Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

The competing effects of breaking waves on surfzone heat fluxes: Albedo versus wave heating

Impact:
Temperature variation in nearshore waters affects the local ecology, and is also used to study important physical processes. Wave breaking contributes to surfzone temperature variation in two ways. First, breaking waves dissipate their energy in the surfzone creating friction (heat) and foam. Surfzone foam reflects sunlight reducing solar warming of the surfzone, thus leading to cooling relative to no wave breaking. These two competing wave effects (addition of frictional heating and reduction in solar heating) are quantified with a yearlong experiment at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier (La Jolla, CA). On average, frictional wave heating added 28 W to each square meter of surfzone. At the same time, surface foam reduced the solar heating in each square meter of surfzone by 41 W on average. The relative contribution of these competing effects varied depending on the wave height and the available sunlight, which depended on seasons and clouds. Temperature variation caused by these two effects can be estimated at other locations if the wave height and the amount of sunlight are known.

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  • Parnell-Turner R.E, Mittelstaedt E., Kurz M.D, Jones M.R, Soule S.A, Klein F., Wanless V.D, Fornari D.J.  2018.  The final stages of slip and volcanism on an oceanic detachment fault at 13°48′N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems.
    Abstract Summary:

    While processes associated with initiation and maintenance of oceanic detachment faults are becoming better constrained, much less is known about the tectonic and magmatic conditions that lead to fault abandonment. Here we present results from near-bottom investigations using the submersible Alvin and autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry at a recently extinct detachment fault near 13°48′N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, that allow documentation of the...

  • Quinlan Z.A, Remple K., Fox M.D, Silbiger N.J, Oliver T.A, Putnam H.M, Kelly LW, Carlson CA, Donahue M.J, Nelson CE.  2018.  Fluorescent organic exudates of corals and algae in tropical reefs are compositionally distinct and increase with nutrient enrichment. Limnology and Oceanography Letters. 3:331-340.
    Abstract Summary:

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition influences microbial community metabolism and benthic primary producers are a source of DOM in coral reefs. As reef benthic communities change, in part due to nutrient pollution, understanding impacts on reef microbial processes requires knowledge of DOM sources and composition. We conducted a multi-week mesocosm experiment dosing four coral reef benthic constituents with three levels of nitrate and...

  • Lavers D.A, Rodwell M.J, Richardson D.S, Ralph FM, Doyle J.D, Reynolds C.A, Tallapragada V., Pappenberger F..  2018.  The gauging and modeling of rivers in the sky. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:7828-7834.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are responsible for most of the horizontal water vapor flux outside of the tropics and can cause extreme precipitation and affect the atmospheric dynamics and predictability. For their impacts to be skillfully predicted, it is essential for weather forecasting systems to accurately represent AR characteristics. Using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Integrated Forecasting System and dropsonde...

  • Barreto F.S, Watson E.T, Lima T.G, Willett C.S, Edmands S., Li W.Z, Burton RS.  2018.  Genomic signatures of mitonuclear coevolution across populations of Tigriopus californicus. 2:1250-1257.
    Abstract Summary:

    The copepod Tigriopus californicus shows extensive population divergence and is becoming a model for understanding allopatric differentiation and the early stages of speciation. Here, we report a high-quality reference genome for one population (similar to 190 megabases across 12 scaffolds, and similar to 15,500 protein-coding genes). Comparison with other arthropods reveals 2,526 genes presumed to be specific to T. californicus, with an...

  • Schlitzer R., Anderson R.F, Dodas E.M, Lohan M., Geibere W., Tagliabue A., Bowie A., Jeandel C., Maldonado M.T, Landing W.M et al..  2018.  The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017. Chemical Geology. 493:210-223.
    Abstract Summary:

    The GEOTRACES Intermediate Data Product 2017 (IDP2017) is the second publicly available data product of the international GEOTRACES programme, and contains data measured and quality controlled before the end of 2016. The IDP2017 includes data from the Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Southern and Indian oceans, with about twice the data volume of the previous IDP2014. For the first time, the IDP2017 contains data for a large suite of biogeochemical...

  • Cazenave A., Meyssignac B., Ablain M., Balmaseda M., Bamber J., Barletta V., Beckley B., Benveniste J., Berthier E, Blazquez A. et al..  2018.  Global sea-level budget 1993-present. Earth System Science Data. 10:1551-1590.
    Abstract Summary:

    Global mean sea level is an integral of changes occurring in the climate system in response to unforced climate variability as well as natural and anthropogenic forcing factors. Its temporal evolution allows changes (e.g.,acceleration) to be detected in one or more components. Study of the sea-level budget provides constraints on missing or poorly known contributions, such as the unsurveyed deep ocean or the still uncertain land water...

