A team of researchers including scientists from the American Museum of Natural History and Scripps Institution of Oceanography at University of California San Diego found that catsharks are not only able to see the bright green biofluorescence they produce, but that they increase the contrast of their glowing pattern when deep underwater. The study, conducted with a custom-built “shark-eye” camera, suggests that this trait helps catsharks recognize neighbors of the same species and may aid in communication between one another. The work was recently published in the journal Scientific Reports.
“This study provides the first evidence that sharks can see the fluorescence of their own species,” said Dimitri Deheyn, a researcher at Scripps and coauthor of the study. “It’s not just beautiful but has an ecological purpose.”
Unlike the full-color environment that humans and other terrestrial animals inhabit, fishes live in a world that is predominantly blue, because with depth, water quickly absorbs the majority of the visible light spectrum. In recent years, the research team has discovered that many fishes absorb the remaining blue light and re-emit it in neon greens, reds, and oranges. By designing lighting that mimics the ocean’s light along with cameras that capture the animals’ fluorescent light, the researchers were able to capture this hidden biofluorescent universe.
“We’ve already shown that catsharks are brightly fluorescent, and this work takes that research a step further, making the case that biofluorescence makes them easier to see by members of the same species,” said John Sparks, a curator in the American Museum of Natural History’s Department of Ichthyology and a co-author on the paper. “This is one of the first papers on biofluorescence to show this connection, and a big step toward a functional explanation for fluorescence in fishes.”
To further explore this phenomenon, the researchers focused on the visual ability of two different catsharks: chain catsharks (Scyliorhinus retifer) and swellsharks (Cephaloscyllium ventriosum). With the help of Cornell University veterinary expert Ellis Loew, the researchers used a technique called microspectrophotometry to determine how the sharks’ eyes absorb light, discovering that they have long rod pigments that help them see in low-light environments. They used this information to build a special camera filter that simulates how light hits a shark’s eyes.
Researchers then went on a number of expeditions to Scripps Canyon in San Diego County, where they observed swellsharks in their native habitat, about 100-feet (30-meters) underwater. During night dives, the team stimulated biofluorescence in the sharks with high-intensity blue light arrays housed in watertight cases. The resulting underwater light show is invisible to the human eye. To record this activity, the researchers used custom-built underwater cameras with yellow filters, which block out the blue light, as well as the newly developed “shark-eye” camera to get a better idea of how the shark sees the underwater display.
“Some sharks’ eyes are 100 times better than ours in low-light conditions,” said David Gruber, lead author of the study and an associate professor of biology at Baruch College and a research associate at the American Museum of Natural History. “They swim many meters below the surface in areas that are incredibly difficult for a human to see anything. But that’s where they’ve been living for 400 million years, so their eyes have adapted well to that dim, pure-blue environment. Our work enhances the light to bring it to a human perspective.”
By mathematically modeling images from the shark-eye camera, the researchers found that the contrast of the patterns on the biofluorescent sharks increases with depth, suggesting that the animals can not only see the light, but are also likely using it to communicate with one another.
Other researchers involved in this work include Derya Akkaynak, University of Haifa; Jean Gaffney, City University of New York; W. Leo Smith and Jennifer Stern, University of Kansas; Matthew Davis, St. Cloud State University; and Vincent Pieribone, Yale University School of Medicine.
Funding for this study was provided by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, grant #s FA9550-14-1-0008 and FA9550-10-1-0555, National Science Foundation grant #s DEB 1257555, 1258141, and MRI 1040321; and National Geographic Society grant #s W101-10, W114-12. Support has been provided by the Dalio Foundation. Rick and Patty Elkus provided assistance and support in filming C. ventriosum in Scripps Canyon.
- Modified from the American Museum of Natural History’s news release.
Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California San Diego, is one of the oldest, largest, and most important centers for global science research and education in the world. Now in its second century of discovery, the scientific scope of the institution has grown to include biological, physical, chemical, geological, geophysical, and atmospheric studies of the earth as a system. Hundreds of research programs covering a wide range of scientific areas are under way today on every continent and in every ocean. The institution has a staff of more than 1,400 and annual expenditures of approximately $195 million from federal, state, and private sources. Scripps operates oceanographic research vessels recognized worldwide for their outstanding capabilities. Equipped with innovative instruments for ocean exploration, these ships constitute mobile laboratories and observatories that serve students and researchers from institutions throughout the world. Birch Aquarium at Scripps serves as the interpretive center of the institution and showcases Scripps research and a diverse array of marine life through exhibits and programming for more than 430,000 visitors each year. Learn more at scripps.ucsd.edu and follow us at Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.
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