Section 5: Navigation and Communications Capability

AMATEUR RADIO (HAM) - No Ham Radio equipment is provided. Any licensed Amateur Radio Operator wishing to install equipment should discuss it with the captain.

CELLULAR TELEPHONE SYSTEM - A Uniden model CP-1100 cellular telephone is installed in the ship's Communications Center. Under favorable atmospheric conditions the unit will provide good service up to one hundred miles off shore. The unit may be used for either voice or facsimile communications and it is available for personal use as well as ship's and scientific business.

DATA COMMUNICATIONS - The ship has two primary methods for transmission and reception of data; Inmarsat and single-side band. The method of choice for data communications is effected through the unique marriage of an IBM PC and a single-side-band, high-frequency transceiver. What makes this possible is a set of hardware and software collectively referred to as "pakratt." Users can type their own messages on their own PC's using any word processor or editor. When ready, a user saves his text to a floppy disk (5 1/4 or 3 1/2 inch) as an ASCII (or DOS) file. The floppy is then brought to the bridge where the mate on watch will transmit the message. Traffic is routed through the radio station WWD, from where it is forwarded to the addressee. Only business traffic can be handled in this manner. Other means are available for handling traffic of a personal nature.

DIRECTION-FINDING EQUIPMENT - A Simrad-Taiyo, TD-L1620 Automatic Digital Direction Finder (ADDF) is located on the bridge. It is a highly accurate system (+ or - two degrees) used for tracking or locating any VHF source operating between frequencies 110-170 mHz. Its maximum range is about 10 n mi. It can automatically track up to 10 instruments at once. For compatibility your transmitter needs to send a two-second pulse to work with the Simrad system.

DOPPLER SPEED LOG - A two-axis Doppler Acoustic Speed Log, Furuno, Model DS-50, 440KHZ, 3 Beams, Measuring range Fore/Aft -10 to +40kt, Port/Starboard -9.9 to +9.9kt. Readouts are located in the bridge, after control room and main lab. In addition a digital output can be provided for scientific or navigational equipment requiring these data. The format is 200 pulses per nautical mile.

ECHO-SOUNDING SYSTEM (NAVIGATIONAL) - Two depth finders are carried for navigation. Also see ECHOSOUNDING in Section IV.

  • The first is a Data Marine Inc., International Offshore System 3000, Digital Depth Sounder. It operates on 120 kHz at 80 W-RMS and has a range of 3 to 999 feet.
  • The second system is a Furuno FPG-512-H, Paper Graph Fish-Finder/Fathometer.

It operates on 15 kHz at 2 watts. Its range is from 0 to 2000 fathoms, but is most effective from 0 to 500 fathoms.

FACSIMILE EQUIPMENT - A Harris/3M model 2110 facsimile machine is installed in the Communications Center. It is normally left hooked up to the Inmarsat terminal for auto reception of incoming faxes. When necessary, it can be rigged to the cellular phone for reception and transmission of faxes. The ship is also equipped with a Furuno FAX-214 facsimile machine with built in HF receiver. This machine is used for reception of weather faxes, other meteorological information and NAVTEX (navigational warnings) messages.

GENERAL COVERAGE RECEIVER - An ICOM model IC-R71A/E/D digital, programmable receiver is installed in the communication center. It has a distribution network installed that allows it to supply a signal to the bridge, after control room, or library. It is hooked up to the long wire antenna to give it excellent range and signal quality. See the captain for special use requirements.

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM - A Trimble 10X GPS/LORAN-C receiver is located in the chartroom. Keyboard/display units are installed in the chartroom and aft control. Outputs from the 10X are RS-232 and are routed to a dedicated navigation PC in the chartroom and the SAIL system in the upper lab. A third output is routed to the main lab where it can be plugged in to a terminal or PC or other equipment supplied by the user. The 10X can store 100 waypoints and provide and compute a multitude of navigational parameters and solutions. Output data can be formatted and customized to suit the user's needs. The 10X gives priority to GPS and will switch automatically to LORAN-C if GPS becomes unusable or unavailable. GPS or LORAN-C can be used alone if necessary.

