Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

50 years of scientific ocean drilling

Impact:
Here, we briefly review the history, impacts, and scientific achievements of five decades of coordinated scientific ocean drilling.

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  • Duke E.M, Harada A.E, Burton RS.  2018.  Large interannual variation in spawning in San Diego marine protected areas captured by molecular identification of fish eggs. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 604:199-210.
    Abstract Summary:

    Long-term monitoring of marine ecosystems is critical to assessing how global processes such as natural environmental variation and climate change affect marine populations. Ichthyoplankton surveys provide one approach to such monitoring. We conducted weekly fish egg collections off the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Pier (La Jolla, CA, USA) for 3 yr (2014 to 2017) and added a second sampling site near the La Jolla kelp forest for...

  • Huang X.M, Hu C.Q, Huang X., Chu Y., Tseng Y.H, Zhang GJ, Lin Y.L.  2018.  A long-term tropical mesoscale convective systems dataset based on a novel objective automatic tracking algorithm. Climate Dynamics. 51:3145-3159.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) are important components of tropical weather systems and the climate system. Long-term data of MCS are of great significance in weather and climate research. Using long-term (1985-2008) global satellite infrared (IR) data, we developed a novel objective automatic tracking algorithm, which combines a Kalman filter (KF) with the conventional area-overlapping method, to generate a comprehensive MCS dataset....

  • Watanabe M., Kamae Y., Shiogama H., DeAngelis A.M, Suzuki K..  2018.  Low clouds link equilibrium climate sensitivity to hydrological sensitivity. Nature Climate Change. 8:901-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and hydrological sensitivity describe the global mean surface temperature and precipitation responses to a doubling of atmospheric CO2. Despite their connection via the Earth's energy budget, the physical linkage between these two metrics remains controversial. Here, using a global climate model with a perturbed mean hydrological cycle, we show that ECS and hydrological sensitivity per unit warming are...

  • Huang K.J, Teng F.Z, Plank T., Staudigel H., Hu Y., Bao Z.Y.  2018.  Magnesium isotopic composition of altered oceanic crust and the global Mg cycle. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 238:357-373.
    Abstract Summary:

    To investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during low-temperature alteration of oceanic crust and to further under- stand its role in the global Mg cycle, we measured the Mg isotopic compositions (Mg-25/Mg-24 and Mg-26/Mg-24) of a set of samples of altered oceanic crust (AOC) recovered from the Ocean Drilling Program Hole 801C, the reference site for old crust (similar to 170 Ma) subducting in the Pacific. The measured delta Mg-26 values...

  • Highlighted Publication Pillow lava photo by Hubert Staudigel
    Castillo P.R, MacIsaac C., Perry S., Veizer J..  2018.  Marine carbonates in the mantle source of oceanic basalts: Pb isotopic constraints. Scientific Reports. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    For almost fifty years, geochemists have been interpreting the clues from Pb isotopic ratios concerning mantle composition and evolution separately. The Pb isotopes of ocean island basalts (OIB) indicate that their mantle source is heterogeneous, most likely due to the presence of end-components derived from recycled crust and sediment. Some OIB have unusually high Pb-206/Pb-204 coming from one of the end-components with a long time-...

  • Constable S, Kowalczyk P., Bloomer S..  2018.  Measuring marine self-potential using an autonomous underwater vehicle. Geophysical Journal International. 215:49-60.
    Abstract Summary:

    The marine self-potential (SP) method is used to explore for hydrothermal venting and associated seafloor mineralization. Measurements are commonly made in deep water using instruments towed close to the seafloor, which requires dedicated ship time, is limited to slow speeds, and is subject to navigation errors. Instead, we mounted a three-axis electric field receiver on an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), and tested the method with data...

  • Fine E.C, MacKinnon JA, Alford MH, Mickett J.B.  2018.  Microstructure observations of turbulent heat fluxes in a warm-core Canada Basin eddy. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 48:2397-2418.
    Abstract Summary:

    An intrahalocline eddy was observed on the Chukchi slope in September of 2015 using both towed CTD and microstructure temperature and shear sections. The core of the eddy was 6 degrees C, significantly warmer than the surrounding -1 degrees C water and far exceeding typical temperatures of warm-core Arctic eddies. Microstructure sections indicated that outside of the eddy the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy epsilon was quite...

