Recent Publications

Weekly Highlighted Publication

Aquatic versus terrestrial crab skeletal support: morphology, mechanics, molting and scaling

Impact:

Crabs have many adaptations to life on land that reflect the physical, chemical and biological challenges of the terrestrial environment (Bliss and Mantel, 1968), yet they do not appear to require biomechanical adaptations of exoskeletal support. Comparison of the morphology and mechanics of walking leg meropodites from a highly aquatic species and a highly terrestrial species of crabs revealed no significant differences between them. In contrast, the hydrostatic skeleton used during molting differs between the two species, with higher internal pressure, higher stress and a lower cuticle thickness scaling exponent for land crabs. In the hydrostatic phase, both species experience significant decreases in locomotor performance as they grow to larger sizes, with scale effects being more dramatic in the terrestrial crabs.

The alternating use of two different skeletal support mechanisms presents additional complications for understanding how body size relates to skeletal morphology and function. Rigid and hydrostatic skeletons function by different mechanisms and are affected by scale in different ways. Thus, the two skeletons influence crab growth independently. In order to grow to a larger size, crabs must first successfully undergo ecdysis. If the hydrostatic animal cannot support its own weight and shape, severe deformations may occur that will compromise the hardened skeleton. Thus, the hydrostatic stage may present the more limiting stage, as suggested by Kennedy (1927) for why insects are limited to small size. Whether or not this is the case, the hydrostatic skeleton used by crabs during molting should be recognized as a biomechanical feature of significant importance in the growth to maximum size of crabs and their successful transition to land.

Search Recent Publications

  • Quimbayo JP, Dias MS, Kulbicki M, Mendes TC, Lamb RW, Johnson AF, Aburto-Oropeza O, Alvarado JJ, Bocos AA, Ferreira CEL et al..  2018.  Determinants of reef fish assemblages in tropical Oceanic islands. Ecography.
    Abstract Summary:

    Diversity patterns are determined by biogeographic, energetic, and anthropogenic factors, yet few studies have combined them into a large-scale framework in order to decouple and compare their relative effects on fish faunas. Using an empirical dataset derived from 1527 underwater visual censuses (UVC) at 18 oceanic islands (five different marine provinces), we determined the relative influence of such factors on reef fish species richness,...

  • Ojeda-Ruiz M.A, Marin-Monroy E.A, Hinojosa-Arango G., Flores-Irigollen A., Cota-Nieto J.J, Cavieses-Nunez R.A, Aburto-Oropeza O.  2018.  Development of fisheries in Bahia Magdalena-Almejas: The need to explore new policies and management paradigms. Ocean & Coastal Management. 161:1-10.
    Abstract Summary:

    Bahia Magdalena-Almejas (BMA) is one of the most important fishery zones in North-western Mexico that produces between 55 and 60% of the total annual catch of the State of Baja California Sur (BCS) Mexico, mainly from the catches by industrial fisheries of sardines and tuna. However, as many places in the world, this region is experimenting symptoms of resources overexploitation of due to the absence of a long-term vision of sustain ability,...

  • Highlighted Publication
    Chenillat F, Franks PJS, Capet X, Riviere P, Grima N., Blanke B, Combes V.  2018.  Eddy properties in the Southern California Current System. Ocean Dynamics. 68:761-777.
    Abstract Summary:

    The California Current System (CCS) is an eastern boundary upwelling system characterized by strong eddies that are often generated at the coast. These eddies contribute to intense, long-distance cross-shelf transport of upwelled water with enhanced biological activity. However, the mechanisms of formation of such coastal eddies, and more importantly their capacity to trap and transport tracers, are poorly understood. Their unpredictability...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study examines the relative roles of the Arctic freshwater exported via different pathways on deep convection in the North Atlantic and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Deep water feeding the lower branch of the AMOC is formed in several North Atlantic marginal seas, including the Labrador Sea, Irminger Sea, and the Nordic seas, where deep convection can potentially be inhibited by surface freshwater exported from...

