Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

NADPH-dependent extracellular superoxide production is vital to photophysiology in the marine diatom Thalassiosira oceanica

Impact:
Batch cultures of T. oceanica were grown with replete initial nutrient concentrations under optimal light conditions, and whole cells were analyzed for net extracellular superoxide production by a flow-through chemiluminescence approach described previously. Results revealed that extracellular superoxide production rates were highest in exponential growth phase. As observed in other phytoplankton, this decline of net extracellular superoxide production with increasing age challenges the perception of superoxide as a stress-response molecule, given the continual drawdown of nutrients and the accumulation of cellular stress that occurs over time in batch cultures. These results therefore suggest that extracellular superoxide production may be a constitutive, or even beneficial physiological process in T. oceanica.

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  • Chen F., Zhao E.R, Hableel G., Hu T., Kim T., Li J.T, Gonzalez-Pech N.I, Cheng D.J, Lemaster J.E, Xie Y.J et al..  2019.  Increasing the efficacy of stem cell therapy via triple-function inorganic nanoparticles. 13:6605-6617.
    Abstract Summary:

    Stem cell therapy in heart disease is challenged by mis-injection, poor survival, and low cell retention. Here, we describe a biocompatible multifunctional silica-iron oxide nanoparticle to help solve these issues. The nanoparticles were made via an in situ growth of Fe3O4 nanoparticles on both the external surfaces and pore walls of mesocellular foam silica nanoparticles. In contrast to previous work, this approach builds a magnetic moiety...

  • Runge J., Bathiany S., Bollt E., Camps-Valls G., Coumou D., Deyle E., Glymour C., Kretschmer M., Mahecha M.D, Munoz-Mari J. et al..  2019.  Inferring causation from time series in Earth system sciences. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    The heart of the scientific enterprise is a rational effort to understand the causes behind the phenomena we observe. In large-scale complex dynamical systems such as the Earth system, real experiments are rarely feasible. However, a rapidly increasing amount of observational and simulated data opens up the use of novel data-driven causal methods beyond the commonly adopted correlation techniques. Here, we give an overview of causal inference...

  • Singleton D.M, Rockwell T.K, Murbach D., Murbach M., Maloney J.M, Freeman T., Levy Y..  2019.  Late-Holocene rupture history of the Rose Canyon Fault in Old Town, San Diego: Implications for cascading earthquakes on the Newport-Inglewood-Rose Canyon fault system. 109:855-874.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present new results from paleoseismic trenches excavated across the main trace of the Rose Canyon fault zone (RCFZ) in Old Town-San Diego, California, to determine the timing of late-Holocene earthquakes. There is evidence for four large surface-rupturing events, as well as two smaller events, the youngest of which cuts the early historical living surface that contains glass, ceramics, and a historical era foundation. This youngest event...

  • Byun G., Song HC, Byun S.H.  2019.  Localization of multiple ships using a vertical array in shallow water. 145:EL528-EL533.
    Abstract Summary:

    The blind deconvolution employs conventional plane-wave beamforming using an array, selects a well-resolved angle of arrival for beam steering to estimate the phase component of an unknown source waveform, and then extracts the Green's function between the source and the array. In this letter, the approach is extended to multiple-ship scenarios in which the multipath arrivals from one ship are masked by other ships, adopting the basic concept...

  • Tanner M.K, Moity N., Costa M.T, Jarrin J.RM, Aburto-Oropeza O, Salinas-de-Leon P..  2019.  Mangroves in the Galapagos: Ecosystem services and their valuation. 160:12-24.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mangroves provide many benefits to human welfare, but they are disappearing rapidly; Ecuador and countries within the Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) region have lost over 40% of their mangrove coverage in the last 40 years. One reason for this destruction is that the benefits of mangroves have not been valued in a way that policymakers and markets can understand. Here, we present the first economic valuation of multiple ecosystem services (ES...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We use a simple, semianalytic, column model to understand better the meridional structure of the tropopause height and future changes in its height and temperature associated with global warming. The model allows us to separate the effects of tropospheric lapse rate, optical depth, outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and stratospheric cooling on the tropopause height. When applied locally at each latitudinal band, the model predicts the...