  • McGregor G.R, Vanos J.K.  2018.  Heat: a primer for public health researchers. 161:138-146.
    Abstract Summary:

    Objectives: To provide a primer on the physical characteristics of heat from a biometeorological perspective for those interested in the epidemiology of extreme heat. Study design: A literature search design was used. Methods: A review of the concepts of heat, heat stress and human heat balance was conducted using Web of Sciences, Scopus and PubMed. Results: Heat, as recognised in the field of human biometeorology, is a complex phenomenon...

  • Lukowiak M., Cramer K.L, Madzia D., Hynes M.G, Norris RD, O'Dea A..  2018.  Historical change in a Caribbean reef sponge community and long-term loss of sponge predators. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:127-137.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sponges are an ecologically important component of modern Caribbean coral reefs. However, little is known about the structure of sponge communities prior to the large-scale degradation of Caribbean reef ecosystems. Here we explore changes in the sponge community over the past millennium by analyzing the composition of sponge spicules from a sediment core collected from a lagoonal reef within the archipelago of Bocas del Toro, Caribbean Panama...

  • Wood C.L, Zgliczynski B.J, Haupt A.J, Guerra A.S, Micheli F., Sandin SA.  2018.  Human impacts decouple a fundamental ecological relationship-The positive association between host diversity and parasite diversity. Global Change Biology. 24:3666-3679.
    Abstract Summary:

    Human impacts on ecosystems can decouple the fundamental ecological relationships that create patterns of diversity in free-living species. Despite the abundance, ubiquity, and ecological importance of parasites, it is unknown whether the same decoupling effects occur for parasitic species. We investigated the influence of fishing on the relationship between host diversity and parasite diversity for parasites of coral reef fishes on three...

  • Lickliter-Mundon M., Cantelas F., Coble W., Kinney J., McKinnon J., Meyer J., Pietruszka A., Pilgrim B., Pruitt J.R, Van Tilburg H..  2018.  Identification of a deep-water B-29 WWII aircraft via ROV telepresence survey. 13:167-189.
    Abstract Summary:

    American-produced B-29 Superfortress bomber aircraft flew missions against Imperial Japan in the Pacific Theater from air bases in the Mariana Islands from November 1944 until the end of WWII. Mechanical failures forced many B-29s into the ocean surrounding Saipan and Tinian. Terrestrial wreckage of these aircraft has been located in the Pacific region, but no losses in deep water were located until 2016, when a NOAA exploration cruise...

  • Rodriguez A.R, Giddings S.N, Kumar N..  2018.  Impacts of nearshore wave-current interaction on transport and mixing of small-scale buoyant plumes. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:8379-8389.
    Abstract Summary:

    Small-scale buoyant outflows have the potential to impact beach contamination, nutrient exchange, productivity, larval recruitment, and carbon chemistry in the nearshore region where surface gravity waves influence momentum and energy transport. This study aims to understand the dynamics leading to the fate and structure of an idealized small-scale outflow in the presence of surface waves using a fully coupled 3-D hydrodynamic and spectral...

  • Pommier A..  2018.  Influence of sulfur on the electrical resistivity of a crystallizing core in small terrestrial bodies. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 496:37-46.
    Abstract Summary:

    Electrical experiments were performed on core analogues in the Fe-S system and on FeSi2 up to 8 GPa and 1850 degrees C in the multi-anvil apparatus. Electrical resistivity was measured using the four electrode method. For all samples, resistivity increases with increasing temperature. The higher the S content, the higher the resistivity and the resistivity increase upon melting. At 4.5 GPa, liquid FeS is up to >10 times more resistive than...

  • Kim M.C, Machado H., Jang K.H, Trzoss L., Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2018.  Integration of genomic data with NMR analysis enables assignment of the full stereostructure of Neaumycin B, a potent inhibitor of glioblastoma from a marine-derived micromonospora. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140:10775-10784.
    Abstract Summary:

    The microbial metabolites known as the macrolides are some of the most successful natural products used to treat infectious and immune diseases. Describing the structures of these complex metabolites, however, is often extremely difficult due to the presence of multiple stereogenic centers inherent in this class of polyketide-derived metabolites. With the availability of genome sequence data and a better understanding of the molecular...

