Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Culprit of the Eastern Pacific Double-ITCZ Bias in the NCAR CESM1.2

Impact:
In summary, the oversimulated convection in the northern ITCZ region and Central America in boreal winter may result in biases in the surface wind fields in tropical northeastern Pacific in the atmospheric model, which favor the cooling of ocean mixed layer through the enhancement of latent heat flux and Ekman upwelling. Once the atmospheric model is coupled to the ocean model, these biases are passed into the ocean model and result in a severe cold bias of SST in the northern ITCZ region. The overly cold SST bias persists in the subsequent spring, leading to the suppression of convection in the northern ITCZ region. The enhanced low-level cross-equatorial northerly wind strengthens the wind convergence south of the equator and transports abundant water vapor to the convergence zone, strengthening the southern ITCZ convection. All these processes lead to the disappearance of northern ITCZ and the enhancement of southern ITCZ in boreal spring, forming a seasonally alternating type of double-ITCZ bias.

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  • Abstract Summary:

    Sequential enzymatic reactions on substrates tethered to carrier proteins (CPs) generate thiotemplated building blocks that are then delivered to nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) to generate peptidic natural products. The underlying diversity of these thiotemplated building blocks is the principal driver of the chemical diversity of NRPS-derived natural products. Structural insights into recognition of CPs by tailoring enzymes that...

  • Zheng XT, Hui C., Xie SP, Cai W.J, Long S.M.  2019.  Intensification of El Nino Rainfall Variability Over the Tropical Pacific in the Slow Oceanic Response to Global Warming. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:2253-2260.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changes in rainfall variability of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are investigated under scenarios where the greenhouse gases increase and then stabilize. During the period of increasing greenhouse forcing, the ocean mixed layer warms rapidly. After the forcing stabilizes, the deeper ocean continues to warm the surface (the slow response). We show that ENSO rainfall variability over the tropical Pacific intensifies in both periods but...

  • Kuriyama P.T, Branch T.A, Hicks A.C, Harms J.H, Hamel O.S.  2019.  Investigating three sources of bias in hook-and-line surveys: survey design, gear saturation, and multispecies interactions. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 76:192-207.
    Abstract Summary:

    Hook-and-line surveys can be used to estimate population trends in fish species where conventional methods such as trawl, acoustic, visual, or pot surveys cannot be applied. Hook-and-line surveys allow for the collection of biological information, but the resultant indices of abundance may be biased. We designed simulations to address concerns around survey design, hook saturation, and competition among species and found that catch per unit...

  • Cappa CD, Zhang X.L, Russell LM, Collier S., Lee A.KY, Chen C.L, Betha R., Chen S.J, Liu J., Price D.J et al..  2019.  Light absorption by ambient black and brown carbon and its dependence on black carbon coating state for two California, USA, cities in winter and summer. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 124:1550-1577.
    Abstract Summary:

    Observations from a wintertime and summertime field campaign are used to assess the relationship between black and brown carbon (BC and BrC, respectively) optical properties and particle composition and coating state. The wintertime campaign, in Fresno, CA, was impacted by primary emissions from residential wood burning, secondary organic and inorganic particle formation, and BC from motor vehicles. Two major types of BrC were observed in...

  • Olofsson M., Torstensson A., Karlberg M., Steinhoff F.S, Dinasquet J., Riemann L., Chierici M., Wulff A..  2019.  Limited response of a spring bloom community inoculated with filamentous cyanobacteria to elevated temperature and pCO(2). Botanica Marina. 62:3-16.
    Abstract Summary:

    Temperature and CO2 levels are projected to increase in the future, with consequences for carbon and nutrient cycling in brackish environments, such as the Baltic Sea. Moreover, filamentous cyanobacteria are predicted to be favored over other phytoplankton groups under these conditions. Under a 12-day outdoor experiment, we examined the effect on a natural phytoplankton spring bloom community of elevated temperature (from 1 degrees C to 4...