  • Chowdhary J., Zhai P.W, Boss E., Dierssen H., Frouin R., Ibrahim A., Lee Z., Remer L.A, Twardowski M., Xu F. et al..  2019.  Modeling atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer: A PACE mission perspective. 7
    Abstract Summary:

    The research frontiers of radiative transfer (RT) in coupled atmosphere-ocean systems are explored to enable new science and specifically to support the upcoming Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud ocean Ecosystem (PACE) satellite mission. Given (i) the multitude of atmospheric and oceanic constituents at any given moment that each exhibits a large variety of physical and chemical properties and (ii) the diversity of light-matter interactions (...

  • Velasco-Hogan A, Deheyn DD, Koch M, Nothdurft B, Arzt E, Meyers MA.  2019.  On the nature of the transparent teeth of the deep-sea dragonfish, Aristostomias scintillans.
    Abstract Summary:

    The dragonfish is a voracious predator of the deep sea with an arsenal of tools to hunt prey and remain concealed. In contrast to its dark pigmented skin, the dragonfish is equipped with transparent teeth. Here, we establish the structure, composition, and mechanical properties of the transparent teeth for the first time. We find the enamel-like layer to consist of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite domains (?20 nm grain size) embedded in an...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Lamellibrachia columna Southward was originally described from hydrothermal vents of the Lau Basin, between Fiji and Tonga. This study utilizes phylogenetic and morphological analyses to confirm the collection of Lamellibrachia columna from cold seeps on the Hikurangi Margin off New Zealand, thereby extending its geographic range southward by approximately 1900 km. We also propose, based on molecular evidence, that specimens previously...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Pomacentrus vatosoa, new species, is described on the basis of four specimens collected from Nosy Faho, Madagascar. The new species is distinctive in having a pearlescent-white body with a large black spot midlaterally behind the pectoral fin, a black saddle of similar size on the dorsal edge of the caudal peduncle, and a black recurved band from the orbit to origin of dorsal fin. Aside from details in live coloration, the new species is...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A new ascothoracidan species has been discovered in the Macaronesia region of the eastern Atlantic Ocean at SCUBA depths. Ten specimens including both sexes of the new species, described herein as Synagoga grygieri sp. nov., were collected from colonies of the antipatharian Antipathella wollastoni (Gray, 1857). Two previously described species of Synagoga, morphologically the most generalized ascothoracidan genus, were found as ectoparasites...

  • Rainville L, Centurioni LR, Asher W.E, Clayson CA, Drushka K., Edson J.B, Hodges B.A, Hermann V., Farrar J.T, Schanze J.J et al..  2019.  Novel and flexible approach to access the open ocean uses of sailing research vessel Lady Amber during SPURS-2. 32:116-121.
    Abstract Summary:

    SPURS-2 (Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study 2) used the schooner Lady Amber, a small sailing research vessel, to deploy, service, maintain, and recover a variety of oceanographic and meteorological instruments in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Low operational costs allowed us to frequently deploy floats and drifters to collect data necessary for resolving the regional circulation of the eastern tropical Pacific. The small...

  • Pratt LJ, Voet G, Pacini A, Tan S, Alford MH, Carter GS, Girton JB, Menemenlis D.  2019.  Pacific Abyssal Transport and Mixing: Through the Samoan Passage versus around the Manihiki Plateau. 49:1577-1592.
    Abstract Summary:

    The main source feeding the abyssal circulation of the North Pacific is the deep, northward flow of 5–6 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) through the Samoan Passage. A recent field campaign has shown that this flow is hydraulically controlled and that it experiences hydraulic jumps accompanied by strong mixing and dissipation concentrated near several deep sills. By our estimates, the diapycnal density flux associated with this mixing is...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In this study, we investigated the geomorphic and incision history for an similar to 5 km reach of the northern Rio Grande gorge in New Mexico using field and LiDAR-based geomorphic mapping and cosmogenic 3 He surface exposure dating. This wide (>1.5 km) and deep (similar to 240 m) section of the gorge exhibits Toreva blocks, incoherent landslides, rock falls, and slumps developed within Servilleta Basalts and intercalated weakly...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Aim Our aim was to collect sightings data on oceanic manta rays (Mobula birostris) within the Raja Ampat Archipelago to better understand their population dynamics within the region. These data were compared with environmental variables to seek correlates that may explain any variations in observed sightings frequency. Combined, it is hoped this knowledge will be used to aid effective management of this species in the region. Location Raja...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Athens, Greece has been in economic and social crises after the 2008 global recession, resulting in an increase in wood burning as a cheaper method of residential heating in the winter. Reducing wood burning emissions is a source-specific method to address air quality degradation, and indirectly climate change, through instituting policies aimed at human health co-benefits. In this work, we investigate and quantify the potential health co-...

  • Lundesgaard O., Powell B., Merrifield M., Hahn-Woernle L., Winsor P..  2019.  Response of an Antarctic Peninsula fjord to summer katabatic wind events. 49:1485-1502.
    Abstract Summary:

    Fjords along the western Antarctic Peninsula are episodically exposed to strong winds flowing down marine-terminating glaciers and out over the ocean. These wind events could potentially be an important mechanism for the ventilation of fjord waters. A strong wind event was observed in Andvord Bay in December 2015, and was associated with significant increases in upper-ocean salinity. We examine the dynamical impacts of such wind events during...

  • Tinto K.J, Padman L., Siddoway C.S, Springer S.R, Fricker H.A, Das I., Tontini F.C, Porter D.F, Frearson N.P, Howard S.L et al..  2019.  Ross Ice Shelf response to climate driven by the tectonic imprint on seafloor bathymetry. 12:441-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean melting has thinned Antarctica's ice shelves at an increasing rate over the past two decades, leading to loss of grounded ice. The Ross Ice Shelf is currently close to steady state but geological records indicate that it can disintegrate rapidly, which would accelerate grounded ice loss from catchments equivalent to 11.6 m of global sea level rise. Here, we use data from the ROSETTA-Ice airborne survey and ocean simulations to identify...

  • Chekan J.R, McKinnie S.MK, Moore M.L, Poplawski S.G, Michael T.P, Moore BS.  2019.  Scalable biosynthesis of the seaweed neurochemical, kainic acid. 58:8454-8457.
    Abstract Summary:

    Kainic acid, the flagship member of the kainoid family of natural neurochemicals, is a widely used neuropharmacological agent that helped unravel the key role of ionotropic glutamate receptors, including the kainate receptor, in the central nervous system. Worldwide shortages of this seaweed natural product in the year 2000 prompted numerous chemical syntheses, including scalable preparations with as few as six-steps. Herein we report the...

  • Gonzalez-Pech N.I, Stebounova L.V, Ustunol I.B, Park J.H, Anthony T.R, Peters T.M, Grassian VH.  2019.  Size, composition, morphology, and health implications of airborne incidental metal-containing nanoparticles. 16:387-399.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is great concern regarding the adverse health implications of engineered nanoparticles. However, there are many circumstances where the production of incidental nanoparticles, i.e., nanoparticles unintentionally generated as a side product of some anthropogenic process, is of even greater concern. In this study, metal-based incidental nanoparticles were measured in two occupational settings: a machining center and a foundry. On-site...

  • Nannuru S., Gemba K.L, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss WS, Mecklenbrauker C.F.  2019.  Sparse Bayesian learning with multiple dictionaries. Signal Processing. 159:159-170.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sparse Bayesian learning (SBL) has emerged as a fast and competitive method to perform sparse processing. The SBL algorithm, which is developed using a Bayesian framework, iteratively solves a non-convex optimization problem using fixed point updates. It provides comparable performance and is significantly faster than convex optimization techniques used in sparse processing. We propose a multi-dictionary SBL algorithm that simultaneously can...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The present article describes a numerical modeling study of the spatial distribution of the wave energy resource for Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands (USVI). The study consists of an analysis of three years of output from the CARICOOS Nearshore Wave Model, an operational model based on the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) model. Using the wave model output, the wave power was computed and then averaged for a three year period...