  • Martin A., Ralph FM, Demirdjian R., DeHaan L., Weihs R., Helly J., Reynolds D., Iacobellis S..  2018.  Evaluation of atmospheric river predictions by the WRF model using aircraft and regional mesonet observations of orographic precipitation and its forcing. Journal of Hydrometeorology. 19:1097-1113.
    Abstract Summary:

    Accurate forecasts of precipitation during landfalling atmospheric rivers (ARs) are critical because ARs play a large role in water supply and flooding for many regions. In this study, we have used hundreds of observations to verify global and regional model forecasts of atmospheric rivers making landfall in Northern California and offshore in the midlatitude northeast Pacific Ocean. We have characterized forecast error and the predictability...

  • Zhang C.L, Dang H.Y, Azam F, Benner R., Legendre L., Passow U., Polimene L., Robinson C., Suttle C.A, Jiao N.Z.  2018.  Evolving paradigms in biological carbon cycling in the ocean. 5:481-499.
    Abstract Summary:

    Carbon is a keystone element in global biogeochemical cycles. It plays a fundamental role in biotic and abiotic processes in the ocean, which intertwine to mediate the chemistry and redox status of carbon in the ocean and the atmosphere. The interactions between abiotic and biogenic carbon (e.g. CO2, CaCO3, organic matter) in the ocean are complex, and there is a half-century-old enigma about the existence of a huge reservoir of recalcitrant...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Block Island Sound (BIS), in southern New England, was occupied by a glacial meltwater lake (Lake BIS) during the MIS 2 deglaciation. New CHIRP seismic data, swath bathymetry, and legacy seismic profiles from BIS provide important insights and constraints on the morphologic evolution of a glaciated margin from the last glacial maximum to present. Interpretation of seismic data revealed four well-defined sediment units: acoustic basement,...

  • Cinner J.E, Maire E., Huchery C., MacNeil M.A, Graham N.AJ, Mora C., Barnes M.L, Kittinger J.N, Hicks C.C, D'Agata S. et al..  2018.  Gravity of human impacts mediates coral reef conservation gains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 115:E6116-E6125.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coral reefs provide ecosystem goods and services for millions of people in the tropics, but reef conditions are declining worldwide. Effective solutions to the crisis facing coral reefs depend in part on understanding the context under which different types of conservation benefits can be maximized. Our global analysis of nearly 1,800 tropical reefs reveals how the intensity of human impacts in the surrounding seascape, measured as a function...

  • Baggenstos D, Severinghaus JP, Mulvaney R., McConnell J.R, Sigl M., Maselli O., Petit J.R, Grente B., Steig E.J.  2018.  A horizontal ice core from Taylor Glacier, its implications for Antarctic climate history, and an improved Taylor Dome ice core time scale. 33:778-794.
    Abstract Summary:

    Ice core records from Antarctica show mostly synchronous temperature variations during the last deglacial transition, an indication that the climate of the entire continent reacted as one unit to the global changes. However, a record from the Taylor Dome ice core in the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica has been suggested to show a rapid warming, similar in style and synchronous with the Oldest Dryas-Bolling warming in Greenland. Since...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Genetic variation is the basis upon which natural selection acts to yield evolutionary change. In a rapidly changing environment, increasing genetic variation should increase evolutionary potential, particularly for small, isolated populations. However, the introduction of new alleles, either through natural or human-mediated processes, may have unpredictable consequences such as outbreeding depression. In this study, we identified a contact...

  • Schiffer J.M, Luo M., Dommer A.C, Thoron G., Pendergraft M., Santander M.V, Lucero D., de Barros E.P, Prather KA, Grassian VH et al..  2018.  Impacts of lipase enzyme on the surface properties of marine aerosols. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. 9:3839-3849.
    Abstract Summary:

    Triacylglycerol lipases have recently been shown to be transferred from the ocean to the atmosphere in atmospheric sea spray aerosol (SSA). Lipases have the potential to alter the composition of SSA; however, the structure and properties of enzymes in the high salt, high ionic strength, and low pH conditions found in SSA have never been explored. Here, we study the dynamics of Burkholderia cepacia triacylglycerol lipase (BCL) at SSA model...