  • Scott R.C, Nicolas J.P, Bromwich D.H, Norris J.R, Lubin D..  2019.  Meteorological drivers and large-scale climate forcing of West Antarctic Surface Melt. Journal of Climate. 32:665-684.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the drivers of surface melting in West Antarctica is crucial for understanding future ice loss and global sea level rise. This study identifies atmospheric drivers of surface melt on West Antarctic ice shelves and ice sheet margins and relationships with tropical Pacific and high-latitude climate forcing using multidecadal reanalysis and satellite datasets. Physical drivers of ice melt are diagnosed by comparing satellite-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Temperature and light are fundamental environmental variables which regulate phytoplankton growth rates when nutrients are in excess. For polar coastal oceans that are undergoing changes in sea ice cover and warming, light, and temperature are particularly important for bloom dynamics. Using colonial Phaeocystis antarctica cultures grown at steady-state, we assessed the combined effect of these two environmental controls on net growth rate (...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The development of osmoregulatory and gas exchange organs was studied in larval yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) from 2 to 25 days post-hatching (2.9-24.5mm standard length, SL). Cutaneous and branchial ionocytes were identified using Na+/K+-ATPase immunostaining and scanning electron microscopy. Cutaneous ionocyte abundance significantly increased with SL, but a reduction in ionocyte size and density resulted in asignificant decrease in...

  • B. Pan J, Vernet M, Reynolds RA, B. Mitchell G.  2019.  The optical and biological properties of glacial meltwater in an Antarctic fjord. Plos One. 14
    Abstract Summary:

    As the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region responds to a warmer climate, the impacts of glacial meltwater on the Southern Ocean are expected to intensify. The Antarctic Peninsula fjord system offers an ideal system to understand meltwater’s properties, providing an extreme in the meltwater’s spatial gradient from the glacio-marine boundary to the WAP continental shelf. Glacial meltwater discharge in Arctic and Greenland fjords is...

  • Abbatt J.PD, Leaitch WR, Aliabadi A.A, Bertram A.K, Blanchet J.P, Boivin-Rioux A., Bozem H., Burkart J., Chang R.YW, Charette J. et al..  2019.  Overview paper: New insights into aerosol and climate in the Arctic. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 19:2527-2560.
    Abstract Summary:

    Motivated by the need to predict how the Arctic atmosphere will change in a warming world, this article summarizes recent advances made by the research consortium NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Environments) that contribute to our fundamental understanding of Arctic aerosol particles as they relate to climate forcing. The overall goal of NETCARE research has been to use an...

  • Fang X.K, Park S., Saito T., Tunnicliffe R., Ganesan A.L, Rigby M, Li S.L, Yokouchi Y., Fraser PJ, Harth CM et al..  2019.  Rapid increase in ozone-depleting chloroform emissions from China. Nature Geoscience. 12:89-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Chloroform contributes to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. However, due to its short lifetime and predominantly natural sources, it is not included in the Montreal Protocol that regulates the production and uses of ozone-depleting substances. Atmospheric chloroform mole fractions were relatively stable or slowly decreased during 1990-2010. Here we show that global chloroform mole fractions increased after 2010, based on in situ...

  • Bradley J.M, Svistunenko D.A, Pullin J., Hill N., Stuart RK, Palenik B, Wilson M.T, Hemmings A.M, Moore G.R, Le Brun N.E.  2019.  Reaction of O-2 with a diiron protein generates a mixed-valent Fe2+/Fe3+ center and peroxide. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116:2058-2067.
    Abstract Summary:

    The gene encoding the cyanobacterial ferritin SynFtn is up-regulated in response to copper stress. Here, we show that, while SynFtn does not interact directly with copper, it is highly unusual in several ways. First, its catalytic diiron ferroxidase center is unlike those of all other characterized prokaryotic ferritins and instead resembles an animal H-chain ferritin center. Second, as demonstrated by kinetic, spectro-scopic, and high-...

  • Crosby S.C, Kumar N., O'Reilly W.C, Guza RT.  2019.  Regional swell transformation by backward ray tracing and SWAN. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 36:217-229.
    Abstract Summary:

    Beach erosion and wave-induced flooding models are often initialized in O(10)-m depth, seaward of the surfzone, with wave conditions estimated from regional nonlinear spectral wave models [e.g., Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)]. These models are computationally expensive for high-resolution, long-term regional O(100)-km hindcasts, and they limit examination of the effect of different climate scenarios on nearshore processes. Alternatively,...

  • Zhang Z.H, Ralph FM, Zheng M.H.  2019.  The relationship between extratropical cyclone strength and atmospheric river intensity and position. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:1814-1823.
    Abstract Summary:

    Extratropical cyclones (ECs) and atmospheric rivers (ARs) impact precipitation over the U.S. West Coast and other analogous regions globally. This study investigates the relationship between ECs and ARs by exploring the connections between EC strength and AR intensity and position using a new AR intensity scale. While 82% of ARs are associated with an EC, only 45% of ECs have a paired AR and the distance between the AR and EC varies greatly....