  • Subramanian A., Juricke S., Dueben P., Palmer T..  2019.  A stochastic representation of subgrid uncertainty for dynamical core development. 100:1091-1101.
    Abstract Summary:

    Numerical weather prediction and climate models comprise a) a dynamical core describing resolved parts of the climate system and b) parameterizations describing unresolved components. Development of new subgrid-scale parameterizations is particularly uncertain compared to representing resolved scales in the dynamical core. This uncertainty is currently represented by stochastic approaches in several operational weather models, which will...

  • Vittori G., Blondeaux P., Coco G., Guza RT.  2019.  Subharmonic edge wave excitation by narrow-band, random incident waves. 868
    Abstract Summary:

    A monochromatic, small amplitude, normally incident standing wave on a sloping beach is unstable to perturbation by subharmonic (half the frequency) edge waves. At equilibrium, edge wave shoreline amplitudes can exceed incident wave amplitudes. Here, the effect of incident wave randomness on subharmonic edge wave excitation is explored following a weakly nonlinear stability analysis under the assumption of narrow-band incident random waves....

  • Lu W.H, Cusack C., Baker M., Wang T., Chen M.B, Paige K., Zhang X.F, Levin L., Escobar E., Amon D. et al..  2019.  Successful blue economy examples with an emphasis on international perspectives. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Careful definition and illustrative case studies are fundamental work in developing a Blue Economy. As blue research expands with the world increasingly understanding its importance, policy makers and research institutions worldwide concerned with ocean and coastal regions are demanding further and improved analysis of the Blue Economy. Particularly, in terms of the management connotation, data access, monitoring, and product development,...

  • Hermes J.C, Masumoto Y., Beal L.M, Roxy M.K, Vialard J., Andres M., Annamalai H., Behera S., D'Adamo N., Doi T. et al..  2019.  A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Indian Ocean is warming faster than any of the global oceans and its climate is uniquely driven by the presence of a landmass at low latitudes, which causes monsoonal winds and reversing currents. The food, water, and energy security in the Indian Ocean rim countries and islands are intrinsically tied to its climate, with marine environmental goods and services, as well as trade within the basin, underpinning their economies. Hence, there...

  • Heo S., Nori-Sarma A., Lee K., Benmarhnia T., Dominici F., Bell M.L.  2019.  The use of a quasi-experimental study on the mortality effect of a heat wave warning system in Korea. 16
    Abstract Summary:

    Many cities and countries have implemented heat wave warning systems to combat the health effects of extreme heat. Little is known about whether these systems actually reduce heat-related morbidity and mortality. We examined the effectiveness of heat wave alerts and health plans in reducing the mortality risk of heat waves in Korea by utilizing the discrepancy between the alerts and the monitored temperature. A difference-in-differences...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Variability of North Atlantic annual hurricane frequency during 1951-2010 is studied using a 100-member ensemble of climate simulations by a 60-km atmospheric general circulation model that is forced by observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The ensemble mean results well capture the interannual-to-decadal variability of hurricane frequency in best track data since 1970, and suggest that the current best track data might underestimate...

  • Choy C.A, Robison B.H, Gagne T.O, Erwin B., Firl E., Halden R.U, Hamilton J.A, Katija K., Lisin S.E, Rolsky C. et al..  2019.  The vertical distribution and biological transport of marine microplastics across the epipelagic and mesopelagic water column. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Plastic waste has been documented in nearly all types of marine environments and has been found in species spanning all levels of marine food webs. Within these marine environments, deep pelagic waters encompass the largest ecosystems on Earth. We lack a comprehensive understanding of the concentrations, cycling, and fate of plastic waste in sub-surface waters, constraining our ability to implement effective, large-scale policy and...