  • Stewart J.D, Nuttall M., Hickerson E.L, Johnston M.A.  2018.  Important juvenile manta ray habitat at Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Marine Biology. 165
    Abstract Summary:

    Oceanic manta rays (Mobula birostris) are large pelagic planktivores that are threatened globally by targeted fisheries and bycatch. While studies of oceanic mantas have increased substantially in the past decade, major knowledge gaps remain in their basic biology, ecology and life history. The juvenile stage in particular is virtually unstudied, as juvenile oceanic mantas are rarely observed in the wild and are known primarily from fisheries...

  • Wang M.C, Zhang GJ.  2018.  Improving the simulation of tropical convective cloud-top heights in CAM5 with CloudSat observations. Journal of Climate. 31:5189-5204.
    Abstract Summary:

    Using 4 years of CloudSat data, the simulation of tropical convective cloud-top heights (CCTH) above 6 km simulated by the convection scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), is evaluated. Compared to CloudSat observations, CAM5 underestimates CCTH by more than 2 km on average. Further analysis of model results suggests that the dilute CAPE calculation, which has been incorporated into the convective parameterization since...

  • Vijayaraghavan M., Benmarnhia T., Pierce J.P, White M.M, Kempster J., Shi Y.Y, Trinidad D.R, Messer K..  2018.  Income disparities in smoking cessation and the diffusion of smoke-free homes among US smokers: Results from two longitudinal surveys. Plos One. 13
    Abstract Summary:

    Background Lower rates of successful quitting among low-income populations in the United States may be from slower dissemination of smoke-free homes, a predictor of cessation. Objectives To explore the role of smoke-free homes in cessation behavior across income levels. Participants Current smokers who were >= 18 years and who participated in the longitudinal 2002-2003 (n = 2801) or 2010-2011 (n = 2723) Tobacco Use Supplements to the...

  • Campbell L.S, Steenburgh W.J, Yamada Y., Kawashima M., Fujiyoshi Y..  2018.  Influences of orography and coastal geometry on a transverse-mode sea-effect snowstorm over Hokkaido Island, Japan. Monthly Weather Review. 146:2201-2220.
    Abstract Summary:

    Sea-effect snowstorms generated over the Sea of Japan produce consistent and often heavy snowfall throughout the winter season, impacting downstream communities in northern and central Japan. Here, we use observations and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulations to examine the precipitation distribution produced by transverse-mode sea-effect snowbands that interacted with the mountainous terrain circumscribing Ishikari Bay,...

  • Merrifield M.A, Thompson P.R.  2018.  Interdecadal sea level variations in the pacific: Distinctions between the tropics and extratropics. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:6604-6610.
    Abstract Summary:

    Long tide gauge records from Fremantle and San Diego are used to examine interdecadal sea level fluctuations and their relationship to Pacific climate variability. The sea level difference between the tide gauges and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) provide a consistent depiction of trade wind variations along the equator over the past century. The sea level difference and SOI exhibit weak interdecadal variability prior to the late 1970s...

  • Highlighted Publication Graphic of world showing areas of Hadley cell expansion
    Amaya D.J, Siler N., Xie SP, Miller AJ.  2018.  The interplay of internal and forced modes of Hadley Cell expansion: lessons from the global warming hiatus. Climate Dynamics. 51:305-319.
    Abstract Summary:

    The poleward branches of the Hadley Cells and the edge of the tropics show a robust poleward shift during the satellite era, leading to concerns over the possible encroachment of the globe's subtropical dry zones into currently temperate climates. The extent to which this trend is caused by anthropogenic forcing versus internal variability remains the subject of considerable debate. In this study, we use a Joint EOF method to identify two...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Long-chain fatty acid monolayers are known surfactants present at air/ water interfaces. However, little is known about the stability of these long-chain fatty acid monolayers in the presence of solar radiation. Here we have investigated, for the first time, the stability of palmitic acid monolayers on salt water interfaces in the presence and absence of simulated solar light with and without a photosensitizer in the underlying salt subphase...

