Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Polynya dynamics drive primary production in the Larsen A and B embayments following ice shelf collapse

Impact:
The embayments previously covered by the Larsen ice shelf have quickly become productive regions, some years contributing more to total net primary productivity (NPP) than their spatial share of the NW Weddell Sea surface area. While the absolute magnitude of this new carbon pool is too low to contribute to carbon sequestration on a global scale and the interannual variability in production is extreme, the presence of this new organic matter in the water column and its sedimentation to the benthos are likely to lead to extensive changes in the regional marine ecosystem of the NW Weddell Sea.

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  • Schramek T.A, Colin P.L, Merrifield M.A, Terrill E.J.  2018.  Depth-dependent thermal stress around corals in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:9739-9747.
    Abstract Summary:

    Thermally driven bleaching events are a growing concern for reef ecosystems across the tropics. To assess and predict thermal stress impacts on reefs, remotely observed sea surface temperature (SST) commonly is used; however, reef communities typically extend to depths where SST alone may not be an accurate measure of in situ variability. Here nearly two decades of temperature observations (2- to 90-m depth) at three stations around Palau are...

  • McMahon A., Santos I.R, Schulz K.G, Cyronak T., Maher D.T.  2018.  Determining coral reef calcification and primary production using automated alkalinity, pH and pCO(2) measurements at high temporal resolution. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science. 209:80-88.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated coral reef carbonate chemistry dynamics and metabolic rates using an automated system that measured total alkalinity (TA, 30 min intervals), pH on the total scale (pH(T), 10 min intervals) and the partial pressure "of carbon dioxide (pCO(2), 1 min intervals) over 2 weeks at Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). The calculation of pH(T) (using the pCO(2) and TA pair) and pCO(2) (using the pH and TA pair) had similar...

  • Keen E.M, Wray J., Pilkington JF, Thompson K.L, Picard C.R.  2018.  Distinct habitat use strategies of sympatric rorqual whales within a fjord system. Marine Environmental Research. 140:180-189.
    Abstract Summary:

    We used ecosystem sampling during systematic surveys and opportunistic focal follows, comparison tests, and random forest models to evaluate fin whale (Balaenoptera physallts) and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeonglicte)habitat associations within an inland feeding ground (Kitimat Fjord System, British Columbia, Canada). Though these species are sympatric and share a common prey source, they were attuned to different aspects of the local...

  • Murik O, Tirichine L, Prihoda J, Thomas Y, Araújo WL, Allen AE, Fernie AR, Bowler C.  2018.  Downregulation of mitochondrial alternative oxidase affects chloroplast function, redox status and stress response in a marine diatom. New Phytologist.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diatoms dominance in contemporary aquatic environments indicates that they have developed unique and effective mechanisms to cope with the rapid and considerable fluctuations that characterize these environments. In view of their evolutionary history from a secondary endosymbiosis, inter-organellar regulation of biochemical activities may be of particular relevance. Diatom mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) is believed to play a...

  • Deyle E., Schueller A.M, Ye H, Pao G.M, Sugihara G.  2018.  Ecosystem-based forecasts of recruitment in two menhaden species. Fish and Fisheries. 19:769-781.
    Abstract Summary:

    Gulf (Brevoortia patronus, Clupeidae) and Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus, Clupeidae) support large fisheries that have shown substantial variability over several decades, in part, due to dependence on annual recruitment. Nevertheless, traditional stock-recruitment relationships lack predictive power for these stocks. Current management of Atlantic menhaden explicitly treats recruitment as a random process. However, traditional methods...

  • Dinasquet J., Tiirola M., Azam F.  2018.  Enrichment of bacterioplankton able to utilize one-carbon and methylated compounds in the coastal Pacific Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the temporal variations and succession of bacterial communities involved in the turnover of one-carbon and methylated compounds is necessary to better predict bacterial impacts on the marine carbon cycle and air-sea carbon fluxes. The ability of the local bacterioplankton community to exploit one-carbon and methylated compounds as main source of bioavailable carbon during a productive and less productive period was assessed...

  • Gemba KL, Sarkar J, Cornuelle B, Hodgkiss WS, Kuperman WA.  2018.  Estimating relative channel impulse responses from ships of opportunity in a shallow water environment. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1231-1244.
    Abstract Summary:

    The uncertainty of estimating relative channel impulse responses (CIRs) obtained using the radiated signature from a ship of opportunity is investigated. The ship observations were taken during a 1.4 km (11 min) transect in a shallow water environment during the Noise Correlation 2009 (NC09) experiment. Beamforming on the angle associated with the direct ray-path yields an estimate of the ship signature, subsequently used in a matched filter...