  • Chang C., Smith SGL.  2018.  The motion of a buoyant vortex filament. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 857
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigate the motion of a thin vortex filament in the presence of buoyancy. The asymptotic model of Moore & Saffman (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. bond. A, vol. 272, 1972, pp. 403-429) is extended to take account of buoyancy forces in the force balance on a vortex element. The motion of a buoyant vortex is given by the transverse component of force balance, while the tangential component governs the dynamics of the structure in the core. We...

  • Chaput J., Aster R.C, McGrath D., Baker M., Anthony R.E, Gerstoft P, Bromirski P., Nyblade A., Stephen R.A, Wiens D.A et al..  2018.  Near-surface environmentally forced changes in the Ross Ice Shelf observed with ambient seismic noise. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:11187-11196.
    Abstract Summary:

    Continuous seismic observations across the Ross Ice Shelf reveal ubiquitous ambient resonances at frequencies >5 Hz. These firn-trapped surface wave signals arise through wind and snow bedform interactions coupled with very low velocity structures. Progressive and long-term spectral changes are associated with surface snow redistribution by wind and with a January 2016 regional melt event. Modeling demonstrates high spectral sensitivity to...

  • Nevison C., Munro D., Lovenduski N., Cassar N., Keeling R., Krummel P., Tjiputra J..  2018.  Net community production in the Southern Ocean: Insights from comparing atmospheric potential oxygen to satellite ocean color algorithms and ocean models. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:10549-10559.
    Abstract Summary:

    The contribution of oceanic net community production (NCP) to the observed seasonal cycle in atmospheric potential oxygen (APO) is estimated at Cape Grim, Tasmania. The resulting APO(NCP) signal is compared to satellite and ocean model-based estimates of POC export and NCP across the Southern Ocean. The satellite products underestimate the amplitude of the observed APONCP seasonal cycle by more than a factor of 2. Ocean models suggest two...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Lamellibrachia Webb, 1969 has eight currently recognized species reported from chemosynthetic environments in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Mediterranean. Of these, Lamellibrachia barhami Webb, 1969 has been reported in the eastern Pacific from Canada to Costa Rica. In this study, phylogenetic analyses of Lamellibrachia tubeworms sampled from the Costa Rica margin confirm the large geographic range of L. barhami and reveal a new Lamellibrachia...

  • Martin J.W, Wall A.R, Shank T., Cha H., Seid C.A, Rouse GW.  2018.  A new species of Alvinocaris (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea: Alvinocarididae) from Costa Rican methane seeps. Zootaxa. 4504:418-430.
    Abstract Summary:

    A new caridean shrimp, Alvinocaris costaricensis, is described from methane seeps in the eastern Pacific off Costa Rica. The new species is the 16th described species of the genus, and by molecular analysis appears closest to Alvinocaris komaii from the Lau Basin, southwestern Pacific, but shares certain morphological characters with A. lusca from the Galapagos Rift and A. muricola from the West Florida Escarpment, as well as with A. kexueae...

  • Johnson G.C, Pezner A.K, Sura S.A, Fong P..  2018.  Nutrients and herbivory, but not sediments, have opposite and independent effects on the tropical macroalga, Padina boryana. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 507:17-22.
    Abstract Summary:

    Multiple anthropogenic stressors including overfishing, nutrient loading, and sediments are major drivers that may support the proliferation of macroalgae on coral reefs; however, few studies have investigated all three simultaneously. We evaluated the effects of all three stressors (nutrient enrichment, small and large sediment grain sizes, and herbivory) on biomass accumulation of the dominant coral reef macroalga Padina boryana in a...

  • Chamberlain P, Talley LD, Mazloff M, Riser S, Speer K, Gray AR, Schwartzman A.  2018.  Observing the ice-covered Weddell Gyre with profiling floats: position uncertainties and correlation statistics. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
    Abstract Summary:

    Argo-type profiling floats do not receive satellite positioning while under sea ice. Common practice is to approximate unknown positions by linearly interpolating latitude-longitude between known positions before and after ice cover, although it has been suggested that some improvement may be obtained by interpolating along contours of planetary-geostrophic potential vorticity. Profiles with linearly interpolated positions represent 16% of...