  • Rowell T.J, Aburto-Oropeza O, Cota-Nieto J.J, Steele M.A, Erisman B.E.  2019.  Reproductive behaviour and concurrent sound production of Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani (Epinephelidae) at a spawning aggregation site. Journal of Fish Biology. 94:277-296.
    Abstract Summary:

    The reproductive and acoustic behaviours of Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani were studied at a spawning aggregation site in the southern Gulf of California, Mexico. In May 2015-2017, divers located and surveyed a spawning aggregation site within Cabo Pulmo National Park. Adult M. jordani conformed to a lek mating system in which large males formed territories over sand adjacent to a rocky reef that were spatially segregated from smaller...

  • Le T.C, Lee E.J, Lee J., Hong A., Yim C.Y, Yang I., Choi H., Chin J., Cho S.J, Ko J. et al..  2019.  Saccharoquinoline, a cytotoxic alkaloidal meroterpenoid from marine-derived bacterium Saccharomonospora sp. Marine Drugs. 17
    Abstract Summary:

    A cytotoxic alkaloidal meroterpenoid, saccharoquinoline (1), has been isolated from the fermentation broth of the marine-derived bacterium Saccharomonospora sp. CNQ-490. The planar structure of 1 was elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data analyzes, while the relative configuration of 1 was defined through the interpretation of NOE spectroscopic data. Saccharoquinoline (1) is composed of a drimane-type sesquiterpene unit in...

  • Frouin R., Ramon D., Boss E., Jolivet D., Compiegne M., Tan J., Bouman H., Jackson T., Franz B., Plett T. et al..  2018.  Satellite radiation products for ocean biology and biogeochemistry: Needs, state-of-the-art, gaps, development priorities, and opportunities. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of the underwater light field, i.e., the spectral and angular structure of the radiant intensity at any point in the water column, is essential to understanding the biogeochemical processes that control the composition and evolution of aquatic ecosystems and their impact on climate and reaction to climate change. At present, only a few properties are reliably retrieved from space, either directly...

  • Ralph FM, Rutz J.J, Cordeira JM, Dettinger M, Anderson M., Reynolds D., Schick L.I, Smallcomb C..  2019.  A scale to characterize the strength and impacts of atmospheric rivers. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 100:269-290.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play vital roles in the western United States and related regions globally, not only producing heavy precipitation and flooding, but also providing beneficial water supply. This paper introduces a scale for the intensity and impacts of ARs. Its utility may be greatest where ARs are the most impactful storm type and hurricanes, nor'easters, and tornadoes are nearly nonexistent. Two parameters dominate the hydrologic...

  • Lozier M.S, Li F., Bacon S., Bahr F., Bower A.S, Cunningham S.A, de Jong M.F, de Steur L., Deyoung B., Fischer J. et al..  2019.  A sea change in our view of overturning in the subpolar North Atlantic. Science. 363:516-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    To provide an observational basis for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projections of a slowing Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) in the 21st century, the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) observing system was launched in the summer of 2014. The first 21-month record reveals a highly variable overturning circulation responsible for the majority of the heat and freshwater transport across...

  • Wang Q., Benmarhnia T., Li C.C, Knibbs L.D, Bao J.Z, Ren M., Zhang H.H, Wang S.H, Zhang Y.W, Zhao Q.G et al..  2019.  Seasonal analyses of the association between prenatal ambient air pollution exposure and birth weight for gestational age in Guangzhou, China. Science of the Total Environment. 649:526-534.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to small for gestational age (SGA); however, the relationship with large for gestational age (ILA) is unclear and very few studies have investigated seasonal effects on the association between air pollution and SGA or LGA. Using birth registry data of 506,000 singleton live births from 11 districts in Guangzhou, China between January 2015 and July 2017, we examined associations between ambient air...

  • Doran A.K, Laske G..  2019.  Seismic structure of marine sediments and upper oceanic crust surrounding Hawaii. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 124:2038-2056.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present models of compressional and shear velocity structure of the oceanic sediments and upper crust surrounding the Hawaiian islands. The models were derived from analysis of seafloor compliance data and measurements of Ps converted phases originating at the sediment-bedrock interface. These data were estimated from continuous broadband ocean bottom seismometer acceleration and pressure records collected during the Plume-Lithosphere...