  • Betancur-Turizo S.P, Gonzalez-Silvera A., Santamaria-del-Angel E., Tan J., Frouin R..  2018.  Evaluation of semi-analytical algorithms to retrieve particulate and dissolved absorption coefficients in Gulf of California optically complex waters. Remote Sensing. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Two semi-analytical algorithms, Generalized Inherent Optical Property (GIOP) and Garver-Siegel-Maritorena (GSM), were evaluated in terms of how well they reproduced the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton (a(ph)(lambda)) and dissolved and detrital organic matter (a(dg)(lambda)) at three wavelengths (lambda of 412, 443, and 488 nm) in a zone with optically complex waters, the Upper Gulf of California (UGC) and the Northern Gulf of...

  • Shi J.R, Xie SP, Talley LD.  2018.  Evolving relative importance of the Southern Ocean and North Atlantic in anthropogenic ocean heat uptake. Journal of Climate. 31:7459-7479.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ocean uptake of anthropogenic heat over the past 15 years has mostly occurred in the Southern Ocean, based on Argo float observations. This agrees with historical simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), where the Southern Ocean (south of 30 degrees S) accounts for 72% +/- 28% of global heat uptake, while the contribution from the North Atlantic north of 30 degrees N is only 6%. Aerosols preferentially...

  • Gagniere S., Smith SGL, Yeh H.D.  2018.  Excess pore water pressure due to ground surface erosion. 61:72-82.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Laplace transform is applied to solve the groundwater flow equation with a boundary that is initially fixed but that starts to move at a constant rate after some fixed time. This problem arises in the study of pore water pressures due to erosional unloading where the aquifer lies underneath an unsaturated zone. We derive an analytic solution and examine the predicted pressure profiles and boundary fluxes. We calculate the negative pore...

  • Smith SGL, Chang C., Chu T.Y, Blyth M., Hattori Y., Salman H..  2018.  Generalized contour dynamics: A review. 23:507-518.
    Abstract Summary:

    Contour dynamics is a computational technique to solve for the motion of vortices in incompressible inviscid flow. It is a Lagrangian technique in which the motion of contours is followed, and the velocity field moving the contours can be computed as integrals along the contours. Its best-known examples are in two dimensions, for which the vorticity between contours is taken to be constant and the vortices are vortex patches, and in...

  • Parnell-Turner R., Escartin J., Olive J.A, Smith D.K, Petersen S..  2018.  Genesis of corrugated fault surfaces by strain localization recorded at oceanic detachments. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 498:116-128.
    Abstract Summary:

    Seafloor spreading at slow and ultraslow rates is often taken up by extension on large-offset faults called detachments, which exhume lower crustal and mantle rocks, and in some cases make up domed oceanic core complexes. The exposed footwall may reveal a characteristic pattern of spreading-parallel corrugations, the largest of which are clearly visible in multibeam bathymetric data, and whose nature and origin have been the subject of...

  • Pethybridge H., Choy C.A, Logan J.M, Allain V., Lorrain A., Bodin N., Somes C.J, Young J., Menard F., Langlais C. et al..  2018.  A global meta-analysis of marine predator nitrogen stable isotopes: Relationships between trophic structure and environmental conditions. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 27:1043-1055.
    Abstract Summary:

    Aim We examined potential environmental drivers of broad-scale spatial patterns in the trophic structure of marine ecosystems as represented by nitrogen stable isotopes in globally distributed marine predators. Additionally, we assessed the effects of spatial scale on the predictive capabilities of environmental variables. LocationTime periodGlobal oceans. 2000 to 2015. Major taxa studiedMethodsTunas: Thunnus albacares, Thunnus obesus,...

  • Macholdt D.S, Al-Amri A.M, Tuffaha H.T, Jochum K.P, Andreae M.O.  2018.  Growth of desert varnish on petroglyphs from Jubbah and Shuwaymis, Ha'il region, Saudi Arabia. Holocene. 28:1495-1511.
    Abstract Summary:

    Petroglyphs, engraved throughout the Holocene into rock varnish coatings on sandstone, were investigated in the Ha'il region of northwestern Saudi Arabia, at Jabal Yatib, Jubbah, and Shuwaymis. The rock art has been created by removing the black varnish coating and thereby exposing the light sandstone underneath. With time, the varnish, a natural manganese (Mn)-rich coating, grows back. To study the rate of regrowth, we made 234 measurements...