  • Chen Z., Bromirski PD, Gerstoft P, Stephen R.A, Wiens D.A, Aster R.C, Nyblade A.A.  2018.  Ocean-excited plate waves in the Ross and Pine Island Glacier ice shelves. Journal of Glaciology. 64:730-744.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ice shelves play an important role in buttressing land ice from reaching the sea, thus restraining the rate of grounded ice loss. Long-period gravity-wave impacts excite vibrations in ice shelves that can expand pre-existing fractures and trigger iceberg calving. To investigate the spatial amplitude variability and propagation characteristics of these vibrations, a 34-station broadband seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS)...

  • Palóczy A, Gille ST, McClean JL.  2018.  Oceanic heat delivery to the Antarctic continental shelf: Large-scale, low-frequency variability. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
    Abstract Summary:

    Onshore penetration of oceanic water across the Antarctic continental slope (ACS) plays a major role in global sea level rise by delivering heat to the Antarctic marginal seas, thus contributing to the basal melting of ice shelves. Here, the time-mean (Φmean) and eddy (Φeddy) components of the heat transport (Φ) across the 1000 m isobath along the entire ACS are investigated using a 0.1° global coupled ocean/sea ice simulation based on the...

  • Vashishtha D., Sieber W., Hailey B., Guirguis K., Gershunov A, Al-Delaimy W.K.  2018.  Outpatient clinic visits during heat waves: findings from a large family medicine clinical database. 35:567-570.
    Abstract Summary:

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether heat waves are associated with increased frequency of clinic visits for ICD-9 codes of illnesses traditionally associated with heat waves. Methods. During 4 years of family medicine clinic data between 2012 and 2016, we identified six heat wave events in San Diego County. For each heat wave event, we selected a control period in the same season that was twice as long. Scheduling...

  • Zhang Y., Xie SP, Kosaka Y, Yang J.C.  2018.  Pacific decadal oscillation: Tropical Pacific forcing versus internal variability. Journal of Climate. 31:8265-8279.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) is the leading mode of sea surface temperature (SST) variability over the North Pacific (north of 20 degrees N). Its South Pacific counterpart (south of 20 degrees S) is the South Pacific decadal oscillation (SPDO). The effects of tropical eastern Pacific (TEP) SST forcing and internal atmospheric variability are investigated for both the PDO and SPDO using a 10-member ensemble tropical Pacific pacemaker...

  • Avery M.S, Gee J.S, Bowles J.A, Jackson M.J.  2018.  Paleointensity estimates from ignimbrites: The Bishop Tuff Revisited. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:3811-3831.
    Abstract Summary:

    Volcanic ash flow tuffs (ignimbrites) may contain single domain-sized (titano) magnetite that should be good for recording geomagnetic field intensity, but due to their complex thermal histories also contain other magnetic grains, which can complicate and obscure paleointensity determination. An initial study of the suitability of the similar to 767ka Bishop Tuff for measuring paleointensity found an internally consistent estimate of 43.03.2T...

  • Podell S, Blanton JM, Neu A, Agarwal V, Biggs JS, Moore BS, Allen EE.  2018.  Pangenomic comparison of globally distributed Poribacteria associated with sponge hosts and marine particles.
    Abstract Summary:

    Candidatus Poribacteria is a little-known bacterial phylum, previously characterized by partial genomes from a single sponge host, but never isolated in culture. We have reconstructed multiple genome sequences from four different sponge genera and compared them to recently reported, uncharacterized Poribacteria genomes from the open ocean, discovering shared and unique functional characteristics. Two distinct, habitat-linked taxonomic...

  • Coppola U., Caccavale F., Scelzo M., Holland N.D, Ristoratore F., D'Aniello S..  2018.  Ran GTPase, an eukaryotic gene novelty, is involved in amphioxus mitosis. Plos One. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    Ran (ras-related nuclear protein) is a small GTPase belonging to the RAS superfamily that is specialized in nuclear trafficking. Through different accessory proteins, Ran plays key roles in several processes including nuclear import-export, mitotic progression and spindle assembly. Consequently, Ran dysfunction has been linked to several human pathologies. This work illustrates the high degree of amino acid conservation of Ran orthologues...

