ridge system. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 20:1387-1424.
    Abstract Summary:

    The concentration of carbon in primary mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs), and the associated fluxes of CO2 outgassed at ocean ridges, is examined through new data obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) on 753 globally distributed MORB glasses. MORB glasses are typically 80-90% degassed of CO2. We thus use the limited range in CO2/Ba (81.3 +/- 23) and CO2/Rb (991 +/- 129), derived from undegassed MORB and MORB melt inclusions, to...

  • Straneo F, Sutherland D.A, Stearns L., Catania G., Heimbach P., Moons T., Capes M.R, Laidre K.L, Barber D., Rysgaard S. et al..  2019.  The case for a sustained Greenland Ice Sheet-Ocean Observing System (GrIOOS). Frontiers in Marine Science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Rapid mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is affecting sea level and, through increased freshwater and sediment discharge, ocean circulation, sea-ice, biogeochemistry, and marine ecosystems around Greenland. Key to interpreting ongoing and projecting future ice loss, and its impact on the ocean, is understanding exchanges of heat, freshwater, and nutrients that occur at the GrIS marine margins. Processes governing these exchanges...

  • Chereskin TK, Rocha C.B, Gille ST, Menemenlis D., Passaro M..  2019.  Characterizing the transition from balanced to unbalanced motions in the Southern California current. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 124:2088-2109.
    Abstract Summary:

    As observations and models improve their resolution of oceanic motions at ever finer horizontal scales, interest has grown in characterizing the transition from the geostrophically balanced flows that dominate at large-scale to submesoscale turbulence and waves that dominate at small scales. In this study we examine the mesoscale-to-submesoscale (100 to 10km) transition in an eastern boundary current, the southern California Current System (...

  • Cape M.R, Vernet M, Pettit E.C, Wellner J., Truffer M., Akie G., Domack E., Leventer A., Smith C.R, Huber B.A.  2019.  Circumpolar deep water impacts glacial meltwater export and coastal biogeochemical cycling along the West Antarctic Peninsula. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Warming along the Antarctic Peninsula has led to an increase in the export of glacial meltwater to the coastal ocean. While observations to date suggest that this freshwater export acts as an important forcing on the marine ecosystem, the processes linking ice-ocean interactions to lower trophic-level growth, particularly in coastal bays and fjords, are poorly understood. Here, we identify salient hydrographic features in Barilari Bay, a west...

  • Highlighted Publication NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS)
    Guzman-Morales J., Gershunov A.  2019.  Climate change suppresses Santa Ana winds of Southern California and sharpens their seasonality. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:2772-2780.
    Abstract Summary:

    We downscale Santa Ana winds (SAWs) from eight global climate models (GCMs) and validate key aspects of their climatology over the historical period. We then assess SAW evolution and behavior through the 21st century, paying special attention to changes in their extreme occurrences. All GCMs project decreases in SAW activity, starting in the early 21st century, which are commensurate with decreases in the southwestward pressure gradient force...

  • Landry MR, Beckley L.E, Muhling B.A.  2019.  Climate sensitivities and uncertainties in food-web pathways supporting larval bluefin tuna in subtropical oligotrophic oceans. Ices Journal of Marine Science. 76:359-369.
    Abstract Summary:

    Compared with high-latitude seas, the ecological implications of climate change for top consumers in subtropical regions are poorly understood. One critical area of knowledge deficiency is the nature of food-web connections to larvae during their vulnerable time in the plankton. Bluefin tuna (BFT) are highly migratory temperate species whose early life stages are spent in ultra-oligotrophic subtropical waters. Dietary studies of BFT larvae...

  • Highlighted Publication Locations of Deep Argo float prof les in the Southwest Pacific Basin as of 20 November 2018
    Johnson G.C, Purkey S.G, Zilberman N.V, Roemmich D..  2019.  Deep Argo quantifies bottom water warming rates in the southwest Pacific Basin. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:2662-2669.
    Abstract Summary:

    Data reported from mid-2014 to late 2018 by a regional pilot array of Deep Argo floats in the Southwest Pacific Basin are used to estimate regional temperature anomalies from a long-term climatology as well as regional trends over the 4.4years of float data as a function of pressure. The data show warm anomalies that increase with increasing pressure from effectively 0 near 2,000 dbar to over 10 (+/- 1)m degrees C by 4,800 dbar, uncertainties...