  • Cowton T.R, Sole A.J, Nienow P.W, Slater D.A, Christoffersen P..  2018.  Linear response of east Greenland’s tidewater glaciers to ocean/atmosphere warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
    Abstract Summary:

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is expected to be a major contributor to 21st Century sea-level rise, but projections retain substantial uncertainty due to the challenges of modeling the retreat of the tidewater outlet glaciers that drain from the ice sheet into the ocean. Despite the complexity of these glacier–fjord systems, we find that over a 20-y period much of the observed tidewater glacier retreat can be explained as a...

  • Pohlker M.L, Ditas F., Saturno J., Klimach T., de Angelis I.H, Araujo A.C, Brito J., Carbone S., Cheng Y.F, Chi X.G et al..  2018.  Long-term observations of cloud condensation nuclei over the Amazon rain forest - Part 2: Variability and characteristics of biomass burning, long-range transport, and pristine rain forest aerosols. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:10289-10331.
    Abstract Summary:

    Size-resolved measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations and hygroscopicity were conducted over a full seasonal cycle at the remote Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, March 2014-February 2015). In a preceding companion paper, we presented annually and seasonally averaged data and parametrizations (Part 1; Pohlker et al., 2016a). In the present study (Part 2), we analyze key features and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Long-term studies of invasive populations are rare, which is unfortunate because important aspects of their dynamics may only be detected over long term. For instance, invasive populations can experience substantial population declines, or even crashes, sometime after their introduction and invasion. Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Caenogastropoda) is a successful invader, and is rarely parasitized in introduced areas. In France, the snail is...

  • Moran-Zuloaga D., Ditas F., Walters D., Saturno J., Brito J., Carbone S., Chi X.G, de Angelis I.H, Baars H., Godoi R.HM et al..  2018.  Long-term study on coarse mode aerosols in the Amazon rain forest with the frequent intrusion of Saharan dust plumes. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:10055-10088.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the Amazonian atmosphere, the aerosol coarse mode comprises a complex, diverse, and variable mixture of bioaerosols emitted from the rain forest ecosystem, long-range transported Saharan dust (we use Sahara as shorthand for the dust source regions in Africa north of the Equator), marine aerosols from the Atlantic Ocean, and coarse smoke particles from deforestation fires. For the rain forest, the coarse mode particles are of significance...

  • McCluskey C.S, Hill T.CJ, Sultana C.M, Laskina O., Trueblood J., Santander M.V, Beall C.M, Michaud J.M, Kreidenweis S.M, Prather KA et al..  2018.  A mesocosm double feature: Insights into the chemical makeup of marine ice nucleating particles. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 75:2405-2423.
    Abstract Summary:

    The abundance of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs) is a source of uncertainty for numerical representation of ice-phase transitions in mixed-phase clouds. While sea spray aerosol (SSA) exhibits less ice nucleating (IN) ability than terrestrial aerosol, marine INP emissions are linked to oceanic biological activity and are potentially an important source of INPs over remote oceans. Inadequate knowledge of marine INP identity limits...

  • Via C.W, Glukhov E., Costa S., Zimba P.V, Moeller P.DR, Gerwick WH, Bertin M.J.  2018.  The metabolome of a cyanobacterial bloom visualized by MS/MS-based molecular networking reveals new neurotoxic smenamide analogs (C, D, and E). Frontiers in Chemistry. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Members of the cyanobacterial genus Trichodesmium are well known for their substantial impact on nitrogen influx in ocean ecosystems and the enormous surface blooms they form in tropical and subtropical locations. However, the secondary metabolite composition of these complex environmental bloom events is not well known, nor the possibility of the production of potent toxins that have been observed in other bloom-forming marine and freshwater...