  • Byun G., Song HC, Kim J.S, Park J.S.  2018.  Real-time tracking of a surface ship using a bottom-mounted horizontal array. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:2375-2382.
    Abstract Summary:

    The cascade of blind deconvolution and array invariant has been successful to localize and track a surface ship radiating random waveforms, using a 56-m long vertical array in 100-m deep shallow water. In this paper, it is shown that a 60-m long, bottom-mounted horizontal array can be utilized for blind deconvolution to extract the Green's functions from the same ship (100-800 Hz), in conjunction with the array invariant for source-range...

  • Kauer K., Bellquist L., Gleason M., Rubinstein A., Sullivan J., Oberhoff D., Damrosch L., Norvell M., Bell M..  2018.  Reducing bycatch through a risk pool: A case study of the US West Coast groundfish fishery. Marine Policy. 96:90-99.
    Abstract Summary:

    Voluntary collective agreements among fishermen can improve the environmental and economic performance of a fishery, particularly when local leadership, strong incentives, catch accountability, and operational support are in place. Rights-based fisheries, such as Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) systems, incentivize fishermen to act collectively to reduce fishing impacts, enhance stock health, and improve economic outcomes. However, developing...

  • Knowles N., Cronkite-Ratcliff C., Pierce DW, Cayan DR.  2018.  Responses of unimpaired flows, storage, and managed flows to scenarios of climate change in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Watershed. Water Resources Research. 54:7631-7650.
    Abstract Summary:

    Projections of meteorology downscaled from global climate model runs were used to drive a model of unimpaired hydrology of the Sacramento/San Joaquin watershed, which in turn drove models of operational responses and managed flows. Twenty daily climate change scenarios for water years 1980-2099 were evaluated with the goal of producing inflow boundary conditions for a watershed sediment model and for a hydrodynamical model of the San...

  • Nadler L.E, Killen S.S, Domenici P., McCormick M.I.  2018.  Role of water flow regime in the swimming behaviour and escape performance of a schooling fish. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    Animals are exposed to variable and rapidly changing environmental flow conditions, such as wind in terrestrial habitats and currents in aquatic systems. For fishes, previous work suggests that individuals exhibit flow-induced changes in aerobic swimming performance. Yet, no one has examined whether similar plasticity is found in fast-start escape responses, which are modulated by anaerobic swimming performance, sensory stimuli and neural...

  • Kilpatrick T, Xie S-P, Miller AJ, Schneider N.  2018.  Satellite observations of enhanced chlorophyll variability in the Southern California Bight. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 123:7550-7563.
    Abstract Summary:

    Satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor reveal a “tongue” of elevated near-surface chlorophyll that extends into the Southern California Bight from Point Conception. A local chlorophyll maximum at the western edge of the bight, near the Santa Rosa Ridge, indicates that the chlorophyll is not solely due to advection from Point Conception but is enhanced by local...

  • Pickett E.P, Fraser W.R, Patterson-Fraser D.L, Cimino M.A, Torres L.G, Friedlaender A.S.  2018.  Spatial niche partitioning may promote coexistence of Pygoscelis penguins as climate-induced sympatry occurs. Ecology and Evolution. 8:9764-9778.
    Abstract Summary:

    Climate-induced range overlap can result in novel interactions between similar species and potentially lead to competitive exclusion. The West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth and is experiencing a poleward climate migration from a polar to subpolar environment. This has resulted in a range expansion of the ice-intolerant gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) and a coincident decrease in ice-obligate...

  • Leung K., Subramanian AC, Shen S.SP.  2018.  Statistical characteristics of long-term high-resolution precipitable water vapor data at Darwin. Advances in Data Science and Adaptive Analysis. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of a unique long-term high-resolution precipitable water vapor (PWV) data set at Darwin, Australia, from 12 March 2002 to 28 February 2011. To understand the convective precipitation processes for climate model development, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program made high-frequency radar observations of PWV at the Darwin ARM site and released the best...