  • Malfatti F., Lee C., Tinta T., Pendergraft M.A, Celussi M., Zhou Y.Y, Sultana C.M, Rotter A., Axson J.L, Collins DB et al..  2019.  Detection of active microbial enzymes in nascent sea spray aerosol: Implications for atmospheric chemistry and climate. Environmental Science & Technology Letters. 6:171-177.
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceans cover nearly three-quarters of the Earth's surface and produce vast quantities of sea spray aerosols (SSA). Studies have shown that due to ocean biology SSA particles are comprised of much more than just sea salt and often include proteins, lipids, sugars, viruses, and bacteria. In this study, we show for the first time that a diverse array of microbial enzymes (protease, lipases, and alkaline phosphatase) are transferred from the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    While studying the scientific and engineering aspects of a field-portable He-3/He-4 ratio detector, we found elevated ratios at comparatively lower temperatures that appear to result from differential diffusion of these isotopes in pure quartz glass. The He-3 enrichment relative to He-4 in lab air, expressed as the ratio R and normalized to the accepted He-3/He-4 ratio of 1.40 E-06 (R-a), ranges from peak values of about 200 to 600 in dry...

  • Wang MH, Wang J.X, Bock Y, Liang H., Dong DA, Fang P..  2019.  Dynamic mapping of the movement of landfalling atmospheric rivers over Southern California with GPS data. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:3551-3559.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long, narrow, and transient corridors of strong horizontal water vapor transport that can result in heavy precipitation. Measuring the movement of these concentrated water vapor bands is important in gaining better insight into AR characteristics and forecasts of AR-caused precipitation. We describe a method to dynamically map the movement of landfalling ARs. The method utilizes high-rate GPS observations from a...

  • Harada A.E, Burton RS.  2019.  Ecologically relevant temperature ramping rates enhance the protective heat shock response in an intertidal ectotherm. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 92:152-162.
    Abstract Summary:

    Thermal stress experiments are essential for understanding organisms' thermal limits and the physiological processes that contribute to establishing those limits. Experiments typically employ either an abrupt transfer to near-lethal temperatures or a gradually increasing thermal exposure. In the current study, we used three populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus that are known to differ in upper thermal tolerance to...

  • Goodman N.B, Wheeler A.J, Paevere P.J, Agosti G., Nematollahi N., Steinemann A..  2019.  Emissions from dryer vents during use of fragranced and fragrance-free laundry products. Air Quality Atmosphere and Health. 12:289-295.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fragranced laundry products emit a range of volatile organic compounds, including hazardous air pollutants. Exposure to fragranced emissions from laundry products has been associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks and migraine headaches. Little is known about volatile emissions from clothes dryer vents and the effectiveness of strategies to reduce concentrations and risks. This study investigates volatile emissions from...

  • Kim S, Hammerstrom K, Dayton P..  2019.  Epifaunal community response to iceberg-mediated environmental change in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 613:1-14.
    Abstract Summary:

    High-latitude marine communities are dependent on sea ice patterns. Sea ice cover limits light, and hence primary production and food supply. Plankton, carried by currents from open water to areas under the sea ice, provides a transitory food resource that is spatially and temporally variable. We recorded epifaunal abundances at 17 sites in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, over 12 yr, and found differences in communities based on location and time...

  • Cakmak S., Hebbern C., Vanos J., Crouse D.L, Tjepkema M..  2019.  Exposure to traffic and mortality risk in the 1991-2011 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). Environment International. 124:16-24.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is evidence that local traffic density and living near major roads can adversely affect health outcomes. We aimed to assess the relationship between local road length, proximity to primary highways, and cause-specific mortality in the 1991 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC). In this long-term study of 2.6 million people, based on completion of the long-form census in 1991 and followed until 2011, we used annual...

  • Stark J.S, Peltzer E.T, Kline DI, Queiros A.M, Cox T.E, Headley K., Barry J, Gazeau F., Runcie J.W, Widdicombe S. et al..  2019.  Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) experiments: Scientific and technical recommendations for future in situ ocean acidification projects. Progress in Oceanography. 172:89-107.
    Abstract Summary:

    Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) experiments are a relatively recent development in ocean acidification research, designed to address the need for in situ, long-term, community level experiments. FOCE studies have been conducted across different marine benthic habitats and regions, from Antarctica to the tropics. Based on this previous research we have formed some core operating principles that will aid those embarking on future FOCE...

  • de Verneil A., Franks PJS, Ohman MD.  2019.  Frontogenesis and the creation of fine-scale vertical phytoplankton structure. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 124:1509-1523.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fine-scale spatial structuring of phytoplankton patches has significant consequences for the marine food web, from altering phytoplankton exposure to surface light and limiting nutrients, to influencing the foraging of zooplankton, modifying carbon export, and impacting patterns of diversity. Hence, it is important to identify these fine-scale features and determine what generates their variability. Here we present evidence of fine-scale,...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Marine microorganisms are receiving more attention as a promising potential source of new natural products. In the present study, we performed genomic and metabolomic analyses to explore the metabolic potential of the obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. The genomes of thirty Salinispora strains were prospected in search of biosynthetic gene clusters including polyketide synthase (PKS), nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NPRS),...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation can be explained by the accumulation of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities (DMI). Asymmetries in the levels of hybrid inviability and hybrid sterility are commonly observed between reciprocal crosses, a pattern that can result from the involvement of uniparentally inherited factors. The mitochondrial genome is one such factor that appears to participate in DMI in some crosses but the frequency...

