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Recent Publications

  • Abstract Summary:

    Wave climate in southeast Queensland, Australia has been correlated to changes in the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI), but observations of shoreline change associated with the variable wave climate have been limited due to a paucity of aerial photography, LiDAR, and other beach profiling datasets in this region. A multi-decadal, sub-annual temporal resolution shoreline dataset spanning 1996 to 2017 was produced using satellite imagery...

  • Rabille H., Torode T.A, Tesson B, Le Bail A., Billoud B., Rolland E., Le Panse S., Jam M., Charrier B..  2019.  Alginates along the filament of the brown alga Ectocarpus help cells cope with stress. 9
    Abstract Summary:

    Ectocarpus is a filamentous brown alga, which cell wall is composed mainly of alginates and fucans (80%), two non-crystalline polysaccharide classes. Alginates are linear chains of epimers of 1,4-linked uronic acids, beta-D-mannuronic acid (M) and alpha-L-guluronic acid (G). Previous physico-chemical studies showed that G-rich alginate gels are stiffer than M-rich alginate gels when prepared in vitro with calcium. In order to assess the...

  • Ofsthun C., Wu X.D, Voulgaris G, Warner JC.  2019.  Alongshore momentum balance over shoreface-connected ridges, Fire Island, NY. 186:21-33.
    Abstract Summary:

    Hydrodynamic and hydrographic data collected on the inner shelf of Fire Island, NY, over a region of shoreface-connected ridges (SFCRs), are used to describe wind-driven circulation over uneven topographies along relatively straight coastlines. The data reveal a predominantly alongshore flow, under westward wind forcing, with localized offshore current veering over the SFCR crests and an onshore veering over the adjacent troughs. Alongshore...

  • Sheridan P., Ilango S., Bruckner T.A, Wang Q., Basu R., Benmarhnia T..  2019.  Ambient fine particulate matter and preterm birth in California: Identification of critical exposure windows. 188:1608-1615.
    Abstract Summary:

    Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (particulate matter <= 2.5 mu m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)) during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth (PTB), a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Results from studies attempting to identify etiologically relevant exposure periods of vulnerability have been inconsistent, possibly because of failure to consider the time-to-event nature of the outcome and lagged exposure...

  • Beadling R.L, Russell J.L, Stouffer R.J, Goodman P.J, Mazloff M..  2019.  Assessing the Quality of Southern Ocean Circulation in CMIP5 AOGCM and Earth System Model Simulations. 32:5915-5940.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Southern Ocean (SO) is vital to Earth's climate system due to its dominant role in exchanging carbon and heat between the ocean and atmosphere and transforming water masses. Evaluating the ability of fully coupled climate models to accurately simulate SO circulation and properties is crucial for building confidence in model projections and advancing model fidelity. By analyzing multiple biases collectively across large model ensembles,...

  • Shields J.E, Burden A.R, Karr M.E.  2019.  Atmospheric cloud algorithms for day/night whole sky imagers. 58:7050-7062.
    Abstract Summary:

    This paper discusses new atmospheric cloud algorithms that we have developed to detect the presence and location of clouds in images of the sky acquired by day/night whole sky imagers, and to categorize the douds by opacity. The day/night whole sky imagers that we developed are ground-based sensors that acquire digital imagery of the full sky down to the horizon in several visible spectral bands and a near-infrared spectral band. The...

  • Essink S., Hormann V., Centurioni LR, Mahadevan A..  2019.  Can we detect submesoscale motions in drifter pair dispersion? 49:2237-2254.
    Abstract Summary:

    A cluster of 45 drifters deployed in the Bay of Bengal is tracked for a period of four months. Pair dispersion statistics, from observed drifter trajectories and simulated trajectories based on surface geostrophic velocity, are analyzed as a function of drifter separation and time. Pair dispersion suggests nonlocal dynamics at submesoscales of 1-20 km, likely controlled by the energetic mesoscale eddies present during the observations. Second...