  • Aburto-Oropeza O, Johnson A.F, Agha M., Allen E.B, Allen M.F, Gonzalez J.A, Moreno D.MA, Beas-Luna R., Butterfield S., Caetano G. et al..  2018.  Harnessing cross-border resources to confront climate change. Environmental Science & Policy. 87:128-132.
    Abstract Summary:

    The US and Mexico share a common history in many areas, including language and culture. They face ecological changes due to the increased frequency and severity of droughts and rising energy demands; trends that entail economic costs for both nations and major implications for human wellbeing. We describe an ongoing effort by the Environment Working Group (EWG), created by The University of California's UC-Mexico initiative in 2015, to...

  • Benmarhnia T., Alexander S., Price K., Smargiassi A., King N., Kaufman J.S.  2018.  The heterogeneity of vulnerability in public health: a heat wave action plan as a case study. 28:619-625.
    Abstract Summary:

    The concept of vulnerability is frequently used in public health policies to develop tailored interventions or dedicate proportionately more resources to certain sub-populations. However, once segments of the population are identified as vulnerable, they are rarely consulted regarding whether this label is acceptable before instituting interventions. Instead, it is implicitly assumed that the targeted individuals identify themselves as...

  • Cromwell G., Trusdell F., Tauxe L, Staudigel H., Ron H..  2018.  Holocene paleointensity of the island of Hawai'i from glassy volcanics. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 19:3224-3245.
    Abstract Summary:

    This study presents new high-quality paleointensity records and C-14 radiocarbon age determinations from the Island of Hawai'i during the Holocene. Previous studies on Hawai'i use experimental methods and statistical selection criteria that may produce inaccurate geomagnetic field strength estimates. Additional high-quality paleointensity results can be used to evaluate the existing Hawaiian data set and investigate Holocene geomagnetic field...

  • Tsuboko-Ishii S., Burton RS.  2018.  Individual culturing of tigriopus copepods and quantitative analysis of their mate-guarding behavior. Jove-Journal of Visualized Experiments.
    Abstract Summary:

    Copepods of the genus Tigriopus, which are common zooplankton in rocky tide pools, show precopulatory mate-guarding behavior where a male clasps a potential mate to form a pair. While this phenomenon has attracted interest of researchers, methods for its analysis have not been well described. Here we describe procedures for: 1) individual culturing and staging of Tigriopus juveniles and adults, and 2) video-based analysis of their mate-...

  • Highlighted Publication Sampling nets photographed from under water
    McClatchie S., Gao J., Drenkard E.J, Thompson A.R, Watson W, Ciannelli L., Bograd SJ, Thorson J.T.  2018.  Interannual and secular variability of larvae of mesopelagic and forage fishes in the southern California Current System. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:6277-6295.
    Abstract Summary:

    We used univariate and multivariate spatiotemporal delta models to quantify changes in the distribution of ichthyoplankton in the southern California Current System from 1951 to 2016. We focus on mesopelagic species, because they are most abundant, and on northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax), and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), because they are important commercial and forage fish species. Univariate...

  • Wang W.T, Gerstoft P, Wang B.S.  2018.  Interference of teleseismic body waves in noise cross-correlation functions in Southwest China. Seismological Research Letters. 89:1817-1825.
    Abstract Summary:

    Vertical-vertical component noise cross-correlation functions (NCFs) from southwest China show strong signals at 4-8 s periods with apparent velocities exceeding 18 km/s. These signals exhibit clear azimuthal dependency and undergo seasonal variations. Using NCF-based beamforming, we isolate these signals from surface waves to better address their slowness distributions and source locations. They are identified as the interference of...

  • Arnold T., Manning A.J, Kim J., Li S.L, Webster H., Thomson D., Mühle J, Weiss RF, Park S., O'Doherty S.  2018.  Inverse modelling of CF4 and NF3 emissions in East Asia. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:13305-13320.
    Abstract Summary:

    Decadal trends in the atmospheric abundances of carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) have been well characterised and have provided a time series of global total emissions. Information on locations of emissions contributing to the global total, however, is currently poor. We use a unique set of measurements between 2008 and 2015 from the Gosan station, Jeju Island, South Korea (part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric...