  • Nagy L., Williams W., Tauxe L, Muxworthy A.R, Ferreira I..  2019.  Thermomagnetic recording fidelity of nanometer-sized iron and implications for planetary magnetism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 116:1984-1991.
    Abstract Summary:

    Paleomagnetic observations provide valuable evidence of the strength of magnetic fields present during evolution of the Solar System. Such information provides important constraints on physical processes responsible for rapid accretion of the protoplanetesimal disk. For this purpose, magnetic recordings must be stable and resist magnetic overprints from thermal events and viscous acquisition over many billions of years. A lack of...

  • Smith N., Kessler W.S, Cravatte S., Sprintall J, Wijffels S., Cronin MF, Sutton A., Serra Y.L, Dewitte B., Strutton P.G et al..  2019.  Tropical Pacific Observing System. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper reviews the design of the Tropical Pacific Observing System (TPOS) and its governance and takes a forward look at prospective change. The initial findings of the TPOS 2020 Project embrace new strategic approaches and technologies in a user-driven design and the variable focus of the Framework for Ocean Observing. User requirements arise from climate prediction and research, climate change and the climate record, and coupled...

  • Withers K.B, Olsen K.B, Shi Z.Q, Day S.M.  2019.  Validation of deterministic broadband ground motion and variability from dynamic rupture simulations of buried thrust earthquakes. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 109:212-228.
    Abstract Summary:

    We numerically model broadband ground motion (up to 5-7: 5 Hz) from blind-thrust scenario earthquakes matching the fault geometry of the 1994 M-w 6.7 Northridge earthquake. Several realizations are modeled (by varying the hypocenter location in the dynamic rupture simulation) in a 1D-layered velocity profile. In addition, we include Q(f), nonlinear effects from Drucker-Prager plasticity, and superimpose small-scale medium complexity in both a...

  • Fang Y., Riahi S., McDonald A.T, Shrestha M., Tobias D.J, Grassian VH.  2019.  What is the driving force behind the adsorption of hydrophobic molecules on hydrophilic surfaces? Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 10:468-473.
    Abstract Summary:

    The adsorption of limonene, a common organic compound found in indoor air, on hydrophilic surfaces such as glass (SiO2), a prevalent surface in the indoor environment, is poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the interaction of limonene and three other cyclic hydrocarbons (cyclohexane, cyclohexene, and benzene) on hydroxylated SiO2 using infrared spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. Experimental...

  • Chen H.M, Yang R., Chen J.J, Luo Q.J, Cui X.S, Yan X.J, Gerwick WH.  2019.  1-Octen-3-ol, a self-stimulating oxylipin messenger, can prime and induce defense of marine alga. 19
    Abstract Summary:

    Short chain oxylipins in plants as the main volatile organic carbon have been speculated to playing an important role for plant innate immunity, however, not yet intensively studied and far away established as the fully recognized algae defense signals.ResultsThe production of 1-octen-3-ol is self-amplified via the fatty acid-oxylipin metabolic cycle through positive feedback loop. Production of 1-octen-3-ol may act as a messenger that...

  • Hartmann A.C, Marhaver KL, Klueter A., Lovci M.T, Closek C.J, Diaz E., Chamberland V.F, Archer FI, Deheyn DD, Vermeij MJA et al..  2019.  Acquisition of obligate mutualist symbionts during the larval stage is not beneficial for a coral host. Molecular Ecology. 28:141-155.
    Abstract Summary:

    Theory suggests that the direct transmission of beneficial endosymbionts (mutualists) from parents to offspring (vertical transmission) in animal hosts is advantageous and evolutionarily stable, yet many host species instead acquire their symbionts from the environment (horizontal acquisition). An outstanding question in marine biology is why some scleractinian corals do not provision their eggs and larvae with the endosymbiotic...

  • Scott S.R, Sims K.WW, Reagan M.K, Ball L., Schwieters J.B, Bouman C., Lloyd N.S, Waters C.L, Standish J.J, Tollstrup D.L.  2019.  The application of abundance sensitivity filters to the precise and accurate measurement of uranium series nuclides by plasma mass spectrometry. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 435:321-332.
    Abstract Summary:

    Application of retardation filters has revolutionized the use of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) for the measurement of U-series disequilibria. Here, we present an evaluation of the application of retardation energy filters coupled with ion counting detectors for the measurement of U-series disequilibria by MC-ICPMS. We show that: 1) The RPQ minimizes backgrounds caused by ions experiencing irregular...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We present consistent annual mean atmospheric histories and growth rates for the mainly anthropogenic halogenated compounds HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HFC-134a, HFC-125, HFC-23, PFC-14 and PFC-116, which are all potentially useful oceanic transient tracers (tracers of water transport within the ocean), for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere with the aim of providing input histories of these compounds for the equilibrium between the...