  • Muller J.D, Bastkowski F., Sander B., Seitz S., Turner D.R, Dickson AG, Rehder G..  2018.  Metrology for pH measurements in brackish waters-Part 1: Extending electrochemical pH(T) measurements of TRIS buffers to salinities 5-20. Frontiers in Marine Science. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    Harned cell pH(T) measurements were performed on 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (TRIS) buffered artificial seawater solutions in the salinity range 5-20, at three equimolal buffer concentrations (0.01, 0.025, 0.04 mol.kg-H2O-1), and in the temperature range 278.15-318.15 K. Measurement uncertainties were assigned to the pH(T )values of the buffer solutions and ranged from 0.002 to 0.004 over the investigated salinity and temperature...

  • Pesce M., Critto A., Torresan S., Giubilato E., Santini M., Zirino A., Ouyang W., Marcomini A..  2018.  Modelling climate change impacts on nutrients and primary production in coastal waters. Science of the Total Environment. 628-629:919-937.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is high confidence that the anthropogenic increase of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) is causing modifications in the Earth's climate. Coastal waterbodies such as estuaries, bays and lagoons are among those most affected by the ongoing changes in climate. Being located at the land-sea interface, such waterbodies are subjected to the combined changes in the physical-chemical processes of atmosphere, upstream land and coastal waters....

  • Román-Palacios C, Damgaard J, Cheng L, Moreira FFerraz Fig, Ikawa T, Weir TA, Zettel H.  2018.  Molecular phylogeny of sea-skaters (Halobates ), relationship between Halobatini and Metrocorini, and a catalogue of the subfamily Halobatinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae). Insect Systematics & Evolution. :1-102.
    Abstract Summary:

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among seven of the ten Halobatinae genera (Heteroptera: Gerridae) based on COI+II, 16S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes. Our analyses recovered monophyly of Halobatinae, and suggested paraphyly of Metrocorini caused by the position of Ventidius and Esakia. Since our phylogenies did not infer monophyly of the subgenus Halobates (s.str.) within Halobatini, we synonymized Austrobates and Halobates (...

  • Collins J.R, Fredricks H.F, Bowman J.S, Ward C.P, Moreno C., Longnecker K., Marchetti A., Hansel C.M, Ducklow H.W, Van Mooy B.AS.  2018.  The molecular products and biogeochemical significance of lipid photooxidation in West Antarctic surface waters. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 232:244-264.
    Abstract Summary:

    The seasonal depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Southern Hemisphere allows abnormally high doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) to reach surface waters of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) in the austral spring, creating a natural laboratory for the study of lipid photooxidation in the shallow mixed layer of the marginal ice zone. The photooxidation of lipids under such conditions has been identified as a significant source of stress...

  • Geiger H., Troll V.R, Jolis E.M, Deegan F.M, Harris C., Hilton DR, Freda C..  2018.  Multi-level magma plumbing at Agung and Batur volcanoes increases risk of hazardous eruptions. Scientific Reports. 8
    Abstract Summary:

    The island of Bali in Indonesia is home to two active stratovolcanoes, Agung and Batur, but relatively little is known of their underlying magma plumbing systems. Here we define magma storage depths and isotopic evolution of the 1963 and 1974 eruptions using mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry and oxygen and helium isotopes in mineral separates. Olivine crystallised from a primitive magma and has average delta O-18 values of 4.8%....

  • Liang Y.C, Mazloff MR, Rosso I., Fang S.W, Yu J.Y.  2018.  A multivariate empirical orthogonal function method to construct nitrate maps in the Southern Ocean. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 35:1505-1519.
    Abstract Summary:

    The ability to construct nitrate maps in the Southern Ocean (SO) from sparse observations is important for marine biogeochemistry research, as it offers a geographical estimate of biological productivity. The goal of this study is to infer the skill of constructed SO nitrate maps using varying data sampling strategies. The mapping method uses multivariate empirical orthogonal functions (MEOFs) constructed from nitrate, salinity, and potential...