  • Betha R., Russell LM, Chen C.L, Liu J., Price D.J, Sanchez K.J, Chen S.J, Lee A.KY, Collier S.C, Zhang Q. et al..  2018.  Larger submicron particles for emissions with residential burning in wintertime San Joaquin Valley (Fresno) than for vehicle combustion in summertime South Coast Air Basin (Fontana). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:10526-10545.
    Abstract Summary:

    Size-resolved composition of atmospheric aerosol particles during winter (19 December 2014 to 13 January 2015) in the San Joaquin Valley at Fresno and during summer (4 to 28 July 2015) in the Southern California Air Basin at Fontana were measured by aerosol mass spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, single particle soot photometer, and scanning electrical mobility sizer. The Fresno study had low-fog and high-fog winter...

  • Tangunan D.N, Baumann K.H, Just J., LeVay L.J, Barker S., Brentegani L., De Vleeschouwer D., Hall I.R, Hemming S., Norris R. et al..  2018.  The last 1 million years of the extinct genus Discoaster: Plio-Pleistocene environment and productivity at Site U1476 (Mozambique Channel). Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology. 505:187-197.
    Abstract Summary:

    A detailed paleoenvironment reconstruction from the Mozambique Channel, western Indian Ocean, based on the calcareous nannoplankton assemblages was conducted for the interval between 2.85 and 1.85 Myr. This study covers the period during which the successive extinction of the last five species of discoasters occurred. New productivity data obtained from the abundances of the Discoaster species (Discoaster brouweri, D. triradiatus, D....

  • Bax N.J, Appeltans W., Brainard R., Duffy JE, Dunstan P., Hanich Q., Davies H.H, Hills J., Miloslavich P., Muller-Karger F.E et al..  2018.  Linking capacity development to GOOS monitoring networks to achieve sustained ocean observation. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Developing enduring capacity to monitor ocean life requires investing in people and their institutions to build infrastructure, ownership, and long-term support networks. International initiatives can enhance access to scientific data, tools and methodologies, and develop local expertise to use them, but without ongoing engagement may fail to have lasting benefit. Linking capacity development and technology transfer to sustained ocean...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Abstract Summary:

    The Plant-Craig (PC) stochastic convective parameterization scheme is modified by linking the stochastic generation of convective clouds to the change of large-scale vertical pressure velocity at 500 hPa with time so as to better account for the relationship between convection and the large-scale environment. Three experiments using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), are conducted...

  • Luo M., Algeo T.J, Tong H.P, Gieskes J., Chen L.Y, Shi X.F, Chen D.F.  2018.  More reducing bottom-water redox conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum in the southern Challenger Deep (Mariana Trench, western Pacific) driven by enhanced productivity. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography. 155:70-82.
    Abstract Summary:

    The modern southern Mariana Trench is characterized by oligotrophic surface waters, resulting in low primary productivity and well-oxygenated bottom waters. This study investigates changes in the redox conditions of bottom waters in the southern Mariana Trench during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and their potential causes. We measured major, trace, and rare earth elements (REE) in three gravity cores (GC03, GC04, and GC05) and one box core...

  • Abstract Summary:

    We describe the mandibular morphology of the eight most abundant euphausiid species in the California Current and report regression relationships between mandible size and body total length. We applied these species-specific characters to the mandibles recovered from fecal samples of 18 blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758)) collected between 1998 to 2015 off Southern California to test for selective feeding on the euphausiid...

  • Tangwancharoen S., Moy G.W, Burton RS.  2018.  Multiple modes of adaptation: Regulatory and structural evolution in a small heat shock protein gene. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 35:2110-2119.
    Abstract Summary:

    Thermal tolerance is a key determinant of species distribution. Despite much study, the genetic basis of adaptive evolution of thermal tolerance, including the relative contributions of transcriptional regulation versus protein evolution, remains unclear. Populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus are adapted to local thermal regimes across their broad geographic range. Upon thermal stress, adults from a heat tolerant...