  • Rabille H., Billoud B., Tesson B, Le Panse S., Rolland E., Charrier B..  2019.  The brown algal mode of tip growth: Keeping stress under control. Plos Biology. 17
    Abstract Summary:

    Tip growth has been studied in pollen tubes, root hairs, and fungal and oomycete hyphae and is the most widely distributed unidirectional growth process on the planet. It ensures spatial colonization, nutrient predation, fertilization, and symbiosis with growth speeds of up to 800 mu m h(-1). Although turgor-driven growth is intuitively conceivable, a closer examination of the physical processes at work in tip growth raises a paradox: growth...

  • Oliver M.J, Kohut J.T, Bernard K., Fraser W., Winsor P., Statscewich H., Fredj E., Cimino M., Patterson-Fraser D., Carvalho F..  2019.  Central place foragers select ocean surface convergent features despite differing foraging strategies. Scientific Reports. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Discovering the predictors of foraging locations can be challenging, and is often the critical missing piece for interpreting the ecological significance of observed movement patterns of predators. This is especially true in dynamic coastal marine systems, where planktonic food resources are diffuse and must be either physically or biologically concentrated to support upper trophic levels. In the Western Antarctic Peninsula, recent climate...

  • Roche J.W, Rice R., Meng X.D, Cayan DR, Dettinger MD, Alden D., Patel S.C, Mason M.A, Conklin M.H, Bales R.C.  2019.  Climate, snow, and soil moisture data set for the Tuolumne and Merced river watersheds, California, USA. Earth System Science Data. 11:101-110.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present hourly climate data to force land surface process models and assessments over the Merced and Tuolumne watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California, for the water year 2010-2014 period. Climate data (38 stations) include temperature and humidity (23), precipitation (13), solar radiation (8), and wind speed and direction (8), spanning an elevation range of 333 to 2987 m. Each data set contains raw data as obtained from the source (...

  • Olive J.A, Parnell-Turner R., Escartin J., Smith D.K, Petersen S..  2019.  Controls on the seafloor exposure of detachment fault surfaces. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 506:381-387.
    Abstract Summary:

    While oceanic detachment faults have been proposed to account for the accretion of similar to 40% of new seafloor in the North Atlantic ocean, clear exposures of large-offset, often-corrugated fault surfaces remain scarce and spatially limited. To help resolve this paradox, we examine the conditions under which detachment fault growth may or may not lead to extensive exposure of corrugated fault planes at the seafloor. Using high-resolution...

  • Fisher A., Wangpraseurt D., Larkum A.WD, Johnson M., Kuhl M., Chen M., Wong H.L, Burns B.P.  2019.  Correlation of bio-optical properties with photosynthetic pigment and microorganism distribution in microbial mats from Hamelin Pool, Australia. Fems Microbiology Ecology. 95
    Abstract Summary:

    Microbial mats and stromatolites are widespread in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, however the phototrophic capacity of these systems is unknown. This study has determined the optical properties and light-harvesting potential of these mats with light microsensors. These characteristics were linked via a combination of 16S rDNA sequencing, pigment analyses and hyperspectral imaging. Local scalar irradiance was elevated over the incident downwelling...

  • Peng Q.H, Xie SP, Wang D.X, Zheng XT, Zhang H.  2019.  Coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics of the 2017 extreme coastal El Nino. Nature Communications. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    In March 2017, sea surface temperatures off Peru rose above 28 degrees C, causing torrential rains that affected the lives of millions of people. This coastal warming is highly unusual in that it took place with a weak La Nina state. Observations and ocean model experiments show that the downwelling Kelvin waves caused by strong westerly wind events over the equatorial Pacific, together with anomalous northerly coastal winds, are important....