  • Alves M.R, Fang Y., Wall K.J, Vaida V., Grassian VH.  2019.  Chemistry and photochemistry of pyruvic acid adsorbed on oxide surfaces. 123:7661-7671.
    Abstract Summary:

    The surface chemistry and photochemistry of gas phase pyruvic acid (CH3COCOOH) on two oxides, Al2O3 and TiO2, have been investigated using transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. At 298 K, the carboxylic acid group within pyruvic acid is found to react with surface hydroxyl groups (M-OH, M = Al, Ti) to yield pyruvate as a predominant adsorbed organic species. Upon broad-band UV irradiation (lambda > 280...

  • Romero L., Ohlmann J.C, Pallas-Sanz E., Statom N.M, Perez-Brunius P., Maritorena S..  2019.  Coincident observations of dye and drifter relative dispersion over the inner shelf. 49:2447-2468.
    Abstract Summary:

    Coincident Lagrangian observations of coastal circulation with surface drifters and dye tracer were collected to better understand small-scale physical processes controlling transport and dispersion over the inner shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Patches of rhodamine dye and clusters of surface drifters at scales of O(100) m were deployed in a cross-shelf array within 12 km from the coast and tracked for up to 5 h with airborne and in situ...

  • Hsiung B.K, Shawkey M.D, Blackledge T.A.  2019.  Color production mechanisms in spiders. 47:165-180.
    Abstract Summary:

    Spiders were once thought to have limited color production palettes, and even to lack melanin - one of the most ubiquitous biological pigments. Recent discoveries upend that view and show that the color production mechanisms in spiders are as elaborate as some of the more classically colorful groups of animals, such as birds, butterflies, and beetles. Here we summarize how colors are produced by spiders, identify gaps in our knowledge, show...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The tropical tropospheric temperature is close to but typically cooler than that of the moist adiabat. The negative temperature deviation from the moist adiabat manifests a C-shape profile and is projected to increase and stretch upward under warming in both comprehensive climate models and idealized radiative-convective equilibrium (RCE) simulations. The increased temperature deviation corresponds to a larger convective available potential...

  • Lindner F., Laske G., Walter F., Doran A.K.  2019.  Crevasse-induced Rayleigh-wave azimuthal anisotropy on Glacier de la Plaine Morte, Switzerland. 60:96-111.
    Abstract Summary:

    Crevasses and englacial fracture networks route meltwater from a glacier's surface to the subglacial drainage system and thus influence glacial hydraulics. However, rapid fracture growth may also lead to sudden and potentially hazardous structural failure of unstable glaciers and ice dams, rifting of ice shelves, or iceberg calving. Here, we use passive seismic recordings to investigate the englacial fracture network on Glacier de la Plaine...

  • Yu H.B, Glukhov E., Li Y.Y, Iwasaki A., Gerwick L, Dorrestein PC, Jiao B.H, Gerwick WH.  2019.  Cytotoxic microcolin lipopeptides from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens. 82:2608-2619.
    Abstract Summary:

    Nine new linear lipopeptides, microcolins E-M (1-9), together with four known related compounds, microcolins A-D (10-13), were isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens using bioassay-guided and LC-MS/MS molecular networking approaches. Catalytic hydrogenation of microcolins A-D (10-13) yielded two known compounds, 3,4-dihydromicrocolins A and B (14, 15), and two new derivatives, 3,4-dihydromicrocolins C and D (16, 17),...

  • Lauvaux T., Diaz-Isaac L.I, Bocquet M., Bousserez N..  2019.  Diagnosing spatial error structures in CO2 mole fractions and XCO2 column mole fractions from atmospheric transport. 19:12007-12024.
    Abstract Summary:

    Atmospheric inversions inform us about the magnitude and variations of greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and sinks from global to local scales. Deployment of observing systems such as spaceborne sensors and ground-based instruments distributed around the globe has started to offer an unprecedented amount of information to estimate surface exchanges of GHG at finer spatial and temporal scales. However, all inversion methods still rely on imperfect...

  • Calambokidis J, Fahlbusch J.A, Szesciorka A.R, Southall B.L, Cade D.E, Friedlaender A.S, Goldbogen J.A.  2019.  Differential vulnerability to ship strikes between day and night for blue, fin, and humpback whales based on dive and movement data from medium duration archival tags. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    We examine the dive and movement behavior of blue, fin, and humpback whales along the US West Coast in regions with high ship traffic where ship strikes have been identified as a major concern. All three species are known to feed in coastal waters near areas of high ship traffic. We analyzed data from 33 archival tag deployments representing over 3,000 h of data that were attached with suction-cups or short darts for periods >20 h and...