  • Jackson A., Parker R.L, Sambridge M., Constable C., Wolf A.S.  2018.  The inverse problem of unpolarized infrared spectroscopy of geological materials: Estimation from noisy random sampling of a quadratic form. American Mineralogist. 103:1176-1184.
    Abstract Summary:

    We address the problem of unpolarized light spectroscopy of geological materials. Using infrared radiation, the aim of this technique is to learn about the absorbing species, such as hydroxyl. The use of unoriented samples leads to the need to perform a rigorous statistical analysis, so that the three principal absorbances of the crystal can be retrieved. We present here such an analysis based on a derivation of the probability density...

  • Abarbanel H.DI, Rozdeba P.J, Shirman S..  2018.  Machine learning: Deepest learning as statistical data assimilation problems. Neural Computation. 30:2025-2055.
    Abstract Summary:

    We formulate an equivalence between machine learning and the formulation of statistical data assimilation as used widely in physical and biological sciences. The correspondence is that layer number in a feedforward artificial network setting is the analog of time in the data assimilation setting. This connection has been noted in the machine learning literature. We add a perspective that expands on how methods from statistical physics and...

  • Constantinou N.C, Parker J.B.  2018.  Magnetic suppression of zonal flows on a beta plane. Astrophysical Journal. 863
    Abstract Summary:

    Zonal flows in rotating systems have been previously shown to be suppressed by the imposition of a background magnetic field aligned with the direction of rotation. Understanding the physics behind the suppression may be important in systems found in astrophysical fluid dynamics, such as stellar interiors. However, the mechanism of suppression has not yet been explained. In the idealized setting of a magnetized beta plane, we provide a...

  • Zumberge M.A, Hatfield W., Wyatt F.K.  2018.  Measuring seafloor strain with an optical fiber interferometer. Earth and Space Science. 5:371-379.
    Abstract Summary:

    We monitored the length of an optical fiber cable stretched between two seafloor anchors separated by 200m at a depth of 1900m, 90km west of Newport, OR, near the toe of the accretionary prism of the Cascadia subduction zone. We continuously recorded length changes using an equal arm Michelson interferometer formed by the sensing cable fiber and a mandrel-wound reference fiber. A second, nearly identical fiber interferometer (sharing the same...

  • Minich JJ, Zhu Q, Xu ZZech, Amir A, Ngochera M, Simwaka M, Allen EE, Zidana H, Knight R.  2018.  Microbial effects of livestock manure fertilization on freshwater aquaculture ponds rearing tilapia (Oreochromis shiranus) and North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Microbiologyopen. :e00716.
    Abstract Summary:

    The majority of seafood is farmed, with most finfish coming from freshwater ponds. Ponds are often fertilized to promote microbial productivity as a natural feed source to fish. To understand if pond fertilization with livestock manure induces a probiotic or prebiotic effect, we communally reared tilapia (Oreochromis shiranus), and North African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), for 4 weeks under seven manure treatments including layer chicken,...

  • de Groot-Hedlin C.D, Hedlin MAH.  2018.  A new automated approach to detecting and locating seismic events using data from a large network. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 108:2032-2045.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Automated Event Location Using a Mesh of Arrays (AELUMA) method, originally developed for detection of atmospheric sources using infrasonic data, is modified here to detect and locate seismic events. A key feature of AELUMA is that it does not require a detailed velocity model to locate events. The new method was applied to vertical-component seismic data recorded by the USArray Transportable Array to (1) test its efficacy when applied to...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The larval pharynx of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma (amphioxus) is asymmetrical. The mouth is on the left, and endostyle and gill slits are on the right. At the neurula, Nodal and Hedgehog (Hh) expression becomes restricted to the left. To dissect their respective roles in gill slit formation, we inhibited each pathway separately for 20 min at intervals during the neurula stage, before gill slits penetrate, and monitored the effects on...

  • Cimino M., Colin P., Schramek T., Lindfield S., Domeier M., Terrill E.  2018.  Oceanographic, acoustic, and remote approaches reveal the spatio-temporal dynamics of blackfin snapper at an aggregation site in Palau. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:185-201.
    Abstract Summary:

    Forming spawning aggregations is a critical life-history activity for fish, but it is unclear what physical conditions are associated with fish behavior at specific sites. The habitat, movements and distribution of blackfin snapper Lutjanus fulvus at a monthly aggregation site in Palau were studied using a combination of instruments and approaches, including active/passive acoustics, time-lapse cameras, an autonomous underwater vehicle,...