  • Dorman C.E, Mejia J., Koracin D., McEvoy D..  2019.  World marine fog analysis based on 58-years of ship observations.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study presents the first global-scale comprehensive climatology of marine fog and is based on ICOADS ship present weather observations for the period 1950-2007. In general, the median marine fog occurrence away from the polar oceans is low (0.2%). Substantially greater marine fog occurrences are limited to four regions, not including the polar region. Fog occurrence maxima along the western side of the sub-polar ocean gyre occur during...

  • Svensen C., Halvorsen E., Vernet M, Franze G., Dmoch K., Lavrentyev P.J, Kwasniewski S..  2019.  Zooplankton communities associated with new and regenerated primary production in the Atlantic inflow north of Svalbard. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    The Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly with respect to ice cover extent and volume, growth season duration and biological production. Zooplankton are important components in the arctic marine food web, and tightly coupled to the strong seasonality in primary production. In this study, we investigate zooplankton composition, including microzooplankton, copepod nauplii, as well as small and large copepod taxa, and primary productivity in the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study investigates the impact of internal variability on East Asian summer (June-July-August) surface air temperature (SAT) trends on the multidecadal time scale based on a 30-member ensemble of simulations that share the same external forcing from 1970 to 2005. The ensemble-mean SAT in East Asia shows a positive trend, but the patterns and the magnitudes in the individual members are remarkably diverse, highlighting the strong effect of...

  • Cardenas P., Lange C.B, Vernet M, Esper O., Srain B., Vorrath M.E, Ehrhardt S., Muller J., Kuhn G., Arz H.W et al..  2019.  Biogeochemical proxies and diatoms in surface sediments across the Drake Passage reflect oceanic domains and frontal systems in the region. 174:72-88.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current is the world's largest current system connecting all major ocean basins of the global ocean. Its flow, driven by strong westerly winds, is constricted to its narrowest extent in the Drake Passage, located between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula. Due to the remoteness of the area, harsh weather conditions and strong bottom currents, sediment recovery is difficult and data coverage is still inadequate...

  • de Morals M.G, de Morais E.G, Duarte J.H, Deamici K.M, Mitchell B.G, Costa J.AV.  2019.  Biological CO2 mitigation by microalgae: technological trends, future prospects and challenges. 35
    Abstract Summary:

    The increase in the CO2 concentration in the Earth's atmosphere has been a topic of worldwide concern since anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases began increasing considerably during the industrial period. The effects of these mass emissions are probably the main cause of global warming, which has been observed over recent decades. Among the various techniques of CO2 capture, microalgal biofixation by photosynthesis is considered a...

  • House B.M, Bebout G.E, Hilton DR.  2019.  Carbon cycling at the Sunda margin, Indonesia: A regional study with global implications. Geology. 47:483-486.
    Abstract Summary:

    The subduction and release of carbon at convergent margins is a primary mechanism by which tectonic processes influence atmospheric pCO(2), but the balance between the amount of carbon subducting and the CO2 flux from volcanic arcs remains poorly constrained. Estimating CO2 recycling efficiency in complex regions like the Sunda margin, Indonesia, is particularly difficult due to the lateral variability in sediment thickness, composition, and...

  • Stukel M.R, Kelly T.B, Aluwihare LI, Barbeau K.A, Goericke R, Krause J.W, Landry MR, Ohman MD.  2019.  The Carbon:(234)Thorium ratios of sinking particles in the California current ecosystem 1: relationships with plankton ecosystem dynamics. Marine Chemistry. 212:1-15.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated variability in the C:Th-234 ratio of sinking particles and its relationship to changing water column characteristics and plankton ecological dynamics during 29 Lagrangian experiments conducted on six cruises of the California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program. C:Th-234 ratios of sinking particles collected by a surface-tethered sediment trap ((CThST)-Th-:234) varied from 2.3 to 20.5 mu mol C...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Stocks of sardine and anchovy inhabiting eastern boundary upwelling systems of the world's oceans have exhibited large fluctuations in population size, often with peaks in biomass of one taxon alternating with that of the other over multidecadal periods. One hypothesis offered to explain such variability attributes changes in population growth to distinctions in the optimal size of the fishes' planktonic prey. However, the factors affecting...