  • Gracia E., Grevemeyer I., Bartolome R., Perea H., Martinez-Loriente S., de la Pena L.G, Villasenor A., Klinger Y., C. Iacono L, Diez S. et al..  2019.  Earthquake crisis unveils the growth of an incipient continental fault system. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    Large continental faults extend for thousands of kilometres to form boundaries between rigid tectonic blocks. These faults are associated with prominent topographic features and can produce large earthquakes. Here we show the first evidence of a major tectonic structure in its initial-stage, the Al-Idrissi Fault System (AIFS), in the Alboran Sea. Combining bathymetric and seismic reflection data, together with seismological analyses of the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The catalytic oxidation of S(IV) species by transition metal ions (TMIs) is a significant pathway for aqueous sulfate formation. Sulfoxy radicals, such as SO3-, SO4-, and SO5- radicals, are major intermediates in this catalytic reaction. These radicals can also react with organic compounds to produce organosulfur compounds, which are important tracers of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, the mechanism for the formation of...

  • Zhang J.J, Tang X.Y, Moore BS.  2019.  Genetic platforms for heterologous expression of microbial natural products. 36:1313-1332.
    Abstract Summary:

    Covering: 2005 up to 2019 Natural products are of paramount importance in human medicine. Not only are most antibacterial and anticancer drugs derived directly from or inspired by natural products, many other branches of medicine, such as immunology, neurology, and cardiology, have similarly benefited from natural product-based drugs. Typically, the genetic material required to synthesize a microbial specialized product is arranged in a...

  • Zeiden K.L, Rudnick D.L, MacKinnon JA.  2019.  Glider observations of a mesoscale oceanic island wake. 49:2217-2235.
    Abstract Summary:

    In this study, a 2-yr time series of velocity profiles to 1000 m from meridional glider surveys is used to characterize the wake in the lee of a large island in the western tropical North Pacific Ocean, Palau. Surveys were completed along sections to the east and west of the island to capture both upstream and downstream conditions. Objectively mapped in time and space, mean sections of velocity show the incident westward North Equatorial...

  • Olsen A, Lange N., Key R.M, Tanhua T., Alvarez M., Becker S., Bittig H.C, Carter BR, da Cunha L.C, Feely R.A et al..  2019.  GLODAPv2.2019-an update of GLODAPv2. 11:1437-1461.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface to bottom ocean biogeochemical data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of water samples. This update of GLODAPv2, v2.2019, adds data from 116 cruises to the previous version, extending its coverage in time from 2013 to 2017, while also adding some data...

  • Abstract Summary:
  • Abstract Summary:

    Topside reverberations off mantle discontinuities are commonly observed at long periods, but their interpretation is complicated because they include both near-source and near-receiver reflections. We have developed a method to isolate the stationside reflectors in large data sets with many sources and receivers. Analysis of USArray transverse-component data from 3,200 earthquakes, using direct S as a reference phase, shows clear reflections...

  • Kelly T.B, Davison P.C, Goericke R, Landry MR, Ohman MD, Stukel M.R.  2019.  The importance of mesozooplankton diel vertical migration for sustaining a mesopelagic food web. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    We used extensive ecological and biogeochemical measurements obtained from quasi-Lagrangian experiments during two California Current Ecosystem Long-Term Ecosystem Research cruises to analyze carbon fluxes between the epipelagic and mesopelagic zones using a linear inverse ecosystem model (LIEM). Measurement constraints on the model include C-14 primary productivity, dilution-based microzooplankton grazing rates, gut pigment-based...

  • Dunn D.C, Harrison A.L, Curtice C., DeLand S., Donnelly B., Fujioka E., Heywood E., Kot C.Y, Poulin S., Whitten M. et al..  2019.  The importance of migratory connectivity for global ocean policy. 286
    Abstract Summary:

    The distribution of migratory species in the ocean span local, national and international jurisdictions. Across these ecologically interconnected regions, migratory marine species interact with anthropogenic stressors throughout their lives. Migratory connectivity, the geographical linking of individuals and populations throughout their migratory cycles, influences how spatial and temporal dynamics of stressors affect migratory animals and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Reference points are used to determine whether overfishing is occurring, a stock is overfished, or the abundance of the stock is approaching an undesirable level. Reference points are often classified as limit reference points, which indicate an undesirable state, or target reference points, which specify a desirable one. Limit reference points frequently indicate a state for which the reproductive potential of the stock is impacted, and are...