  • Herdt A.J, Brown R.D, Scott-Fleming I., Cao G.F, Macdonald M, Henderson D., Vanos J.K.  2018.  Outdoor thermal comfort during anomalous heat at the 2015 Pan American Games in Toronto, Canada. Atmosphere. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Mass sporting events in the summertime are influenced by underlying weather patterns, with high temperatures posing a risk for spectators and athletes alike. To better understand weather variations in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) during the Pan American Games in 2015 (PA15 Games), Environment and Climate Change Canada deployed a mesoscale monitoring network system of 53 weather stations. Spatial maps across the GTA demonstrate large...

  • Ashford O.S, Kenny A.J, Frojan C, Bonsall M.B, Horton T., Brandt A., Bird G.J, Gerken S., Rogers A.D.  2018.  Phylogenetic and functional evidence suggests that deep-ocean ecosystems are highly sensitive to environmental change and direct human disturbance. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 285
    Abstract Summary:

    An understanding of the balance of interspecific competition and the physical environment in structuring organismal communities is crucial because those communities structured primarily by their physical environment typically exhibit greater sensitivity to environmental change than those structured predominantly by competitive interactions. Here, using detailed phylogenetic and functional information, we investigate this question in...

  • Zhang Y., Sun J., Rouse GW, Wiklund H., Pleijel F, Watanabe H.K, Chen C., Qian PY, Qiu J.W.  2018.  Phylogeny, evolution and mitochondrial gene order rearrangement in scale worms (Aphroditiformia, Annelida). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 125:220-231.
    Abstract Summary:

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become a powerful tool in phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Here we applied NGS to recover two ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S) from 16 species and 15 mitochondrial genomes from 16 species of scale worms representing six families in the suborder Aphroditiformia (Phyllodocida, Annelida), a complex group of polychaetes characterized by the presence of dorsal elytra or scales. The phylogenetic...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The scale-worm family Iphionidae consists of four genera. Of these, Thermiphione has two accepted species, both native to hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean; T. fijiensis Miura, 1994 (West Pacific) and T. tufari Hartmann-Schroder, 1992 (East Pacific Rise). Iphionella is also known from the Pacific, and has two recognized species; Iphionella risensis Pettibone, 1986 (East Pacific Rise, hydrothermal vents) and I. philippinensis Pettibone,...

  • Rousset G., De Boissieu F., Menkes C.E, Lefevre J., Frouin R., Rodier M., Ridoux V., Laran S., Bonnet S., Dupouy C..  2018.  Remote sensing of Trichodesmium spp. mats in the western tropical South Pacific. Biogeosciences. 15:5203-5219.
    Abstract Summary:

    Trichodesmium is the major nitrogen-fixing species in the western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) region, a hot spot of diazotrophy. Due to the paucity of in situ observations, remote-sensing methods for detecting Trichodesmium presence on a large scale have been investigated to assess the regional-to-global impact of this organism on primary production and carbon cycling. A number of algorithms have been developed to identify Trichodesmium...

  • Sato K.N, Andersson AJ, Day JMD, Taylor J.RA, Frank M.B, Jung J.Y, McKittrick J., Levin L.A.  2018.  Response of sea urchin fitness traits to environmental gradients across the Southern California oxygen minimum zone. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Marine calcifiers are considered to be among the most vulnerable taxa to climate-forced environmental changes occurring on continental margins with effects hypothesized to occur on microstructural, biomechanical, and geochemical properties of carbonate structures. Natural gradients in temperature, salinity, oxygen, and pH on an upwelling margin combined with the broad depth distribution (100-1,100 m) of the pink fragile sea urchin,...

  • Rosencranz J.A, Thorne K.M, Buffington K.J, Takekawa J.Y, Hechinger R.F, Stewart T.E, Ambrose R.F, MacDonald G.M, Holmgren M.A, Crooks J.A et al..  2018.  Sea-level rise, habitat loss, and potential extirpation of a salt marsh specialist bird in urbanized landscapes. Ecology and Evolution. 8:8115-8125.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sea-level rise (SLR) impacts on intertidal habitat depend on coastal topology, accretion, and constraints from surrounding development. Such habitat changes might affect species like Belding's savannah sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi; BSSP), which live in high-elevation salt marsh in the Southern California Bight. To predict how BSSP habitat might change under various SLR scenarios, we first constructed a suitability model by...