  • Li J.B, Xie SP, Cook E.R, Chen F.H, Shi J.F, Zhang D.D, Fang K.Y, Gou X.H, Li T., Peng J.F et al..  2019.  Deciphering human contributions to Yellow River flow reductions and downstream drying using centuries-long tree ring records. Geophysical Research Letters. 46:898-905.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Yellow River flow has decreased substantially in recent decades, and the river often dried up in the lower reach and failed to reach the sea. Climate change and human disruption have been suggested as major causes of the flow reduction, but quantification of their relative contribution is challenging due to limited instrumental records and disturbance by dams. Here we use a basin-wide tree ring network to reconstruct the Yellow River flow...

  • Norris J., Carvalho L.MV, Jones C., Cannon F..  2019.  Deciphering the contrasting climatic trends between the central Himalaya and Karakoram with 36 years of WRF simulations. Climate Dynamics. 52:159-180.
    Abstract Summary:

    Glaciers over the central Himalaya have retreated at particularly rapid rates in recent decades, while glacier mass in the Karakoram appears stable. To address the meteorological factors associated with this contrast, 36 years of Climate Forecast System Reanalyses (CFSR) are dynamically downscaled from 1979 to 2015 with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over High Mountain Asia at convection permitting grid spacing (6.7 km). In...

  • Zhu J.L, Penner JE, Yu F.Q, Sillman S., Andreae M.O, Coe H..  2019.  Decrease in radiative forcing by organic aerosol nucleation, climate, and land use change. Nature Communications. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Organic nucleation is an important source of atmospheric aerosol number concentration, especially in pristine continental regions and during the preindustrial period. Here, we improve on previous simulations that overestimate boundary layer nucleation in the tropics and add changes to climate and land use to evaluate climate forcing. Our model includes both pure organic nucleation and heteromolecular nucleation of sulfuric acid and organics...

  • Dadaglio L., Dinasquet J., Obernosterer I., Joux F..  2019.  Differential responses of bacteria to diatom-derived dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean. Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 82:59-72.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Arctic sea ice cover is undergoing an unprecedented decline due to climate change. This loss may result in the earlier start of ice algae blooms and more intense phyto-plankton blooms, leading to higher concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from primary production. We investigated the response of early summer Arctic bacterial communities to the addition of Arctic diatom-derived DOM through biodegradation experiments in...

  • Choi H., Engene N, Byrum T., Hwang S., Oh D.C, Gerwick WH.  2019.  Dragocins A-D, structurally intriguing cytotoxic metabolites from a Panamanian marine cyanobacterium. Organic Letters. 21:266-270.
    Abstract Summary:

    Dragocins A-D (1-4) were isolated from a dark-red wooly textured marine cyanobacterium collected in Boca del Drago, Panama. Dragocins A-C (1-3) possessed 2,3-dihydroxypyrrolidine, 1-hydroxy-5-O-Me-benzoyl, and 4'-substituted-beta-ribofuranose moieties that connected to form a nine-membered macrocyclic ring. Dragocins A-C are members of a unique hybrid structural class with substitution at the C-4' position of a ribofuranose unit. Of the four...

  • Lee K.H, Jeong H.J, Lee K., Franks PJS, Seong K.A, Lee S.Y, Lee M.J, Jang S.H, Potvin E., Lim A.S et al..  2019.  Effects of warming and eutrophication on coastal phytoplankton production. Harmful Algae. 81:106-118.
    Abstract Summary:

    Phytoplankton production in coastal waters influences seafood production and human health and can lead to harmful algal blooms. Water temperature and eutrophication are critical factors affecting phytoplankton production, although the combined effects of warming and nutrient changes on phytoplankton production in coastal waters are not well understood. To address this, phytoplankton production changes in natural waters were investigated using...

  • Nickels C.F, Sala L.M, Ohman MD.  2019.  The euphausiid prey field for blue whales around a steep bathymetric feature in the southern California current system. Limnology and Oceanography. 64:390-405.
    Abstract Summary:

    Euphausiids are important prey for many marine organisms and often occur in patchy aggregations. Euphausiid predators, such as blue whales, may become concentrated in the vicinity of these aggregations. We investigated an area called Nine Mile Bank (NMB) near San Diego, California, defined by an area of steep bathymetry, to determine whether the frequent whale sightings in that locality can be explained by the distribution of euphausiids...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Low-frequency intraseasonal oscillations in the tropical atmosphere in general circulation models (GCMs) were studied extensively in many previous studies. However, the simulation of the quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO), which is an important component of the intraseasonal oscillations, in GCMs has not received much attention. This paper evaluates the QBWO features over the South China Sea in early [May-June (MJ)] and late [August-September...