  • Stramski D, Reynolds R.A, Gernez P., Rottgers R., Wurld O..  2019.  Inherent optical properties and particle characteristics of the sea-surface microlayer. 176
    Abstract Summary:

    The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is known to have physical, chemical, and biological properties that are distinctly different from the underlying subsurface water (USW). However, only a few studies in the past reported on measurements of the optical properties of the SML and were limited to light absorption. In this study we present results for the main inherent optical properties (IOPs), the spectral absorption coefficients and the volume...

  • Chase A.B, Arevalo P., Brodie E.L, Polz M.F, Karaoz U., Martiny J.BH.  2019.  Maintenance of sympatric and allopatric populations in free-living terrestrial bacteria. 10
    Abstract Summary:

    For free-living bacteria and archaea, the equivalent of the biological species concept does not exist, creating several obstacles to the study of the processes contributing to microbial diversification. These obstacles are particularly high in soil, where high bacterial diversity inhibits the study of closely related genotypes and therefore the factors structuring microbial populations. Here, we isolated strains within a single Curtobacterium...

  • Schulte-Pelkum V., Monsalve G., Sheehan A.F, Shearer P., Wu F., Rajaure S..  2019.  Mantle earthquakes in the Himalayan collision zone. 47:815-819.
    Abstract Summary:

    Earthquakes are known to occur beneath southern Tibet at depths up to similar to 95 km. Whether these earthquakes occur within the lower crust thickened in the Himalayan collision or in the mantle is a matter of current debate. Here we compare vertical travel paths expressed as delay times between S and P arrivals for local events to delay times of P-to-S conversions from the Moho in receiver functions. The method removes most of the...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In the atmosphere, there are several different trajectories by which particles can nucleate ice; two of the major pathways are deposition and immersion freezing. Single particle depositional freezing has been widely studied with spectroscopic methods while immersion freezing has been predominantly studied either for particles within bulk aqueous solutions or using optical imaging of single particles. Of the few existing spectroscopic methods...

  • Brandon JA, Jones W, Ohman MD.  2019.  Multidecadal increase in plastic particles in coastal ocean sediments. 5
    Abstract Summary:

    We analyzed coastal sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California, for historical changes in microplastic deposition using a box core that spanned 1834–2009. The sediment was visually sorted for plastic, and a subset was confirmed as plastic polymers via FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy. After correcting for contamination introduced during sample processing, we found an exponential increase in plastic deposition from 1945 to...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The eastern Fram Strait and area north of Svalbard, are influenced by the inflow of warm Atlantic water, which is high in nutrients and CO2, influencing the carbon flux into the Arctic Ocean. However, these estimates are mainly based on summer data and there is still doubt on the size of the net ocean Arctic CO2 sink. We use data on carbonate chemistry and nutrients from three cruises in 2014 in the CarbonBridge project (January, May, and...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Exploration of the deep sea off the Pacific margin of Costa Rica has resulted in the discovery of a number of new species and reports for the region. Here, we report on the occurrence of the octocoral genus Swiftia , and describe a new species collected by the Alvin submersible off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The new species has been observed at around 1000 m depth, growing on authigenic carbonates near methane seeps. Swiftia sahlingi sp...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Exploration of the deep sea off the Pacific margin of Costa Rica has resulted in the discovery of a number of new species and reports for the region. Here, we report on the occurrence of the octocoral genus Swiftia, and describe a new species collected by the Alvin submersible off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The new species has been observed at around 1000 m depth, growing on authigenic carbonates near methane seeps. Swiftia sahlingi sp...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Marine invertebrates are abundant and diverse on the continental shelf in Antarctica, but little is known about their parasitic counterparts. Endoparasites are especially understudied because they often possess highly modified body plans that pose problems for their identification. Asterophila, a genus of endoparasitic gastropod in the family Eulimidae, forms cysts in the arms and central discs of asteroid sea stars. There are currently four...