GYRO COMPASS - The bridge is equipped with a Sperry MK-37 high-speed gyro. It provides a stepper signal to conventional (compass card type) repeaters located in: the bridge and both wings, the after control room, and main lab in addition to gyro input for the radars and satellite navigation systems. Also a digital system provides displays in the bridge, chart room, master and chief scientist staterooms, and the upper lab. Outputs in synchronous or stepper format can be supplied to the SAIL Data System or other scientific computers or instruments in the upper lab.

HAND-HELD RADIOS - The ship normally carries two portable Standard Horizon model HX200S marine radios. They are carried for internal communications and small-boat operations.

HF/SSB COMMUNICATIONS - Two high-frequency, single-side band transceivers are carried on board. One, a Harris 230M, is stationed on the bridge and is utilized as a watch receiver; that is, it continuously monitors 2182 kHz - an international calling and distress frequency. The second, an ICOM M800, is stationed in the communications center and is used mainly for routine traffic with WWD, our radio station at Point Loma. The ICOM is also used for communications with other ships and shore stations and will handle data as well as voice traffic. If your operations will require communications on nonstandard frequencies, ensure that the captain is informed of this before the ship gets underway.

INTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS - Three independent systems are available for internal communications. It is important to note that not all spaces on the ship are equipped with all three systems. Some spaces are served by only one system.

  • Telephone system: Use as you would any normal telephone. A station directory is posted next to each phone.
  • Sound-Powered Telephone: This type of system is unique to ships; it is designed to work even during times of power outage. Dial in the station you wish to call and crank the handle several times. Or, briefly depress the buzzer button for the station you wish to call. Depress the button in the handset to talk and to listen.
  • Intercom: A voice-actuated intercom serves many spaces on the ship. Once a station is called the operation is hands-free. Depress the button for the station you wish to call and talk; switching of the mike is automatic upon talking. If ambient noise levels are too high at one station, switching may not occur and an alternative comms system may have to be used.

LORAN-C NAVIGATION SYSTEM - (see Global Positioning System)

RADAR SYSTEM - The radar system consists of the following:

  • FURUNO model FAR-1622X, 3 CM. radar, located on bridge.
  • FURUNO model FR-1262S, 10 CM. radar, located in chart room.
  • FURUNO model FAR - 1622X, ARPA Collision Avoidance System, located on the bridge. This system allows the mate on watch to automatically keep track of up to 30 separate targets and determine their relative danger.
  • FURUNO model RJ-3 Interswitch Network, allowing the radars to be cross-connected in case of a failure.
  • FURUNO model CD-140 Color Display Unit, located in the After Control Room. This display is a slave from either radar allowing the mate to monitor traffic.

SATELLITE COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS - The ship is equipped with a JRC model JUE-45A Inmarsat system. This system provides high-quality, world-wide voice, data and facsimile communications. The system is networked to telephones located throughout the ship, and access codes can be obtained from the captain. Inmarsat is a commercial service and users are responsible for any charges they incur through use of the system. Charges are due and payable, in cash, to the captain prior to arrival at the next port. It is highly recommended that scientific users who anticipate using Inmarsat make recharge arrangements with the captain prior to getting underway on their cruise. There is a pay phone in the upper lab that accepts major credit cards. Charges range from $6.94 - $10.00 per minute (depends on when the call is made) with three-minute minimums for voice communications.

TRANSIT SATELLITE NAVIGATION SYSTEM - One Magnavox model 4102, single-channel SAT-NAV is located in the chart room. It has an accuracy of about 1-2 n mi. between fixes and .5 n mi. immediately following fixes. It is primarily intended for navigation during transits but is equipped with an RS-232 output to the SAIL Data system for use during rough surveys or when no other system is available.

VERY HIGH FREQUENCY (VHF) SYSTEMS - New Horizon carries three VHF transceivers: two located in the bridge and one in the after control room. The vessel routinely monitors channels 13 and 16. They are all fully synthesized, 60-channel, 25-watt units and one contains a built in scanner to monitor various frequencies. They are primarily intended to be used for bridge-to-bridge communications but also provide an alternate or emergency means of communicating with shore via the Marine Operator, when in range. If you need to place a call to another vessel or shore, permission and assistance can be obtained from the bridge.