  • Wang T.Y, Gille ST, Mazloff MR, Zilberman N.V, Du Y..  2018.  Numerical simulations to project Argo float positions in the middepth and deep Southwest Pacific. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. 35:1425-1440.
    Abstract Summary:

    Argo float trajectories are simulated in the southwest Pacific basin (25 degrees-45 degrees S, 170 degrees E-165 degrees W) using velocity fields from a 1/12 degrees Southern Ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model programmed to represent the vertical motions of profiling Argo floats. The system is applied to simulate both core Argo floats (typically parked at 1000-m depth and profiling to 2000-m depth) and Deep Argo floats (...

  • Merrifield S., Otero M, Terrill E.  2018.  Observations of shelf exchange and high-frequency variability in an Alaskan fjord. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:4720-4734.
    Abstract Summary:

    High-frequency observations collected over 3 years are used to describe upper-ocean variability in Behm Canal, a nonglacial fjord in Southeast Alaska. The fjord is sheltered by surrounding topography and connected to the outer continental shelf by a 400-m-deep strait. Summer conditions are characterized by strong near-surface stratification, a sea breeze wind regime, and tidally dominated flows. In nonsummer months, baroclinic subinertial...

  • Stebounova L.V, Gonzalez-Pech N.I, Park J.H, Anthony T.R, Grassian VH, Peters T.M.  2018.  Particle concentrations in occupational settings measured with a Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition (NRD) Sampler. 62:699-710.
    Abstract Summary:

    There is an increasing need to evaluate concentrations of nanoparticles in occupational settings due to their potential negative health effects.The Nanoparticle Respiratory Deposition (NRD) personal sampler was developed to collect nanoparticles separately from larger particles in the breathing zone of workers, while simultaneously providing a measure of respirable mass concentration.This study compared concentrations measured with the NRD...

  • Abstract Summary:

    As key variables in general circulation models, precipitation and moisture in four leading models from CMIP5 (phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) are analyzed, with a focus on four tropical oceanic regions. It is found that precipitation in these models is overestimated in most areas. However, moisture bias has large intermodel differences. The model biases in precipitation and moisture are further examined in conjunction...

  • Flowers E.M, Johnson A.F, Aguilar R., Schott E.J.  2018.  Prevalence of the pathogenic crustacean virus Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 near flow-through blue crab aquaculture in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 129:135-144.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the ecology of diseases is important to understanding variability in abundance, and therefore management, of marine animals exploited commercially. The blue crab Callinectes sapidus fills a crucial benthic-pelagic niche in Atlantic estuarine ecosystems and supports large commercial fisheries in both North and South America. In the USA, pre-molt blue crabs are typically held in short-term shedding (ecdysis) facilities to produce...

  • Cho S.I, Byun G., Byun S.H, Kim J.S.  2018.  Ray backpropagation-based ship localization. 37:196-205.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper presents an algorithm for passive localization of a ship by applying the ray back-propagation technique to the ship radiation noise data. The previous method [S. H. Abadi, D. Rouseff and D. R. Dowling, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2599-2610 (2012)] estimates the position of a sound source in the near-field environment with no array tilt by using the RBD (Ray-based Blind Deconvolution) and ray back-propagation techniques. However, when...

  • Bowman J.S, Kavanaugh M.T, Doney SC, Ducklow H.W.  2018.  Recurrent seascape units identify key ecological processes along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Global Change Biology. 24:3065-3078.
    Abstract Summary:

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is a bellwether of global climate change and natural laboratory for identifying interactions between climate and ecosystems. The Palmer Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) project has collected data on key ecological and environmental processes along the WAP since 1993. To better understand how key ecological parameters are changing across space and time, we developed a novel seascape classification...