  • Almaliti J., Miller B., Pietraszkiewicz H., Glukhov E., Naman C.B, Kline T., Hanson J., Li X.F, Zhou S.H, Valeriote F.A et al..  2019.  Exploration of the carmaphycins as payloads in antibody drug conjugate anticancer agents. 161:416-432.
    Abstract Summary:

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a new dimension of anticancer chemotherapeutics, with warheads to date generally involving either antitubulin or DNA-directed agents to achieve low-to sub-nanomolar potency. However, other potent cytotoxins working by different pharmacological mechanisms are under investigation, such as alpha,beta-epoxyketone based proteasome inhibitors. These proteasome active agents are an emerging class of...

  • Peoples L.M, Norenberg M., Pric D., McGoldrick M., Novotny M., Bochdansky A., Bartlett DH.  2019.  A full-ocean-depth rated modular lander and pressure-retaining sampler capable of collecting hadal-endemic microbes under in situ conditions. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 143:50-57.
    Abstract Summary:

    The hadal zone remains one of the least studied environments because of its inaccessibility, in part because of hydrostatic pressures extending to 110 MPa. Few instruments are capable of sampling from such great depths. We have developed a full-ocean-depth-capable lander that can be fit with sampling packages for the collection of still images, video, motile megafauna, and hadal seawater. One payload includes a pressure-retaining sampler (PRS...

  • Ruhl C.J, Melgar D, Geng JH, Goldberg D.E, Crowell BW, Allen R.M, Bock Y, Barrientos S., Riquelme S., Baez J.C et al..  2019.  A global database of strong-motion displacement GNSS recordings and an example application to PGD scaling. Seismological Research Letters. 90:271-279.
    Abstract Summary:

    Displacement waveforms derived from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data have become more commonly used by seismologists in the past 15 yrs. Unlike strong-motion accelerometer recordings that are affected by baseline offsets during very strong shaking, GNSS data record displacement with fidelity down to 0 Hz. Unfortunately, fully processed GNSS waveform data are still scarce because of limited public availability and the highly...

  • Webb J.R, Santos I.R, Maher D.T, Tait D.R, Cyronak T., Sadat-Noori M., Macklin P., Jeffrey L.C.  2019.  Groundwater as a source of dissolved organic matter to coastal waters: Insights from radon and CDOM observations in 12 shallow coastal systems. Limnology and Oceanography. 64:182-196.
    Abstract Summary:

    The influence of groundwater and pore-water exchange on dissolved organic matter (DOM) dynamics in coastal surface waters remains poorly understood. Here, we combine bottom up (i.e., groundwater-derived flux estimates) and top down (i.e., water column response) evidence to assess whether groundwater exchange drives DOM dynamics in shallow coastal waters. We rely on automated chromophoric DOM (CDOM, a proxy for DOM) and radon (Rn-222,...

  • Zhang W.P, Watanabe H.K, Ding W., Lan Y., Tian R.M, Sun J., Chen C., Cai L., Li Y.X, Oguri K. et al..  2019.  Gut microbial divergence between two populations of the hadal amphipod Hirondellea gigas. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 85
    Abstract Summary:

    Hadal environments sustain diverse microorganisms. A few studies have investigated hadal microbial communities consisting of free-living or particle-associated bacteria and archaea. However, animal-associated microbial communities in hadal environments remain largely unexplored, and comparative analyses of animal gut microbiota between two isolated hadal environments have never been done so far. In the present study, 228 Gb of gut metagenomes...

  • Vano J.A, Dettinger MD, Cifelli R., Curtis D., Dufour A., Miller K., Olsen J.R, Wilson A.M.  2019.  Hydroclimatic extremes as challenges for the water management community: Lessons from Oroville Dam and Hurricane Harvey. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 100:S9-S14.
    Abstract Summary:
  • Lennert-Cody C.E, Clarke S.C, Aires-da-Silva A., Maunder MN, Franks PJS, Roman M., Miller AJ, Minami M..  2019.  The importance of environment and life stage on interpretation of silky shark relative abundance indices for the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Fisheries Oceanography. 28:43-53.
    Abstract Summary:

    Recent large fluctuations in an index of relative abundance for the silky shark in the eastern Pacific Ocean have called into question its reliability as a population indicator for management. To investigate whether these fluctuations were driven by environmental forcing rather than true changes in abundance, a Pacific-wide approach was taken. Data collected by observers aboard purse-seine vessels fishing in the equatorial Pacific were used...

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