  • Quinn R.A, Comstock W., Zhang T.Y, Morton J.T, da Silva R., Tran A., Aksenov A., Nothias L.F, Wangpraseurt D., Melnik A.V et al..  2018.  Niche partitioning of a pathogenic microbiome driven by chemical gradients. Science Advances. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Environmental microbial communities are stratified by chemical gradients that shape the structure and function of these systems. Similar chemical gradients exist in the human body, but how they influence these microbial systems is more poorly understood. Understanding these effects can be particularly important for dysbiotic shifts in microbiome structure that are often associated with disease. We show that pH and oxygen strongly partition...

  • Chen C.L, Chen S.J, Russell LM, Liu J., Price D.J, Betha R., Sanchez K.J, Lee A.KY, Williams L., Collier S.C et al..  2018.  Organic aerosol particle chemical properties associated with residential burning and fog in wintertime San Joaquin Valley (Fresno) and with vehicle and firework emissions in summertime South Coast Air Basin (Fontana). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:10707-10731.
    Abstract Summary:

    Organic aerosol mass (OM) components were investigated at Fresno in winter and at Fontana in summer by positive matrix factorization of high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectra and of Fourier Transform infrared spectra, as well as by k-means clustering of light-scattering (LS) aerosol single-particle spectra. The results were comparable for all three methods at both sites, showing different contributions of primary and secondary...

  • Highlighted Publication Image of porpoise device superimposed on permafrost map
    Sherman D., Constable S.C.  2018.  Permafrost extent on the Alaskan Beaufort shelf from surface-towed controlled-source electromagnetic surveys. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:7253-7265.
    Abstract Summary:

    We have developed a surface-towed electric dipole-dipole system capable of operating in shallow water and deployable from small vessels. Our system uses electromagnetic energy from a modulated manmade source to interrogate the underlying resistivity structure of the seafloor. We used this system in the summers of 2014 and 2015 to map subsea ice-bearing permafrost on the Beaufort shelf along 200km of coastline, from Tigvariak Island to...

  • Siegelman-Charbit L., Koslow JA, Jacox M.G, Hazen E.L, Bograd SJ, Miller E.F.  2018.  Physical forcing on fish abundance in the southern California Current System. Fisheries Oceanography. 27:475-488.
    Abstract Summary:

    The California Current System (CCS) is an eastern boundary current system with strong biological productivity largely due to seasonal wind-driven upwelling and transport of the California Current (CC). Two independent, yet complementary time series, CalCOFI ichthyoplankton surveys and sampling of southern California power plant cooling-water intakes, have indicated that an assemblage of predominantly cool-water affinity fishes spanning...

  • Swart NC, Gille ST, Fyfe JC, Gillett NP.  2018.  Recent Southern Ocean warming and freshening driven by greenhouse gas emissions and ozone depletion. Nature Geoscience.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Southern Ocean has, on average, warmed and freshened over the past several decades. As a primary global sink for anthropogenic heat and carbon, to understand changes in the Southern Ocean is directly relevant to predicting the future evolution of the global climate system. However, the drivers of these changes are poorly understood, owing to sparse observational sampling, large amplitude internal variability, modelling uncertainties and...

  • Barak O., Key K, Constable S, Ronen S..  2018.  Recording active-seismic ground rotations using induction-coil magnetometers. Geophysics. 83:P19-P42.
    Abstract Summary:

    Most of the current rotational sensing technology is not geared toward the recording of seismic rotations' amplitudes and frequencies. There are few instruments that are designed for rotational seismology, and the technology for building them is currently being developed. There are no mass industrial producers of seismic rotation sensors as there are for geophones, and only one current sensor model can be deployed on the ocean bottom. We...

  • Liu J., Russell LM, Ruggeri G., Takahama S, Claflin M.S, Ziemann P.J, Pye H.OT, Murphy B.N, Xu L, Ng N.L et al..  2018.  Regional similarities and NOx-related increases in biogenic secondary organic aerosol in summertime southeastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:10620-10636.
    Abstract Summary:

    During the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements of submicron mass were collected at Look Rock (LRK), Tennessee, and Centreville (CTR), Alabama. Carbon monoxide and submicron sulfate and organic mass concentrations were 15-60% higher at CTR than at LRK, but their time series had moderate correlations (r similar to 0.5). However, NOx had no...