  • Konovalov I.B, Beekmann M., Goloyushkin N.A, Andreae M.O.  2019.  Nonlinear behavior of organic aerosol in biomass burning plumes: a microphysical model analysis. 19:12091-12119.
    Abstract Summary:

    Organic aerosol (OA) is a major component of smoke plumes from open biomass burning (BB). Therefore, adequate representation of the atmospheric transformations of BB OA in chemistry-transport and climate models is an important prerequisite for accurate estimates of the impact of BB emissions on air quality and climate. However, field and laboratory studies of atmospheric transformations (aging) of BB OA have yielded a wide diversity of...

  • Abstract Summary:

    This study investigates the sensitivity of oceanic and atmospheric response in the extra-tropics, especially in the North Pacific, to the position of equatorial El Nino-like heating within a slab-ocean climate model. In a suite of numerical experiments, we impose an idealized equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly in the Pacific and systematically vary its longitudinal position along the equator to mimic different "flavors" of El...

  • Abstract Summary:

    A fast and accurate numerical method for the solution of scalar and matrix Wiener-Hopf (WH) problems is presented. The WH problems are formulated as Riemann-Hilbert problems on the real line, and a numerical approach developed for these problems is used. It is shown that the known far-field behaviour of the solutions can be exploited to construct numerical schemes providing spectrally accurate results. A number of scalar and matrix WH...

  • Cazenave A., Hamlington B., Horwath M., Barletta V.R, Benveniste J., Chambers D., Doll P., Hogg A.E, Legeais J.F, Merrifield M. et al..  2019.  Observational requirements for long-term monitoring of the global mean sea level and its components over the altimetry era. 6
    Abstract Summary:

    Present-day global mean sea level rise is caused by ocean thermal expansion, ice mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets, as well as changes in terrestrial water storage. For that reason, sea level is one of the best indicators of climate change as it integrates the response of several components of the climate system to internal and external forcing factors. Monitoring the global mean sea level allows detecting changes (e.g., in trend or...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Intraspecific variation in plant nutrient and defensive traits can regulate ecosystem-level processes, such as decomposition and transformation of plant carbon and nutrients. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ecosystem functions at local scales may facilitate predictions of the resistance and resilience of these functions to change. We evaluated how riverine bacterial community assembly and predicted gene content corresponded to...

  • Highlighted Publication Map of Juan Fernandez Ridge
    Abstract Summary:

    Mantle plume models have been widely applied to explain the formation of ocean island basalts (OIB), with high-3He/4He in their lavas being explained by sampling of a primitive deep mantle source. The Juan Fernandez Islands have 3He/4He (7.8–18 RA) similar to or higher than in mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB; 8 ± 1 RA) and have been used to both support and refute the mantle plume hypothesis. Ambiguity regarding the origin of the Juan Fernandez...

  • Sanchez S.C, Amaya D.J, Miller AJ, Xie SP, Charles CD.  2019.  The Pacific Meridional Mode over the last millennium. 53:3547-3560.
    Abstract Summary:

    The Pacific Meridional Mode, a coupled ocean-atmospheric interaction responsible for propagating subtropical anomalies to the tropics via thermodynamic mechanisms, features prominently in discussions of the response of climate variability to climate change. However, it is presently unclear how and why the variance in PMM might change, or even if greenhouse gas forcing might lead to heightened activity. Here, PMM variance over the last...

  • Behar N., Shaar R, Tauxe L, Asefaw H., Ebert Y., Heimann A., Koppers A.AP, Ron H.G.  2019.  Paleomagnetism and paleosecular variations from the Plio-Pleistocene Golan Heights volcanic plateau, Israel. 20:4319-4335.
    Abstract Summary:

    Statistical analysis of geomagnetic paleosecular variation (PSV) and time-averaged field has been largely based on global compilations of paleomagnetic data from lava flows. These show different trends in the averaged inclination anomaly (Delta I) between the two hemispheres, with small positive (<2 degrees) anomalies in midsouthern latitudes and large negative (> -5 degrees) anomalies in midnorthern latitudes. To inspect the large...