  • Atwood S.A, Kreidenweis S.M, DeMott PJ, Petters M.D, Cornwell G.C, Martin A.C, Moore K.A.  2019.  Classification of aerosol population type and cloud condensation nuclei properties in a coastal California littoral environment using an unsupervised cluster model. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 19:6931-6947.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aerosol particle and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements from a littoral location on the northern coast of California at Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory (BML) are presented for approximately six weeks of observations during the boreal winter-spring as part of the CalWater-2015 field campaign. The nature and variability of surface (marine boundary layer, MBL) aerosol populations were evaluated by classifying observations into periods of...

  • Mitovski T., Cole J.NS, McFarlane N.A, von Salzen K., Zhang GJ.  2019.  Convective response to large-scale forcing in the tropical western Pacific simulated by spCAM5 and CanAM4.3. Geoscientific Model Development. 12:2107-2117.
    Abstract Summary:

    Changes in the large-scale environment during convective precipitation events in the tropical western Pacific simulated by version 4.3 of the Canadian Atmospheric Model (CanAM4.3) are compared against those simulated by version 5.0 of the super-parameterized Community Atmosphere Model (spCAM5). This is done by compositing sub-hourly output of convective rainfall, convective available potential energy (CAPE), CAPE generation due to large-scale...

  • Broddrick J.T, Du N., Smith S.R, Tsuji Y., Jallet D., Ware M.A, Peers G., Matsuda Y., Dupont C.L, Mitchell B.G et al..  2019.  Cross-compartment metabolic coupling enables flexible photoprotective mechanisms in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. New Phytologist. 222:1364-1379.
    Abstract Summary:

    Photoacclimation consists of short- and long-term strategies used by photosynthetic organisms to adapt to dynamic light environments. Observable photophysiology changes resulting from these strategies have been used in coarse-grained models to predict light-dependent growth and photosynthetic rates. However, the contribution of the broader metabolic network, relevant to species-specific strategies and fitness, is not accounted for in these...

  • Skarsoulis E.K, Cornuelle BD.  2019.  Cross-correlation of shipping noise: Refraction and receiver-motion effects. 145:3003-3010.
    Abstract Summary:

    The spatial correlation of a diffuse isotropic noise field generated from a uniform distribution of uncorrelated noise sources contains information about the time-domain Green's function ( TDGF) corresponding to propagation between the correlated locations. The distribution of noise in the ocean due to shipping-the prevailing origin of continuous low-frequency noise-is far from uniform. Besides the location of noise sources, the propagation...

  • Vic C., Garabato A.CN, Green J.AM, Waterhouse A.F, Zhao Z.X, Melet A., de Lavergne C., Buijsman M.C, Stephenson G.R.  2019.  Deep-ocean mixing driven by small-scale internal tides. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Turbulent mixing in the ocean is key to regulate the transport of heat, freshwater and biogeochemical tracers, with strong implications for Earth's climate. In the deep ocean, tides supply much of the mechanical energy required to sustain mixing via the generation of internal waves, known as internal tides, whose fate-the relative importance of their local versus remote breaking into turbulence-remains uncertain. Here, we combine a semi-...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA)- and vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA)-rich cells in shark gills secrete excess acid and base, respectively, to seawater to maintain blood acid-base homeostasis. Both cell types are rich in mitochondria, indicating high ATP demand; however, their metabolic fuel is unknown. Here, we report that NKA- and VHA-rich cells have large glycogen stores. Glycogen abundance in NKA-rich cells was lower in starved sharks compared with 24 h post...