  • Spackeen JL, Bronk DA, Sipler RE, Bertrand EM, Hutchins DA, Allen AE.  2018.  Stoichiometric N:P Ratios, Temperature, and Iron Impact Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake by Ross Sea Microbial Communities. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.
    Abstract Summary:

    APhytoplankton growth in the seasonally productive Southern Ocean is typically limited by iron (Fe). In the next century, however, Fe inputs and temperature are predicted to increase. Dissolved concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) may also change due to physical and biological drivers, altering the stoichiometric N:P ratio of the water column. Two separate experiments were conducted to study how these predicted changes will...

  • Kilb D, Yang A, Garrett N, Pankow K, Rubinstein J, Linville L.  2018.  Tilt trivia: A free multiplayer app to learn geoscience concepts and definitions. Seismological Research Letters.
    Abstract Summary:

    Today’s technology is opening up new ways to learn. Here, we introduce Tilt Trivia, a suite of quiz‐style, multiplayer games for use on mobile devices and tablets (Android or Apple) to help students learn simple definitions and facts. This mobile device game was built using the Unity engine and has a multiplayer functionality that runs seamlessly, all day, every day. A single game consists of 6–10 questions that are selected at random from a...

  • Murray L.AM, McKinnie S.MK, Pepper H.P, Erni R., Miles Z.D, Cruickshank M.C, Lopez-Perez B., Moore BS, George J.H.  2018.  Total synthesis establishes the biosynthetic pathway to the naphterpin and marinone natural products. 57:11009-11014.
    Abstract Summary:

    The naphterpins and marinones are naphthoquinone meroterpenoids with an unusual aromatic oxidation pattern that is biosynthesized from 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene (THN). We propose that cryptic halogenation of THN derivatives by vanadium-dependent chloroperoxidase (VCPO) enzymes is key to this biosynthetic pathway, despite the absence of chlorine in these natural products. This speculation inspired a total synthesis to mimic the...

  • Park S., Li S., Mühle J, O'Doherty S, Weiss RF, Fang X., Reimann S., Prinn RG.  2018.  Toward resolving the budget discrepancy of ozone-depleting carbon tetrachloride (CCl4): an analysis of top-down emissions from China. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:11729-11738.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a first-generation ozone-depleting substance, and its emissive use and production were globally banned by the Montreal Protocol with a 2010 phase-out; however, production and consumption for non-dispersive use as a chemical feedstock and as a process agent are still allowed. This study uses the high frequency and magnitude of CCl4 pollution events from an 8-year real-time atmospheric measurement record obtained...

  • McGinty N., Barton A.D, Record N.R, Finkel Z.V, Irwin A.J.  2018.  Traits structure copepod niches in the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 601:109-126.
    Abstract Summary:

    Realised niches describe the environmental and biotic conditions that a species occupies. Among marine zooplankton, species traits, including body size, dietary mode (herbivore, omnivore, or carnivore), and diapause strategy are expected to influence the realised niche of a species. To date, realised niches are known for only a small number of copepod species. Here we quantify the realised niches of 88 copepod species measured by the...

  • Lopez-Urban A., Thode A, Duran C.B, Urban J., Swartz S..  2018.  Two new grey whale call types detected on bioacoustic tags. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 98:1169-1175.
    Abstract Summary:

    Between 2008 and 2010, 27 acoustic tags were applied to various age and reproductive classes of grey whales in Laguna San Ignacio, Mexico, a part of the Biosphere Reserve 'El Vizcaino'. Besides previously described Si and S3 calls, two additional calls were identified: the impulsive S8 call and the slightly frequency-modulated S9 call. These two additional S8 and S9 calls are by far the most common grey whale sounds detected on tags, even...

  • Hamidi A., Farnham D.J, Khanbilvardi R..  2018.  Uncertainty analysis of urban sewer system using spatial simulation of radar rainfall fields: New York City case study. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment. 32:2293-2308.
    Abstract Summary:

    The goal of this study is to investigate the uncertainty of an urban sewer system's response under various rainfall and infrastructure scenarios by applying a recently developed nonparametric copula-based simulation approach to extreme rainfall fields. The approach allows for Monte Carlo simulation of multiple variables with differing marginal distributions and arbitrary dependence structure. The independent and identically distributed daily...