  • Lee C.TA, Erdman M., Yang W.B, Ingram L., Chin E.J, DePaolo D.J.  2018.  Sulfur isotopic compositions of deep arc cumulates. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 500:76-85.
    Abstract Summary:

    Heavy sulfur isotopic compositions of arc lavas suggest a seawater component in the sulfur budget of arc lavas, but whether the seawater signature derives from the subducting slab or from magma interactions with lithologies in the upper plate is unclear. To see through the effects of degassing or crustal processing, a study was conducted on the S isotopic composition of deep arc cumulates from 45-90 km beneath the Sierra Nevada batholith in...

  • Xu X.H, Ward L.A, Jiang J.L, Smith-Konter B, Tymofyeyeva E., Lindsey EO, Sylvester A.G, Sandwell DT.  2018.  Surface creep rate of the southern San Andreas Fault modulated by stress perturbations from nearby large events. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:10259-10268.
    Abstract Summary:

    A major challenge for understanding the physics of shallow fault creep has been to observe and model the long-term effect of stress changes on creep rate. Here we investigate the surface creep along the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) using data from interferometric synthetic aperture radar spanning over 25 years (ERS 1992-1999, ENVISAT 2003-2010, and Sentinel-1 2014-present). The main result of this analysis is that the average surface...

  • Sibert E., Friedman M., Hull P., Hunt G., Norris R..  2018.  Two pulses of morphological diversification in Pacific pelagic fishes following the Cretaceous - Palaeogene mass extinction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 285
    Abstract Summary:

    Molecular phylogenies suggest some major radiations of open-ocean fish clades occurred roughly coincident with the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K/Pg) boundary, however the timing and nature of this diversification is poorly constrained. Here, we investigate evolutionary patterns in ray-finned fishes across the K/Pg mass extinction 66 million years ago (Ma), using microfossils (isolated teeth) preserved in a South Pacific sediment core spanning 72-...

  • Barron ME, Thies AB, Espinoza JA, Barott KL, Hamdoun A, Tresguerres M.  2018.  A vesicular Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in coral calcifying cells. Plos One. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    The calcium carbonate skeletons of corals provide the underlying structure of coral reefs; however, the cellular mechanisms responsible for coral calcification remain poorly understood. In osteoblasts from vertebrate animals, a Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) present in the plasma membrane transports Ca2+ to the site of bone formation. The aims of this study were to establish whether NCX exists in corals and its localization within coral cells,...

  • Nematollahi N., Kolev S.D, Steinemann A..  2018.  Volatile chemical emissions from essential oils. Air Quality Atmosphere and Health. 11:949-954.
    Abstract Summary:

    Essential oils, widely used in society, emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Some of these VOCs are considered as potentially hazardous under federal regulations. However, essential oils are exempt from disclosure of their ingredients on their label. Thus, the public may lack information on emissions and potential hazards from essential oils. This study examined VOCs emitted from a range of commercial essential oils, including tea...

  • Zhou Q., Hu J.S, Liu L.J, Chaparro T., Stegman DR, Faccenda M..  2018.  Western US seismic anisotropy revealing complex mantle dynamics. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 500:156-167.
    Abstract Summary:

    The origin of the complex pattern of SKS splitting over the western United States (U.S.) remains a long-lasting debate, where a model that simultaneously matches the various SKS features is still lacking. Here we present a series of quantitative geodynamic models with data assimilation that systematically evaluate the influence of different lithospheric and mantle structures on mantle flow and seismic anisotropy. These tests reveal a...

  • Carranza M.M, Gille ST, Franks PJS, Johnson K.S, Pinkel R, Girton J.B.  2018.  When mixed layers are not mixed. Storm-driven mixing and bio-optical vertical gradients in mixed layers of the Southern Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:7264-7289.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mixed layers are defined to have homogeneous density, temperature, and salinity. However, bio-optical profiles may not always be fully homogenized within the mixed layer. The relative timescales of mixing and biological processes determine whether bio-optical gradients can form within a uniform density mixed layer. Vertical profiles of bio-optical measurements from biogeochemical Argo floats and elephant seal tags in the Southern Ocean are...

  • Viglione G.A, Thompson A.F, Flexas M.M, Sprintall J, Swart S..  2018.  Abrupt transitions in submesoscale structure in Southern Drake Passage: Glider observations and model results. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 48:2011-2027.
    Abstract Summary:

    Enhanced vertical velocities associated with submesoscale motions may rapidly modify mixed layer depths and increase exchange between the mixed layer and the ocean interior. These dynamics are of particular importance in the Southern Ocean, where the ventilation of many density classes occurs. Here we present results from an observational field program in southern Drake Passage, a region preconditioned for submesoscale instability owing to...