  • Busch J., Agarwal V., Schorn M., Machado H., Moore BS, Rouse GW, Gram L., Jensen PR.  2019.  Diversity and distribution of the bmp gene cluster and its Polybrominated products in the genus Pseudoalteromonas. 21:1575-1585.
    Abstract Summary:

    The production of pentabromopseudilin and related brominated compounds by Pseudoalteromonas spp. has recently been linked to the bmp biosynthetic gene cluster. This study explored the distribution and evolutionary history of this gene cluster in the genus Pseudoalteromonas. A phylogeny of the genus revealed numerous clades that do not contain type strains, suggesting considerable species level diversity has yet to be described. Comparative...

  • Andersson AJ, Venn A.A, Pendleton L., Brathwaite A., Camp E.F, Cooley S., Gledhill D., Koch M., Maliki S., Manfrino C..  2019.  Ecological and socioeconomic strategies to sustain Caribbean coral reefs in a high-CO2 world. 29
    Abstract Summary:

    The Caribbean and Western Atlantic region hosts one of the world's most diverse geopolitical regions and a unique marine biota distinct from tropical seas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. While this region varies in human population density, GDP and wealth, coral reefs, and their associated ecosystem services, are central to people's livelihoods. Unfortunately, the region's reefs have experienced extensive degradation over the last several...

  • Kumar R., Lee J.A, L. Monache D, Alessandrini S..  2019.  Effect of meteorological variability on fine particulate matter simulations over the contiguous United States. 124:5669-5694.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study quantifies the impact of meteorological variability on the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model-simulated particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m or smaller (particulate matter 2.5 [PM2.5]) over the contiguous United States (CONUS). The meteorological variability is represented using the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast (SREF) produced operationally by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A...

  • Hetherington E.D, Kurle C.M, Ohman MD, Popp BN.  2019.  Effects of chemical preservation on bulk and amino acid isotope ratios of zooplankton, fish, and squid tissues. 33:935-945.
    Abstract Summary:

    Rationale It is imperative to understand how chemical preservation alters tissue isotopic compositions before using historical samples in ecological studies. Specifically, although compound-specific isotope analysis of amino acids (CSIA-AA) is becoming a widely used tool, there is little information on how preservation techniques affect amino acid delta N-15 values. Methods We evaluated the effects of chemical preservatives on bulk tissue...

  • Eddebbar Y.A, Rodgers K.B, Long M.C, Subramanian AC, Xie SP, Keeling RF.  2019.  El Nino-like physical and biogeochemical ocean response to tropical eruptions. Journal of Climate. 32:2627-2649.
    Abstract Summary:

    The oceanic response to recent tropical eruptions is examined in Large Ensemble (LE) experiments from two fully coupled global climate models, the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model (ESM2M), each forced by a distinct volcanic forcing dataset. Following the simulated eruptions of Agung, El Chichon, and Pinatubo, the ocean loses heat and gains oxygen and carbon, in general...

  • Walsh CT, Moore BS.  2019.  Enzymatic cascade reactions in biosynthesis. 58:6846-6879.
    Abstract Summary:

    Enzyme-mediated cascade reactions are widespread in biosynthesis. To facilitate comparison with the mechanistic categorizations of cascade reactions by synthetic chemists and delineate the common underlying chemistry, we discuss four types of enzymatic cascade reactions: those involving nucleophilic, electrophilic, pericyclic, and radical reactions. Two subtypes of enzymes that generate radical cascades exist at opposite ends of the oxygen...

  • Koslow JA, Davison P., Ferrer E., Rosenberg S, Aceves-Medina G., Watson W.  2019.  The evolving response of mesopelagic fishes to declining midwater oxygen concentrations in the southern and central California Current. 76:626-638.
    Abstract Summary:

    Declining oxygen concentrations in the deep ocean, particularly in areas with pronounced oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), are a growing global concern related to global climate change. Its potential impacts on marine life remain poorly understood. A previous study suggested that the abundance of a diverse suite of mesopelagic fishes off southern California was closely linked to trends in midwater oxygen concentration. This study expands the...

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