  • DeFlorio M.J, Waliser D.E, Guan B., Ralph FM, Vitart F..  2019.  Global evaluation of atmospheric river subseasonal prediction skill. Climate Dynamics. 52:3039-3060.
    Abstract Summary:

    Subseasonal-to-Seasonal (S2S) forecasts of weather and climate extremes are being increasingly demanded by water resource managers, operational forecasters, and other users in the applications community. This study uses hindcast data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) S2S forecast system to evaluate global subseasonal prediction skill of atmospheric rivers (ARs), which are intense lower tropospheric plumes of...

  • Park Y., Gerstoft P, Seong W..  2019.  Grid-free compressive mode extraction. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 145:1427-1442.
    Abstract Summary:

    A grid-free compressive sensing (CS) based method for extracting the normal modes of acoustic propagation in the ocean waveguide from vertical line array (VLA) data is presented. Extracting the normal modes involves the estimation of mode horizontal wavenumbers and the corresponding mode shapes. Sparse representation of the waveguide propagation using modes at discrete horizontal wavenumbers enables CS to be applied. Grid-free CS, based on...

  • Northcott D., Sevadjian J., Sancho-Gallegos D.A, Wahl C., Friederich J., Chavez F.P.  2019.  Impacts of urban carbon dioxide emissions on sea-air flux and ocean acidification in nearshore waters. Plos One. 14
    Abstract Summary:

    Greatly enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels relative to well-mixed marine air are observed during periods of offshore winds at coastal sensor platforms in Monterey Bay, California, USA. The highest concentrations originate from urban and agricultural areas, are driven by diurnal winds, and peak in the early morning. These enhanced atmospheric levels can be detected across a similar to 100km wide nearshore area and represent a...

  • Oltmanns M., Straneo F, Tedesco M..  2019.  Increased Greenland melt triggered by large-scale, year-round cyclonic moisture intrusions. Cryosphere. 13:815-825.
    Abstract Summary:

    Surface melting is a major driver of Greenland's mass loss. Yet, the mechanisms that trigger melt are still insufficiently understood because seasonally based studies blend processes initiating melt with positive feedbacks. Here, we focus on the triggers of melt by examining the synoptic atmospheric conditions associated with 313 rapid melt increases, detected in a satellite-derived melt extent product, equally distributed throughout the year...

  • Wiedensohler A., Ma N., Birmili W., Heintzenberg J., Ditas F., Andreae M.O, Panov A..  2019.  Infrequent new particle formation over the remote boreal forest of Siberia. Atmospheric Environment. 200:167-169.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aerosol particle number size distributions (PNSD) were investigated to verify, if extremely low-volatility organic vapors (ELVOC) from natural sources alone could induce new particle formation and growth events over the remote boreal forest region of Siberia, hundreds of kilometers away from significant anthropogenic sources. We re-evaluated observations determined at a height of 300 m of the remote observatory ZOTTO (Zotino Tall Tower...

  • Zhou ZQ, Zhang R.H, Xie SP.  2019.  Interannual variability of summer surface air temperature over central India: Implications for monsoon onset. Journal of Climate. 32:1693-1706.
    Abstract Summary:

    Year-to-year variability of surface air temperature (SAT) over central India is most pronounced in June. Climatologically over central India, SAT peaks in May, and the transition from the hot premonsoon to the cooler monsoon period takes place around 9 June, associated with the northeastward propagation of intraseasonal convective anomalies from the western equatorial Indian Ocean. Positive (negative) SAT anomalies during June correspond to a...

  • Hu X.Y, Sprintall J, Yuan D.L, Tranchant B., Gaspar P., Koch-Larrouy A., Reffray G., Li X., Wang Z, Li Y. et al..  2019.  Interannual variability of the Sulawesi Sea circulation forced by Indo-Pacific planetary waves. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 124:1616-1633.
    Abstract Summary:

    The regional INDESO model configured in the Indonesian seas from 2008 to 2016 is used to study the mechanisms responsible for the variability of the currents in the Sulawesi Sea of the Indonesian seas. The model simulation compares reasonably with the seasonal to interannual variability of the moored current meter observations in the upper 350m or so of the Maluku Channel during 2015 and 2016. The interannual variability of the currents in...

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