  • Richards EL, Song H.C, Hodgkiss W.S.  2018.  Acoustic scattering comparison of Kirchhoff approximation to Rayleigh-Fourier method for sinusoidal surface waves at low grazing angles. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1269-1278.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Fourier series method for implementing the Rayleigh hypothesis [Rayleigh-Fourier method (RFM)] is used as a reference solution to assess the Kirchhoff approximation of the Helmholtz integral [Helmholtz-Kirchhoff approximation (HKA)] for modeling broadband scatter from sinusoidal surfaces at low grazing angles. The HKA is a valuable solution because it has an eigen-ray interpretation without unbounded caustic amplitudes and discontinuous...

  • Gray A.R, Johnson K.S, Bushinsky S.M, Riser S.C, Russell J.L, Talley LD, Wanninkhof R, Williams N.L, Sarmiento J.L.  2018.  Autonomous biogeochemical floats detect significant carbon dioxide outgassing in the high-latitude Southern Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:9049-9057.
    Abstract Summary:

    Although the Southern Ocean is thought to account for a significant portion of the contemporary oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2), flux estimates in this region are based on sparse observations that are strongly biased toward summer. Here we present new estimates of Southern Ocean air-sea CO2 fluxes calculated with measurements from biogeochemical profiling floats deployed by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and...

  • Valletta R.D, Willenbring J.K, Passchier S, Elmi C..  2018.  Be-10/Be-9 ratios reflect Antarctic ice sheet freshwater discharge during Pliocene warming. 33:934-944.
    Abstract Summary:

    Along glaciated margins, ratios of meteoric cosmogenic beryllium-10, Be-10, normalized to its stable isotope, Be-9, reflect an environmental signal, driven ultimately by climatic change. We explore the application of this isotopic pair as a proxy for East Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics. We analyze Be-10/Be-9 in middle Pliocene glaciomarine sediments offshore the Wilkes Land Region (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1361A) and...

  • Highlighted Publication Colorized blending of pseudu nitzschia and data
    Brunson JK, McKinnie SMK, Chekan JR, McCrow JP, Miles ZD, Bertrand EM, Bielinski VA, Luhavaya H, Oborník M, G. Smith J et al..  2018.  Biosynthesis of the neurotoxin domoic acid in a bloom-forming diatom. Science. 361:1356-1358.
    Abstract Summary:

    Algal blooms can devastate marine mammal communities through the production of neurotoxins that accumulate within the food web. Brunson et al. identified a cluster of genes associated with biosynthesis of the neurotoxin domoic acid in a marine diatom (see the Perspective by Pohnert et al.). In vitro experiments established a series of enzymes that create the core structure of the toxin. Knowledge of the genes involved in domoic acid...

  • Saturno J., Holanda B.A, Pohlker C., Ditas F., Wang Q.Q, Moran-Zuloaga D., Brito J., Carbone S., Cheng Y.F, Chi X.G et al..  2018.  Black and brown carbon over central Amazonia: long-term aerosol measurements at the ATTO site. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:12817-12843.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Amazon rainforest is a sensitive ecosystem experiencing the combined pressures of progressing deforestation and climate change. Its atmospheric conditions oscillate between biogenic and biomass burning (BB) dominated states. The Amazon further represents one of the few remaining continental places where the atmosphere approaches pristine conditions during occasional wet season episodes. The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO) has been...

  • Yuan Z, Richards EL, Song HC, Hodgkiss WS, Yan S.  2018.  Calibration of vertical array tilt using snapping shrimp sound. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1203-1210.
    Abstract Summary:

    Snapping shrimp are the dominant biological source of high-frequency (>2 kHz) ambient noise in warm coastal waters. In a recent experiment, the highly impulsive signals produced by shrimp snaps were recorded continually by a large-aperture vertical array (56 m) that was bottom-moored in 100-m deep shallow water. Assuming the array vertical, initial localization of individual snaps based on wavefront curvature along the array indicated that...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study examines changes in Earth's energy budget during and after the global warming pause (or hiatus) using observations from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System. We find a marked 0.83 +/- 0.41 Wm(-2) reduction in global mean reflected shortwave (SW) top-of-atmosphere (TOA) flux during the three years following the hiatus that results in an increase in net energy into the climate system. A partial radiative perturbation...