  • Nakajima R., Haas AF, Silveira C.B, Kelly E.LA, Smith JE, Sandin S., Kelly LW, Rohwer F, Nakatomi N., Kurihara H..  2018.  Release of dissolved and particulate organic matter by the soft coral Lobophytum and subsequent microbial degradation. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 504:53-60.
    Abstract Summary:

    Understanding the release and remineralization of organic matter by benthic macroorganisms provides insight into nutrient cycling and microbial metabolism in coral reef environments. The release rate of particulate (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by the soft coral Lobophytum crassum was quantified and subsequent bacterial growth rates determined in response to this resource, and compared with results from those of the common hard...

  • Resplandy L., Keeling RF, Rodenbeck C, Stephens B.B, Khatiwala S, Rodgers K.B, Long M.C, Bopp L., Tans P.P.  2018.  Revision of global carbon fluxes based on a reassessment of oceanic and riverine carbon transport. Nature Geoscience. 11:504-+.
    Abstract Summary:

    Measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration provide a tight constraint on the sum of the land and ocean sinks. This constraint has been combined with estimates of ocean carbon flux and riverine transport of carbon from land to oceans to isolate the land sink. Uncertainties in the ocean and river fluxes therefore translate into uncertainties in the land sink. Here, we introduce a heat-based constraint on the latitudinal distribution of ocean...

  • Nash D., Waliser D., Guan B., Ye H.C, Ralph FM.  2018.  The role of atmospheric rivers in extratropical and polar hydroclimate. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:6804-6821.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow, long, transient, water vapor-rich corridors of the atmosphere that are responsible for over 90% of the poleward water vapor transport in and across midlatitudes. However, the role of ARs in modulating extratropical and polar hydroclimate features (e.g., water vapor content and precipitation) has not been fully studied, even though moistening of the polar atmosphere is both a key result and amplifier of...

  • Patin NV, Floros D.J, Hughes CC, Dorrestein PC, Jensen PR.  2018.  The role of inter-species interactions in Salinispora specialized metabolism. Microbiology-Sgm. 164:946-955.
    Abstract Summary:

    Bacterial genome sequences consistently contain many more biosynthetic gene clusters encoding specialized metabolites than predicted by the compounds discovered from the respective strains. One hypothesis invoked to explain the cryptic nature of these gene clusters is that standard laboratory conditions do not provide the environmental cues needed to trigger gene expression. A potential source of such cues is other members of the bacterial...

  • Hamilton TJ, Kline DI, Tresguerres M.  2018.  Shoaling behaviour is differentially altered by ethanol and dopamine D1 receptor modulators in tropical marine forage fish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 75:999-1004.
    Abstract Summary:

    Anchovies are filter-feeding fish that inhabit nearshore environments worldwide. With increasing human pharmaceutical use, drugs that alter neurological functioning are becoming more prevalent in aquatic ecosystems via wastewater effluent, creating the need for tests that can reliably determine sublethal effects of these drugs on coastal fish populations. In this study, we used Caribbean anchovies (Anchoa spp.) as a tropical marine fish model...

  • Cyronak T., Andersson AJ, D'Angelo S., Bresnahan P., Davidson C., Griffin A., Kindeberg T., Pennise J., Takeshita Y, White M..  2018.  Short-term spatial and temporal carbonate chemistry variability in two contrasting seagrass meadows: Implications for pH buffering capacities. Estuaries and Coasts. 41:1282-1296.
    Abstract Summary:

    It has been hypothesized that highly productive coastal ecosystems, such as seagrass meadows, could lead to the establishment of ocean acidification (OA) refugia, or areas of elevated pH and aragonite saturation state (Omega(a)) compared to source seawater. However, seagrass ecosystems experience extreme variability in carbonate chemistry across short temporal and small spatial scales, which could impact the pH buffering capacity of these...

  • Hu S.J, Sprintall J, Guan C., Sun B.W, Wang F., Yang G., Jia F., Wang J.N, Hu D.X, Chai F..  2018.  Spatiotemporal features of intraseasonal oceanic variability in the Philippine Sea from mooring observations and numerical simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 123:4874-4887.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Philippine Sea is located within the pathway of the propagating Madden-Julian Oscillation system and is also the destination for the North Pacific mesoscale oceanic eddies and waves. As such, the Philippine Sea is characterized by striking intraseasonal variability (ISV; 20-90 days) that plays a key role in bridging weather and climate. Spatial patterns and temporal features of intraseasonal oceanic variability along the Philippine coast...