  • Stewart J.D, Jaine F.RA, Armstrong A.J, Armstrong A.O, Bennett M.B, Burgess K.B, Couturier L.IE, Croll D.A, Cronin M.R, Deakos M.H et al..  2018.  Research priorities to support effective manta and devil ray conservation. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Manta and devil rays are filter-feeding elasmobranchs that are found circumglobally in tropical and subtropical waters. Although relatively understudied for most of the Twentieth century, public awareness and scientific research on these species has increased dramatically in recent years. Much of this attention has been in response to targeted fisheries, international trade in mobulid products, and a growing concern over the fate of exploited...

  • Wang H, McClean JL, Talley LD, Yeager S..  2018.  Seasonal cycle and annual reversal of the Somali Current in an eddy-resolving global ocean model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:6562-6580.
    Abstract Summary:

    Plain Language Summary: The annual cycle of the Somali Current is studied using a forced strongly eddy-active global ocean general circulation model. The annual cycle and timing of the reversal of the Somali Current differ depending on the location along the coast of northeastern Africa. A momentum budget analysis calculated from the model output shows that both annual Rossby waves and the life cycle of the Great Whirl impact the northern...

  • McLaughlin K., Nezlin N.P, Weisberg S.B, Dickson AG, Booth J.AT, Cash C.L, Feit A., Gully J.R, Howard M.DA, Johnson S. et al..  2018.  Seasonal patterns in aragonite saturation state on the southern California continental shelf. Continental Shelf Research. 167:77-86.
    Abstract Summary:

    Shoaling of the saturation horizon for aragonite in the California Current System has been well-documented; however, these reports are based primarily on surveys conducted in waters off the continental shelf. Here we characterize, for the first time, regional spatial and seasonal patterns in aragonite saturation state (Omega(arag)) in the shallow, nearshore waters of the southern California continental shelf through a series of synoptic...

  • Song HC, Byun G.  2018.  Simultaneous localization of a surface ship and a submerged towed source (L). The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:2238-2241.
    Abstract Summary:

    The cascade of blind deconvolution and array invariant has been successful for localizing a single source, either a surface ship or a submerged source, using a vertical array without knowledge of the environment or source waveform in shallow water. In this letter, the blind deconvolution is extended to a two-source case where individual Green's functions are separately extracted by exploiting a distinct group of modes strongly excited at...

  • Talley LD, Rosso I., Kamenkovich I., Mazloff MR, Wang J., Boss E., Gray A.R, Johnson K.S, Key R., Riser S.C et al..  2018.  Southern Ocean biogeochemical float deployment strategy, with example from the Greenwich Meridian line (GO-SHIP A12). Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans.
    Abstract Summary:

    Biogeochemical Argo floats, profiling to 2000 m depth, are being deployed throughout the Southern Ocean by the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling program (SOCCOM). The goal is 200 floats by 2020, to provide the first full set of annual cycles of carbon, oxygen, nitrate and optical properties across multiple oceanographic regimes. Building from no prior coverage to a sparse array, deployments are based on prior...

  • Gombert B., Duputel Z., Jolivet R., Simons M., Jiang J., Liang C., Fielding E.J, Rivera L..  2018.  Strain budget of the Ecuador-Colombia subduction zone: A stochastic view. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 498:288-299.
    Abstract Summary:

    The 2016 Pedernales earthquake (M-W = 7.8) ruptured a portion of the Colombia-Ecuador subduction interface where several large historical earthquakes have been documented since the great 1906 earthquake (M = 8.6). Considering all significant ruptures that occurred in the region, it has been suggested that the cumulative moment generated co-seismically along this part of the subduction over the last century exceeds the moment deficit...

  • Jayalath S., Larsen S.C, Grassian VH.  2018.  Surface adsorption of Nordic aquatic fulvic acid on amine-functionalized and non-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Environmental Science-Nano. 5:2162-2171.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have the potential to be released into the environment and to then adsorb natural organic matter. Understanding the molecular-surface interactions that drive the kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process is an important goal in developing models that accurately predict the fate and transport of these porous nanomaterials. Motivated by this goal, the adsorption of Nordic aquatic fulvic acid on...

  • Armstrong E.J, Roa J.N, Stillman J.H, Tresguerres M.  2018.  Symbiont photosynthesis in giant clams is promoted by V-type H+-ATPase from host cells. Journal of Experimental Biology. 221
    Abstract Summary:

    Giant clams (genus Tridacna) are the largest living bivalves and, like reef-building corals, host symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium) that significantly contribute to their energy budget. In turn, Symbiodinium rely on the host to supply inorganic carbon (C-i) for photosynthesis. In corals, host 'proton pump' vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) is part of a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that promotes Symbiodinium photosynthesis....