  • Mascioni M., Almandoz GO, Cefarelli AO, Cusick A., Ferrario ME, Vernet M.  2019.  Phytoplankton composition and bloom formation in unexplored nearshore waters of the western Antarctic Peninsula. 42:1859-1872.
    Abstract Summary:

    The western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is one of the most productive regions in the Southern Ocean. However, little is known about the phytoplankton composition in nearshore waters, in fjords and channels between 63 degrees and 67 degrees S, where Antarctic krill and baleen whales are conspicuous. This study represents the first attempt to describe spatial and temporal composition of the phytoplankton community (species, cell concentration,...

  • Chen H., Meshik A.P, Pravdivtseva O.V, Day JMD, Wang K..  2019.  Potassium isotope fractionation during high-temperature evaporation determined from the Trinity nuclear test. 522:84-92.
    Abstract Summary:

    Trinitite materials are the post-detonation glassy residues formed from melting and evaporation of arkosic sands during the first nuclear detonation at the Trinity test site, New Mexico on 16th July, 1945. These trinitites provide useful materials for studying elemental and isotopic behaviors associated with high temperature melting and evaporation that is otherwise difficult to achieve under laboratory conditions. Using a high-precision...

  • Abstract Summary:

    Mesoscale frontal waves have the potential to modify the hydrometeorological impacts of atmospheric rivers (ARs). The small scale and rapid growth of these waves pose significant forecast challenges. We examined a frontal wave that developed a secondary cyclone during the landfall of an extreme AR in Northern California. We document rapid changes in significant storm features including integrated vapor transport and precipitation and connect...

  • Carnacho-Jimenez L., Leyva-Carrillo L., Peregrino-Uriarte A.B, Duarte-Gutierrez J.L, Tresguerres M, Yepiz-Plascencia G..  2019.  Regulation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by hypoxia inducible factor 1 in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during hypoxia and reoxygenation. 235:56-65.
    Abstract Summary:

    Hypoxia is a frequent source of stress in the estuarine habitat of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. During hypoxia, L. vannamei gill cells rely more heavily on anaerobic glycolysis to obtain ATP. This is mediated by transcriptional up-regulation of glycolytic enzymes including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is an important transcriptional activator of several glycolytic enzymes...

  • Abstract Summary:

    In this study, a WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model is used as a cloud-resolving model to simulate a squall line observed on 20 May 2011 in the Southern Great Plains (SGP) of the United States. The model output is then used to examine the relationships between convective precipitation and coarse-grained variables averaged over a range of subdomain sizes equivalent to various global climate model horizontal resolutions. The objective...

  • Hefner B.T, Hodgkiss WS.  2019.  Reverberation due to a moving, narrowband source in an ocean waveguide. 146:1661-1670.
    Abstract Summary:

    In this paper, a model for the bistatic reverberation associated with seafloor scattering of sound from a moving, narrowband source in an ocean waveguide is developed. Studies of the Doppler effect for moving sources in waveguides have typically focused on the forward propagating field where the Doppler shift leads to a splitting or broadening of the received spectrum. In contrast, the contributions to the scattered field come from all...

  • Cavicchioli R., Ripple W.J, Timmis K.N, Azam F, Bakken L.R, Baylis M., Behrenfeld M.J, Boetius A., Boyd P.W, Classen A.T et al..  2019.  Scientists' warning to humanity: microorganisms and climate change. 17:569-586.
    Abstract Summary:

    In the Anthropocene, in which we now live, climate change is impacting most life on Earth. Microorganisms support the existence of all higher trophic life forms. To understand how humans and other life forms on Earth (including those we are yet to discover) can withstand anthropogenic climate change, it is vital to incorporate knowledge of the microbial 'unseen majority'. We must learn not just how microorganisms affect climate change (...

  • Abstract Summary:

    The relationship between the southern annular mode (SAM) and Southern Ocean mixed layer depth (MLD) is investigated using a global 0.1 degrees resolution ocean model. The SAM index is defined as the principal component time series of the leading empirical orthogonal function of extratropical sea level pressure from September to December, when the zonally symmetric SAM feature is most prominent. Following positive phases of the SAM, anomalous...

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