  • Rocha C.B, Wagner G.L, Young W.R.  2018.  Stimulated generation: extraction of energy from balanced flow by near-inertial waves. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 847:417-451.
    Abstract Summary:

    We study stimulated generation - the transfer of energy from balanced flows to existing internal waves - using an asymptotic model that couples barotropic quasi-geostrophic flow and near-inertial waves with e(imz) vertical structure, where m is the vertical wavenumber and z is the vertical coordinate. A detailed description of the conservation laws of this vertical-plane-wave model illuminates the mechanism of stimulated generation associated...

  • Dunn D.C, Van Dover C.L, Etter R.J, Smith C.R, Levin L.A, Morato T., Colaco A., Dale A.C, Gebruk A.V, Gjerde K.M et al..  2018.  A strategy for the conservation of biodiversity on mid-ocean ridges from deep-sea mining. Science Advances. 4
    Abstract Summary:

    Mineral exploitation has spread from land to shallow coastal waters and is now planned for the offshore, deep seabed. Large seafloor areas are being approved for exploration for seafloor mineral deposits, creating an urgent need for regional environmental management plans. Networks of areas where mining and mining impacts are prohibited are key elements of these plans. We adapt marine reserve design principles to the distinctive biophysical...

  • Forestieri SD, Moore K.A, Borrero R.M, Wang A., Stokes MD, Cappa CD.  2018.  Temperature and composition dependence of sea spray aerosol production. Geophysical Research Letters. 45:7218-7225.
    Abstract Summary:

    A discrepancy between laboratory and field-derived parameterizations for the dependence of sea spray aerosol (SSA) particle number concentrations (N-p) and size distributions on water temperature (T-w) exists. Here we address this discrepancy by quantifying the T-w dependence of SSA production over the range -2-25 degrees C for laboratory-generated particles using a marine aerosol reference tank (MART), a miniature MART (miniMART), and a...

  • Chen K.H, Tai H.J, Ide S., Byrne T.B, Johnson C.W.  2018.  Tidal modulation and tectonic implications of tremors in Taiwan. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:5945-5964.
    Abstract Summary:

    We present results from 6 years of tremor observations in a continental subduction zone where the continental crust of Eurasia is colliding with the Philippine Sea Plate, forming a collisional orogen. During 2007-2012, 1,893 tremor events with durations ranging from 60 to 2,216s were identified and located. Spectral analysis of the tremor times reveals several sharp peaks that correlate with the semi annual, semidiurnal, and diurnal...

  • Adame M.F, Brown C.J, Bejarano M., Herrera-Silveira J.A, Ezcurra P., Kauffman J.B, Birdsey R..  2018.  The undervalued contribution of mangrove protection in Mexico to carbon emission targets. Conservation Letters. 11
    Abstract Summary:

    Mangrove deforestation threatens to release large stores of carbon from soils that are vulnerable to oxidation. Carbon stored in deep soils is not measured in national carbon inventories. Thus, policies on emission reductions have likely underestimated the contribution of mangrove deforestation to national emissions. Here, we estimate that emissions from deforestation and degradation of mangroves in Mexico are 31 times greater than the values...

  • Lee DK, Centurioni L.  2018.  Water following characteristics of Global Drifter Program drifters with and without subsurface float. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers. 137:20-29.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the Northeast Pacific (40-50 degrees N, 135-180 degrees W), the angle between the wind friction velocity (u) and the current observed by drifters with subsurface float (Global Drifter Program Version 1; GDP-V1) was found to be consistently 10-15 degrees larger at all frequencies than the angle observed by drifters without subsurface float (Global Drifter Program Version 2; GDP-V2). To investigate the cause, cross-spectral analysis and...

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