  • Nematollahi N., Doronila A., Mornane P.J, Duan A., Kolev S.D, Steinemann A..  2018.  Volatile chemical emissions from fragranced baby products. Air Quality Atmosphere and Health. 11:785-790.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fragranced consumer products have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Babies are exposed to a variety of fragranced consumer products, which can emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), some considered potentially hazardous. However, fragranced baby products are exempt from disclosure of all ingredients. Consequently, parents and the public have little information on product emissions. This study investigates VOCs...

  • Mahan B., Moynier F., Siebert J., Gueguen B., Agranier A., Pringle E.A, Bollard J., Connelly J.N, Bizzarro M..  2018.  Volatile element evolution of chondrules through time. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115:8547-8552.
    Abstract Summary:

    Chondrites and their main components, chondrules, are our guides into the evolution of the Solar System. Investigating the history of chondrules, including their volatile element history and the prevailing conditions of their formation, has implications not only for the understanding of chondrule formation and evolution but for that of larger bodies such as the terrestrial planets. Here we have determined the bulk chemical composition-rare...

  • Wagner T.JW, Dell R.W, Eisenman I, Keeling RF, Padman L., Severinghaus JP.  2018.  Wave inhibition by sea ice enables trans-Atlantic ice rafting of debris during Heinrich events. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 495:157-163.
    Abstract Summary:

    The last glacial period was punctuated by episodes of massive iceberg calving from the Laurentide Ice Sheet, called Heinrich events, which are identified by layers of ice-rafted debris (IRD) in ocean sediment cores from the North Atlantic. The thickness of these IRD layers declines more gradually with distance from the iceberg sources than would be expected based on present-day iceberg drift and decay. Here we model icebergs as passive...

  • Oakley N.S, Lancaster J.T, Hatchett B.J, Stock J., Ralph FM, Roj S., Lukashov S..  2018.  A 22-year climatology of cool season hourly precipitation thresholds conducive to shallow landslides in California. Earth Interactions. 22:1-35.
    Abstract Summary:

    California's winter storms produce intense rainfall capable of triggering shallow landslides, threatening lives and infrastructure. This study explores where hourly rainfall in the state meets or exceeds published values thought to trigger landslides after crossing a seasonal antecedent precipitation threshold. We answer the following questions: 1) Where in California are overthreshold events most common? 2) How are events distributed within...

  • Saturno J., Ditas F., de Vries M.P, Holanda B.A, Pohlker M.L, Carbone S., Walter D., Bobrowski N., Brito J., Chi X.G et al..  2018.  African volcanic emissions influencing atmospheric aerosols over the Amazon rain forest. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:10391-10405.
    Abstract Summary:

    The long-range transport (LRT) of trace gases and aerosol particles plays an important role for the composition of the Amazonian rain forest atmosphere. Sulfate aerosols originate to a substantial extent from LRT sources and play an important role in the Amazonian atmosphere as strongly light-scattering particles and effective cloud condensation nuclei. The transatlantic transport of volcanic sulfur emissions from Africa has been considered...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Through continuous flow reactor experiments, materials characterization, and theoretical calculations, we provide new insights into the reduction of hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) nanoparticles by methane (CH4) during chemical looping combustion (CLC). Across CLC-relevant temperatures (500-800 degrees C) and gas flow rates (2.5-250 h(-1)), decreasing alpha-Fe2O3 particle size (from 350 to 3 nm) increased the duration over which CH4 was completely...

  • Liu Y.C, Fan J.W, Xu K.M, Zhang GJ.  2018.  Analysis of cloud-resolving model simulations for scale dependence of convective momentum transport. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 75:2445-2472.
    Abstract Summary:

    We use 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of two mesoscale convective systems at midlatitudes and a simple statistical ensemble method to diagnose the scale dependency of convective momentum transport (CMT) and CMT-related properties and evaluate a parameterization scheme for the convection-induced pressure gradient (CIPG) developed by Gregory et al. Gregory et al. relate CIPG to a constant coefficient multiplied by mass flux and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In this paper, we summarize how current and projected climate changes are expected to impact material cultural heritage in Puerto Rico. As case study, we also conducted a spatial analysis vulnerability assessment of coastal heritage sites below 20 meters in elevation. Results from the analysis show that of the 1185 known cultural heritage sites below 20 meters in elevation in Puerto Rico, 27 sites are inundated at today's highest high tide,...