  • Abstract Summary:

    As the resolution of global climate model increases, whether trigger functions in current convective parameterization schemes still work remains unknown. In this study, the scale dependence of undilute and dilute dCAPE, Bechtold, and heated condensation framework (HCF) triggers is evaluated using the cloud-resolving model (CRM) data. It is found that all these trigger functions are scale dependent, especially for dCAPE-type triggers, with...

  • Savelyev I., Miller W.D, Sletten M., Smith G.B, Savidge D.K, Frick G., Menk S., Moore T., de Paolo T., Terrill E.J et al..  2018.  Airborne remote sensing of the upper ocean turbulence during CASPER-East. Remote Sensing. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    This study takes on the challenge of resolving upper ocean surface currents with a suite of airborne remote sensing methodologies, simultaneously imaging the ocean surface in visible, infrared, and microwave bands. A series of flights were conducted over an air-sea interaction supersite established 63 km offshore by a large multi-platform CASPER-East experiment. The supersite was equipped with a range of in situ instruments resolving air-sea...

  • Matsumoto H, Young A.  2018.  Automated cobble mapping of a mixed sand-cobble beach using a mobile LiDAR system. Remote Sensing. 10:1253.
    Abstract Summary:

    Cobbles (64–256 mm) are found on beaches throughout the world, influence beach morphology, and can provide shoreline stability. Detailed, frequent, and spatially large-scale quantitative cobble observations at beaches are vital toward a better understanding of sand-cobble beach systems. This study used a truck-mounted mobile terrestrial LiDAR system and a raster-based classification approach to map cobbles automatically. Rasters of LiDAR...

  • d'Auriac I.G, Quinn R.A, Maughan H., Nothias L.F, Little M., Kapono C.A, Cobian A., Reyes B.T, Green K., Quistad S.D et al..  2018.  Before platelets: the production of platelet-activating factor during growth and stress in a basal marine organism. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 285
    Abstract Summary:

    Corals and humans represent two extremely disparate metazoan lineages and are therefore useful for comparative evolutionary studies. Two lipid-based molecules that are central to human immunity, platelet-activating factor (PAF) and Lyso-PAF were recently identified in scleractinian corals. To identify processes in corals that involve these molecules, PAF and Lyso-PAF biosynthesis was quantified in conditions known to stimulate PAF production...

  • Lin L., Xu Y.Y, Wang Z.L, Diao C.R, Dong W.J, Xie SP.  2018.  Changes in extreme rainfall over India and China attributed to regional aerosol-cloud interaction during the late 20th century rapid industrialization. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:7857-7865.
    Abstract Summary:

    Both mean and extreme rainfall decreased over India and Northern China during 1979-2005 at a rate of 0.2%/decade. The aerosol dampening effects on rainfall has also been suggested as a main driver of mean rainfall shift in India and China. Conflicting views, however, exist on whether aerosols enhance or suppress hazardous extreme heavy rainfall. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble, here we show that...

  • Bender S.J, Moran D.M, McIlvin M.R, Zheng H., McCrow J.P, Badger J., DiTullio G.R, Allen A.E, Saito M.A.  2018.  Colony formation in Phaeocystis antarctica: connecting molecular mechanisms with iron biogeochemistry. Biogeosciences. 15:4923-4942.
    Abstract Summary:

    Phaeocystis antarctica is an important phytoplankter of the Ross Sea where it dominates the early season bloom after sea ice retreat and is a major contributor to carbon export. The factors that influence Phaeocystis colony formation and the resultant Ross Sea bloom initiation have been of great scientific interest, yet there is little known about the underlying mechanisms responsible for these phenomena. Here, we present laboratory and field...

  • Lewis L.A, Calambokidis J, Stimpert A.K, Fahlbusch J., Friedlaender A.S, McKenna MF, Mesnick S.L, Oleson E.M, Southall B.L, Szesciorka A.R et al..  2018.  Context-dependent variability in blue whale acoustic behaviour. Royal Society Open Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Acoustic communication is an important aspect of reproductive, foraging and social behaviours for many marine species. Northeast Pacific blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) produce three different call types-A, B and D calls. All may be produced as singular calls, but A and B calls also occur in phrases to form songs. To evaluate the behavioural context of singular call and phrase production in blue whales, the acoustic and dive profile data...