  • Kravitz B., Rasch PJ, Wang HL, Robock A., Gabriel C., Boucher O., Cole J.NS, Haywood J., Ji D.Y, Jones A. et al..  2018.  The climate effects of increasing ocean albedo: an idealized representation of solar geoengineering. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:13097-13113.
    Abstract Summary:

    Geoengineering, or climate intervention, describes methods of deliberately altering the climate system to offset anthropogenic climate change. As an idealized representation of near-surface solar geoengineering over the ocean, such as marine cloud brightening, this paper discusses experiment Glocean-albedo of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP), involving an abrupt quadrupling of the CO2 concentration and an...

  • Wilson A., Scott R.C, Cadeddu M.P, Ghate V., Lubin D..  2018.  Cloud optical properties over West Antarctica from shortwave spectroradiometer measurements during AWARE. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:9559-9570.
    Abstract Summary:

    A shortwave spectroradiometer was deployed on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). This instrument recorded 1-min averages of downwelling hemispheric spectral irradiance covering the wavelength range 350-2,200nm with spectral resolution 3 and 10nm for wavelengths shorter and longer than 1,000nm, respectively...

  • Fleming A.H, Yack T., Redfern JV, Becker EA, Moore TJ, Barlow J.  2018.  Combining acoustic and visual detections in habitat models of Dall's porpoise. Ecological Modelling. 384:198-208.
    Abstract Summary:

    Habitat-based distribution modelling is an established method for predicting species distributions and is necessary for many conservation and management applications. Cetacean habitat models have primarily been developed using data from visual surveys. However, numerous techniques exist for detecting animal presence and each capture a portion of the true population. Combining detection data gathered from multiple survey methods, such as...

  • Lunt M.F, Park S., Li S., Henne S., Manning A.J, Ganesan A.L, Simpson I.J, Blake D.R, Liang Q., O'Doherty S et al..  2018.  Continued emissions of the ozone-depleting substance carbon tetrachloride from Eastern Asia. Geophysical Research Letters.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, accounting for about 10% of the chlorine in the troposphere. Under the terms of the Montreal Protocol, its production for dispersive uses was banned from 2010. In this work we show that, despite the controls on production being introduced, CCl4 emissions from the eastern part of China did not decline between 2009 and 2016. This finding is in contrast to a recent bottom-up estimate,...

  • Ricke K, Drouet L, Caldeira K, Tavoni M.  2018.  Country-level social cost of carbon. Nature Climate Change.
    Abstract Summary:

    The social cost of carbon (SCC) is a commonly employed metric of the expected economic damages from carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Although useful in an optimal policy context, a world-level approach obscures the heterogeneous geography of climate damage and vast differences in country-level contributions to the global SCC, as well as climate and socio-economic uncertainties, which are larger at the regional level. Here we estimate country-...

  • Hu S.N, Fedorov A.V.  2018.  Cross-equatorial winds control El Nino diversity and change. Nature Climate Change. 8:798-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Over the past two decades, El Nino events have weakened on average and their sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies shifted westward towards the central Pacific. Moreover, the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), which typically migrates southward from its northerly position during El Nino events, has not crossed the Equator since 1998. The causes of these changes remain under debate(1-5). Here, using in situ, satellite and atmospheric...

  • Shen W.S, Wiens D.A, Anandakrishnan S., Aster R.C, Gerstoft P, Bromirski PD, Hansen S.E, Dalziel I.WD, Heeszel D.S, Huerta A.D et al..  2018.  The crust and upper mantle structure of central and west Antarctica from bayesian inversion of rayleigh wave and receiver functions. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:7824-7849.
    Abstract Summary:

    We construct a new seismic model for central and West Antarctica by jointly inverting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities along with P wave receiver functions. Ambient noise tomography exploiting data from more than 200 seismic stations deployed over the past 18years is used to construct Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion maps. Comparison between the ambient noise phase velocity maps with those constructed using...

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