  • Favareto L.R, Rudorff N., Kampel M., Frouin R., Rottgers R., Doxaran D., Murakami H., Dupouy C..  2018.  Bio-optical characterization and ocean colour inversion in the eastern lagoon of New Caledonia, South Tropical Pacific. Remote Sensing. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    The Eastern Lagoon of New Caledonia (ELNC) is a semi-enclosed system surrounded by an extensive coral reef barrier. The system has been suffering impacts from climate variability and anthropogenic activities, including mining exploitation. Satellite monitoring is thus an essential tool to detect such changes. The present study aimed to assess the bio-optical variability of the ELNC and examine the applicability of ocean colour algorithms,...

  • Wang Q., Alappppattu D.P, Billingsley S., Blomquist B., Burkholder R.J, Christman A.J, Creegan E.D, de Paolo T., Eleuterio D.P, Fernando H.JS et al..  2018.  CASPER: Coupled Air-Sea Processes and Electromagnetic Ducting Research. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 99:1449-1471.
    Abstract Summary:

    The objective of CASPER is to improve our capability to characterize the propagation of radio frequency (RF) signals through the marine atmosphere with coordinated efforts in data collection, data analyses, and modeling of the air-sea interaction processes, refractive environment, and RF propagation.


  • Friedrich O., Bornemann A., Norris RD, Erbacher J., Fiebig J..  2018.  Changes in tropical Atlantic surface-water environments inferred from late Albian planktic foraminiferal assemblages (ODP Site 1258, Demerara Rise). Cretaceous Research. 87:74-83.
    Abstract Summary:

    Abundance patterns of planktic and benthic foraminifera from the middle to upper Albian of tropical Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 1258 (Demerara Rise) display a pronounced shift between two clearly distinguishable assemblages: (1) a foraminiferal fauna dominated by coiled taxa, which is inferred to represent a deep and/or weak oxygen minimum zone, and (2) abundant clavate and biserial taxa, inferred to record a shallow and/or strong...

  • Tait KT, Day JMD.  2018.  Chondritic late accretion to Mars and the nature of shergottite reservoirs. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 494:99-108.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mars is considered to have formed as a planetary embryo that experienced extensive differentiation early in its history. Shergottite meteorites preserve evidence for this history, and for late accretion events that affected their mantle sources within Mars. Here we report the first coupled 187Re–187Os, 87Sr/86Sr, highly siderophile element (HSE: Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Pd, Re) and major element abundance dataset for martian shergottites that span a...

  • Maire E., Villeger S., Graham N.AJ, Hoey A.S, Cinner J., Ferse S.CA, Aliaume C., Booth D.J, Feary D.A, Kulbicki M. et al..  2018.  Community-wide scan identifies fish species associated with coral reef services across the Indo-Pacific. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 285
    Abstract Summary:

    Determining whether many functionally complementary species or only a subset of key species are necessary to maintain ecosystem functioning and services is a critical question in community ecology and biodiversity conservation. Identifying such key species remains challenging, especially in the tropics where many species co-occur and can potentially support the same or different processes. Here, we developed a new community-wide scan CWS)...

  • Sugihara G, Criddle K.R, McQuown M., Giron-Nava A., Deyle E., James C., Lee A., Pao G., Saberski E., Ye H.  2018.  Comprehensive incentives for reducing Chinook salmon bycatch in the Bering Sea walleye Pollock fishery: Individual tradable encounter credits. 22:70-81.
    Abstract Summary:

    After record salmon bycatch in 2007 by the Eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands fishery for walleye Pollock, the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC) concluded that additional management strategies were necessary to further control salmon bycatch. The Preliminary Preferred Alternative (PPA) was selected in April 2009 and implemented in January 2011 as Amendment 91. In this paper, we present the original comprehensive bycatch...

  • Keigwin L.D, Klotsko S., Zhao N., Reilly B., Giosan L., Driscoll NW.  2018.  Deglacial floods in the Beaufort Sea preceded Younger Dryas cooling. Nature Geoscience.
    Abstract Summary:

    A period of cooling about 13,000 years ago interrupted about 2,000 years of deglacial warming. Known as the Younger Dryas (YD), the event is thought to have resulted from a slowdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation in response to a sudden flood of Laurentide Ice Sheet meltwater that reached the Nordic Seas. Oxygen isotope evidence for a local source of meltwater to the open western North Atlantic from the Gulf of St Lawrence...